Indian society is still characterized by its ancient societal norms & values but yet amongst it, the status & role of women have witnessed rapid changes in recent years. The thoroughly domesticated women who could not think beyond the welfare of their families have now awakened to action.
Many factors like urbanization, technical progress, women education, etc., have profoundly changed these traditional conditions even in a developing country like, India. Slowly starting with the metropolitan areas and going back, the women role at home has become more & more clearly that if they really want to contribute to the welfare of the family & society the most effective way is to go out of home & earn money. Women in India are beginning to follow the direction that the women of the western world took more than eighty years ago. Women are increasingly becoming conscious of their existence, their rights & their work situations. The Indian women proved their footage in the male dominated business arena. For a nation where the only identity of women some time back used to be that of a homemaker, hogging the corporate limelight has been a journey to empowerment & strength.
The entry of women into business is a recent development in the orthodox, traditional socio cultural environment of Indian society. The hidden entrepreneurial potential of women has gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. Today, women entrepreneurs represent a group of women who have broken away from the beaten track and are exploring new areas for economic participation. Among the reasons for women to run organized enterprises are their skill & knowledge their talents, abilities & creativity in business and a compelling desire of wanting to do something positive.
The entrepreneurs, in the modern sense, are the self starters & doers of a business, who have organized & built their own enterprise. In common practice, almost anyone who starts an enterprise, industry, shop is called an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship is a key to economic development of a country.
Pickles, Morabhas, Sauces,
Pickle is well known term to every place in India as well as in other countries, It is prepared at homes especially by ladies using both vegetables and fruits. Under many processes, it is fermented or cooked that is can be preserved for a long time. There are many kinds of pickles considering vegetable and fruit e.g. mango, lime, ginger, pepper, cucumber, apple, onion, cabbage, cauliflower and many others. It is prepared separately or combinely for different taste and choice. Food value of pickle is more than that of eggs, tomatoes, onions etc.
Common salt, vinegar and lactic acid are the main ingredients needed for pickles, which set preservatives and can be added in sufficient quantities. Oils and spices are also added. Fruit and vegetable pickles are preserved in spices, vinegar and salts respectively. The finally percentage of salt and acid should be 15 to 20% and 2% respectively. Generally, vegetables are preserved in sponge solution of vinegar for final packing when added salt acts to stop the growth of lactic acid. At the beginning, temperature is kept 30°C for growth under lactic acid fermentation and container is vacuum to avoid growth of aerobic micro organics, which destroy lactic acid. Aluminium or stainless steel containers are be used. Long cooking with spices deteriorates the taste.
Printing ink is a mixture of pigments, oils, varnish, driers, waxy oil gueasy compounds. The ink must possess suitable physical characteristics like viscosity, length and stock one which it is to be used. These characters are distributed and transferred correctly from the type to the paper and give vegible prints of desired colour. The ink should dry fast to arrive the printed sheets to be handed with in times without off setting or smudging. Property like eusistance to acids, alkalies, unsetted paraffin, solvent etc. may be obtained by proper formulation and by selecting the ingredients used in the ink.
There are three different types of printing ink namely:
Typographic inks, cousiest of soft pigments ground in a varinish or vehicles composed of heat boiled linseed oil. It is used to print from raised or relief surface as an ordinary type, line and half tone cuts.
Planographic inks are generally heavier and shoulder than typographic inks. It is used to print plane surfaces.
Intaglio inks are originally known as steel or copper plate inks. It is used to print, engraved, or defused surfaces.
The character of the inks depends upon the kind of plate, the type of press and the speed of operation.
India has the larger number of festivals in the world. And most of these festivals are more or less, religious, secular and social. As a result, it has become an intimate part of life. All these festivals are more or less related to some ancient religions.
Vermicelli, which is commonly known as, Sewai in India is an ancient symbol of festival, and it come in use since the early period of Indian Civilization. At present vermicelli is used by all community irrespective of their caste, religion and country.
Vermicelli is not only consumed by India alone but also other countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, U.S.A. U.K., all African and Middle East Countries apart from other Asian Countries.
Hindu and Muslim countries consume vermicelli mostly owing to religious reasons in comparison to other countries where it is consumed to get a new taste, new items or non perishable food items. Sometimes vermicelli is also consumed on medicine ground.
In India, vermicelli is made from wheat flour or maida but in Western Countries, different formulation has been adopted.
All raw materials, plant and machineries are available indigenously and can be started on fairly cottage and small scale industries. Therefore, it is useful for those new entrepreneurs who have little sum to invest.
The combination of all the spices put together for the use of one particular dish is known as Masala. For preparation of any dish may be Indian or European, may be vegetarian or non vegetarian we always use more than one spice for its preparation and thus we get all different types of spices in Masala.
There are mainly two purpose of use of masala (or spices) in dishes.
