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Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook (Manufacturing Process, Synthesis, Epoxy Resin Adhesives and Epoxy Coatings) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. H. Panda ISBN 9788178331744
Code ENI305 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1695   1695 US$ 150   150
Pages: 560 Published 2016
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Epoxy is a term used to denote both the basic components and the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resin are a class of thermoset materials used extensively in structural and specialty composite applications because they offer a unique combination of properties that are unattainable with other thermoset resins.

Epoxies are monomers or prepolymers that further reacts with curing agents to yield high performance thermosetting plastics. They have gained wide acceptance in protecting coatings, electrical and structural applications because of their exceptional combination of properties such as toughness, adhesion, chemical resistance and superior electrical properties. Epoxy resins are characterized by the presence of a three membered cycle ether group commonly referred to as an epoxy group 1,2-epoxide, or oxirane. The most widely used epoxy resins are diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol-A derived from bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin.

The market of epoxy resins are growing day by day. Today the total business of this product is more than 100 crores. Epoxy resins are used for about 75% of wind blades currently produced worldwide, while polyester resins account for the remaining 25%. A standard 1.5-MW (megawatt) wind turbine has approximately 10 tonnes of epoxy in its blades. Traditionally, the markets for epoxy resins have been driven by demand generated primarily in areas of adhesives, building and civil construction, electrical insulation, printed circuit boards, and protective coatings for consumer durables, amongst others.

The major contents of the book are synthesis and characteristics of epoxy resin, manufacture of epoxy resins, epoxide curing reactions, the dynamic mechanical properties of epoxy resins, physical and chemical properties of epoxy resins, epoxy resin adhesives, epoxy resin coatings, epoxy coating give into water, electrical and electronic applications, analysis of epoxides and epoxy resins and the toxicology of epoxy resins.


It will be a standard reference book for professionals and entrepreneurs. Those who are interested in this field can find the complete information from manufacture to final uses of epoxy resin. This presentation will be very helpful to new entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars, libraries and existing units.

1. Synthesis and Characteristics of Epoxy Resin                      

        Introduction

        Structure of Epoxides

        Epoxipation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

        Catalytic Oxidation of Ethylene and Higher Olefins

        Epoxidation by Peroxy Acids and Their Esters

        Preparation of Peroxy Acids

        In Situ Epoxidation

        The Epoxidation Mechanism

        Unsaturated Materials

        Epoxidation by Inorganic Peroxy Acids

        Epoxidation with Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Hydroperoxides

        Epoxidation with Chromic Acid and Chromyl Compounds

        Biological Epoxidation

        Dehydrohalogenation of Substituted Hydroxyl Compounds

        The Epoxidation Mechanism

        Halohydrin Formation

        Epoxides from Epichlorohydrin

        Glycidyl Ethers

        Glycidyl Esters

        Nitrogen-Containing Epoxides

        Thioglycidyl Epoxides

        Silicon-Containing Epoxides

        Organophosphorus Epoxides

        Halogen-Containing Epoxides

        Epoxides from Hydroxy Sulfonates or Halogenated Acetates

        Epoxides from Glycols

        Epoxidation by Condensation

        Darzens Glycidic Ester Condensations

        Epoxides from Ylids

        Epoxides from Halogenated Ketones and Nickel Carbonyl

        Epoxides from the Reaction of Diazomethane with Aldehydes or Ketones

        Epoxides Containing Unsaturation

        Conclusions

  

2.  Manufacture of Epoxy Resins                                          

        Raw Materials

        Manufacture

        Plant Location

        Machinery Needed

        Profit

  

3.  Epoxide-Curing Reactions                                               

        The Effect of Epoxide Structure on Reactivity with Curing Agents

        The Mechanism of the Curing Reaction

        Polyaddition Reactions

        Polyamines

        Polyamides

        Polyureas

        Polyurethanes

        Polyisocyanates

        Polymercaptans

        Polyhydric Alcohols

        Polyphenols

        Polycarboxylic Acids

        Polybasic Acid Anhydrides

        Silanes and Silanols

        Others

        Polymerization

        Anionic Catalysts

        Cationic Catalysts

  

4.  The Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resins                                                                  

        Basic Parameters

        The Glassy Transition and Dynamic Mechanical Dispersion

        Temperature and Frequency Interdependence

        Experimental

        Results and Discussion

        Standard Measurements

        Dynamic Measurements

        Comparison of Results

        Treatment by Reduced Variables

        Conclusions

  

5.  Physical and Chemical Properties of Epoxy Resins                                                                  

        Solubility and Surface Properties

        Network Structure and Physical Properties

        Aging and Chemorheology

        Bisphenol a Epoxy Homopolymers and Copolymers

        Thermal Transition Effects

        Dynamic Mechanical Response

        Relaxation and Fracture Properties

        Properties Compared with Elastomers and Thermoplastics

  

6.  Epoxy Resin Adhesives                                                   

        Introduction

        Theories of Adhesion and Aohesive-joint Strength

        Wetting and Spreading Phenomena

        Boundary-Layer Theory

        Surface-Attachment Theory of Adhesive-Joint Strengths

        Stress Distribution in Adhesive Joints

        Rheological Aspects of Adhesives

        Unified Interpretation of Adhesive-Joint Strengths

        Physical and Mechanical Aspects of Epoxy-Resin Adhesives

        Dynamic Mechanical Techniques

        Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Adhesives During Joint Formation

        Strength of Adhesive Materials

        Chemical Aspects of Epoxy-based Adhesives

        Curing Agents for Bisphenol A Epoxy Adhesives

        Modifiers for Bisphenol A Epoxy Adhesives

        Adhesives Based on Other Epoxy Materials

        Technological Properties of Epoxy-adhesive Systems

        Cure and Thermal Softening Behavior of Epoxy Adhesives

        Stress and Environmental Durability of Adhesive Joints

        Applications of Epoxy Adhesives

        Future Prospects

  

7.  Epoxy Resin Coatings                                                     

        Classification of Epoxy-Resin Coatings

        Epoxy Resins Commonly Used in Coatings

        Epoxy-Resin Esters

        Esters Produced from Solid Epoxy