Give good look and taste
All conscious people wearing shoes, socks are must for them. Socks can be manufactured from various types of yarn like wool, silk, man made fibre etc. The socks industries are the smallest and are among all the hosiery industries and involve very little investment. It can also be manufactured manually as well as electrically operated machine.
Mango Pappad (Aam Pappad)
The word mango Pappad is combination of two words mango & Pappad, which means pappad made of mango. It is familiar with not only Indians but also with foreigners so it is exported to other countries. Basically it is prepared by house wives at home but due to increasing demand it is commercially prepared. Pappads are of different kinds e.g. Urad, Pluses, Potatoes, rices and mango pappad. Mango is found in almost all parts of India in a large number of varieties namely safaida, Dusehri, Alphonso, Badami Benishan, Raspuri, Neelam, Mulgoa etc. and produces an excellent pulp or juice.
Normally, pappads are made round but at present all sizes and shapes are made with almost the same plant and machinery.
Raw pappad is most flexible and transparent and twisted or turned many times.
Cleaning Powder (Vim Type)
The powder, which is used for the cleaning of household utensils is known as cleaning or utensils cleaning powder. In market it is found in different trade names such as VIM BIZ etc.
This powder for cleaning utensils is of universal types and it can be even used for cleaning aluminium, crockery, sanitaries warass and utensils made of stainless steel, etc. Perhaps this product is very well known in various classes, starting from lowest to highest classes.
As we know, from 1940 onwards, the utility of utensils cleaning powder has increased rapidly all over the world. During last decade it has grown at much faster rate especially in all the developed countries of the world.
Pan Masala In Pouch and Tin Pack (Sada, Meetha, Zarda & Kimam)
Pan Masalas are widely used to resource bad order of mouth and for scenting it a pleasant feeling. Pan masalas are available in the market in different types, forms, brand, and standard. Among them are Pan Parag, Prince Gutka, Pan Mayur, Darbar type etc. are most commonly used as these are the best pan masalas, which are made of kutch lime, betal nuts and other sophisticated item and performers. As the pan masala is becoming a part and parcel of the daily routine of some individual, the scale and marketing of pan masala is increasing day by day. There is enough scope for starting the manufacture of Pan Masala on a small scale.
Cut Flower (Floriculture)
Flowers are symbol of beauty love affection, romance, tranquility etc. Besides their aesthetic value they are important for their economic uses, such as for extracting perfumes, cut blooms and other products. In our country flowers are sanctified and are commonly used in worshiping the deities in our home as well as in temples. Flowers are used on all occasions whether it may be in marriages, religious ceremonies or social functions.
The roses cultivated in the garden for ornamental purposes are complex hybrids of several wild species and their number runs into several thousands.
New types are being created continuously by rose breeders.
A few species are grown on a commercial scale for the preparation of product like rose water and rose oil which are widely used in making perfumes, petals of several species of roses are used for preparation of gulkanda conserve made with sugar.
The large majority of the garden roses grown in India had been introduced either from Europe or America where rose breeding had received considerable attention for the last 150 years. Mutation plays the vital role in, the origin of new characters or varieties of flowers.
Named forms of garden roses are very large running to 10,000 or more and about 100 new forms are being introduced in cultivation every year. The garden roses cannot be arranged in natural groups due to the extensive hybridization involve in their evolution for this reason they are naturally arranged into groups of similar types having more or less same horticultural requirement.
Soyabean Bariyan (Automatic Plant)
Soyabean bariyan has high nutritive value and protein content. For this reason it is becoming more and more common in the daily diet of Indian population. It is consumed by various people in every place, whether it may in hotels or restaurant, homes or hotels, airports or guesthouses. Soyabean contains a higher percentage of proteins than many other foodstuffs. Thus, due to its nutritive value the demand of Soyabean Bariyan is increasing day by day.
Solar Energy Water Heater
The raising demand for energy has given new a look for the exploration of solar energy. The utilization of solar energy has recently considered feasible technologically, and it has started using on large scale Solar energy can be use into a desirable form of energy by converting it into either thermal or electrical energy. And thus, solar energy water heater is one of such types. Recently, solar water heating technology has because most popular in developed or developing countries like Japan, Israel Australia and USA. Here commercial solar water heater are readily available and widely used in India also number of industries are coming to this field in order to fulfill energy crises.
Mosquito Repellent Mats
Among disease bearing insects mosquitoes plays important role in transition of diseases like yellow fever, dengus hemorrhage fever, and many forms of en cephatities, namely, Japanese B. Venezuelan west nile, Rose River and Rift valley fever. Apart from malaria, which is transmitted, by the bits of female Anophele mosquito is responsible for more than one million death every year. Other insects that bite human beings and transmit diseases includes bitting midges, black, fliers, sandflies etc.
Thus, inorder to control the spread of diseases by mosquitoes and other insects different insecticides and chemicals are used but most effective formulation for the best results can be obtained by using solid tablet in conjunction form with an electric or electronic device for repelling the mosquitoes. Hence, mosquito repellent mats are one of them and it is most commonly used.
Among different kinds of stoves, wick stove is most commonly used. Unlike other stoves wick stove is easy to operate and there is no danger of accident due to bursting. In order to over come the difficulties of firing arrangements in coal, or chullas, wick stoves are most preferable. Wick stoves are kept as assistant even in the houses where Coal, Chullas are used. Since it save time and it is easy to operate. Thus the use of wick stove is increasing day by day in every house. There are good markets for its manufacturers. Some more units can be started.
Corrugated Sheet Board and Boxes
Corrugated Sheet Board and Boxes are considered to be important packing media for different kinds of light weight goods. It can be fixed into various shapes and types namely cartons. Rigid boxes, cylindrical boxes, compost containers etc. Thus most of the wooden packing is replaced by corrugated sheet board and boxes.
Soap Coated Paper
Soap coated paper is one of the latest invention for the modern men. It is light in weight and occupy less space and because of these reasons it become easy to carry where ever we go. It is a hand washing product and it is very convenient to do so.
Phenyl Brown and White
Phenyl is one of the common disinfectants used for killing insects and germs. It is used to killing insect that are found in drainage or nallahs, Labotary and in waste product. It is also used in hospitals veterinary bam room, toilet etc. as disinfectants. There are two types of phenyl disinfectant namely black oil disinfectant and pine oil disinfectant. Phenyl is obtained from coal tar distillates that contain high boiling for acid. Phenyl is found in two forms, liquid and solid. Thus phenyl is one of best form of insecticide that is commonly used in our daily life.
Uninterrupted Power Supply
It is an electrical Instrument/System. As the name of the instrument itself is uninterrupted power supply, it will supply the power with but interruption. Generally, the power supply is available from the commercial power supply system. But due to the disturbances of various types in the commercial systems, it will disturb to the continuous manufacturing system as well as private life. So to avoid above disturbances the UPS system is the best, which will give you the stabilized power supply.
Wearing garment is a basic need for every human being. Readymade garment is the garment, which is ready to wear. It is more and more acceptable due to low cost of fabrication. Manufacture of readymade garment is very simple and easily manageable. Machinery and raw materials required to start this industry are indigenously available. The readymade garments like cotton shirts, pajamas, petticoats and blouses are quite acceptable in the rural markets.
Canning and Preservation of Fruit and Vegetables
Canning is one of the important commercial processes developed in preserving vegetables and fruits. All the methods of preservation, except cold storage and dehydration are covered under canning. The process of sealing is made in metal or glass containers. It is assured both by the destruction of spoilage organism present in the materials and by inflection from out side sources. But for powder and dry solids, Canning is not required. They are sealed in tin plate container for production against insects, dust and moisture. Canning has helped consumers to get the seasonal vegetable through out the year.
Papaya is available plenty in our country as a common mans fruit. It is produced in almost every states both in kitchen garden as well as in small and big forms. During the glut period, the problem of store and marketing are even more serious than in the case of most other fruits. The Central Food Technological Research Institute Mysore, established in 1950 has devoted special attention to the inseperated utilization of the fruits after the maturity. The major activity of this Institute is to motivate the forms, for the production of papain of high activity, and also to maintain the storage for long period. The papaya trees are of both male and female types. But particularly, the female type produce the mature papaya fruit, while still on the tree gives out milk of papaya, which constitute of important enzyme i.e. papain. Papain is the dried latex of the fruit of the papain tree.
As we know that our country has large numbers of cattle, but the production of milk is very low. The low productivity of milk is due to the lack of adequate and sufficient supply of nutrients to cattles. Therefore, this problem can be overcome by using cattle feed. Cattle feed is essential ingredient, which contain adequate nutrient. Thus, higher production of milk can be yield by providing cattle with cattle feed to catties.
Baking powders are chemical mixtures of different nature and compositions that react in presence of moisture and heat to release a gas. The active ingredients are sodium bicarbonate and an acid substance that react in presence of water with the bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide.
Baking powders are widely used in Bakery Industries, confectioneries etc.
Among the various spices used along with food Chilli powder is one of them. Chilli powder is well known name for Indian as well as all the people in the world. At present major part of chilli powder produced in India is used in Indian kitchen itself. In older days it was the practice to make the required quantity of chilli powder in house itself but, now due to the modernization house wives have no time to spend for the preparation of chilli powder and so they buy the ready made powder from market.
Fast Food Parlour
Fast food parlour is defined as a public eating house situated at a specific location, open for stated hours and has a variety of items on the menu. Due to the limited facilities in some houses and apartments, and at the same time, the general increase in income, economic growth, and the standard of living of general public much of entertainment is done outside the house such as in food parlours/restaurants, banquet halls or the public meeting rooms where the food is served.
Thus, for all these reasons fast food parlour has become very popular.
Garlic in grinder forms or powder forms (dehydrated form) is said to be garlic powder. In olden days, the only method of, dehydration known to mankind was sundry. At present, due to modernization of world, it is done scientifically, in closed chamber by mechanical means under controlled condition in order to preserve its taste and nutritive value.
The Garlic powder is manufactured by both small and large scale food industries. The dehydrated garlic powder has good market scope in Indian as well as abroad powder because of its usefulness in flouring of food product and in Ayurvedic medicines.
Printed Circuit Boards
In past days, the components in an electronic circuit were connected by means of wire. The various connecting wires got jumbled up and it give rise a problem of interelectuode capacitance that changes the circuit characteristics. Apart from this, it was very difficult to test and repair the particular electronic circuit. Thus, in order to over come these difficulties, printed circuit board has been introduced. These circuit boards can easily eliminate the said problem.
A printed circuit board is an insulating bakelite sheet printed with a circuit of electronic circuit like. Transistor, receiver set, amplifier, etc. It helps in the elimination of the above problems. As the circuit is already printed on the P.C.B. there is no need of providing any interconnection in the circuit. Therefore because of the following advantages, P.C.Bs are widely used in manufacturing various electrons equipments.
Surgical bandages are made of very fine and soft cotton yarn. It is extensively used in hospitals, dispensaries and other institutions where the treatment facilities are provided. It usually used for dressing celers, wound etc.
It is manufacturer mostly by small scale and cottage scale units, and no licence is required. Due to the spread and increase of health services and living standard of people, demand on this is ever increasing. Hence, there lies a good profit for its manufacturers.
Agarbatti is a well known product among every children, men and women. The word Agarbatti reminds an Indian mind of a temple, a shrine, its sacred perfume and the holy atmosphere of the place of worship. It has for ages been an inevitable element in the performance of religious rites in this country. From this immemorial marriages in thread ceremonies and other rites and religious functions have needed aggravates to give an auspicious touch to the occasion. The perfume spread by agarbatti, which it burns, makes it more sacred to a religious mind. Aggarbatties also known as udbathies, similar to Joss sticks, are a development of dhoop agarbatti industry, is a cottage type industry and this industry is very simple. The principal form in which incense is burnt in this country is on sticks. They are principally made of sandalwood dust, but the incense burnt in the western countries is mainly made of olibanum, some specimens contains a little charcoal, benzion and storax of the incense sticks available in the market.
Aloe Vera Gel & Powder
Aloe vera Gel is one of the product prepared from aloe it self. Aloe vera Gel has very good medicinal value for external use for sun burning and pain killer. It has good medicinal importance, which makes very good commercial value. It is required to proper plantation as demand increases day by day.
The term Aloe as described in Pharmacopoeia and used in medicine stands for the dried juice of leaves of Aloe perryi, Baker, also known as Socotrine aloes or of Aloe barbadensis Miller (A.vera Linn) known as Curacao aloe or Aloe ferox Miller and hybrids of this species with aloe africana Miller and Aloe spicata Baker, known as cape aloes.
Herbal cosmetics are the product of cosmetic chemistry, a science that combines the skills of specialist in chemistry, physics, biology, medicine and herbs. Since cosmetics are applied mostly to the skin, hair and nails, a brief description to the anatomy of these is desirable. In classifying herbal cosmetics, it must be considered that the consumer of these preparations, most of whom are girls and women are concerned with their physical character than their chemical characteristics. The texture, consistency, colour, odor, packaging and general appearance are far important to them than the Chemical properties of the ingredients or the finished product. They are definitely impressed by what a cosmetic will do during use. This does not necessarily mean that the chemical technique of making cosmetics is unimportant. It may be pointed out that in many cases it is not at all necessarily to duplicate a cosmetic preparation to obtain the some beautifying effect. It would be most difficult or practically impossible to make this duplication solely through chemical analysis because of the complex make of many cosmetics.
Karela Powder (Bitter Guard Powder)
Karela is a vegetable, which is grown in every part of India. Karela is especially grown in India from April to August. In the season it is abundantly available. It is generally used as vegetable through out India. It has also good medicinal value. It is bitter in taste. Karela powder is now special product, which can be produced by spray drying process. There are few machineries required for the production of karela powder, which are indigenously available. The production process is fairly pollution free. The product is formed in the powder form and packed in the aluminium lined printed plastic foil. It can be stored at room temperature and easily transferred any where in the world. Demand growth of the processed vegetable will be increased in future, now it is about 5% per annum. There is very good export as well as domestic demand of Karela powder.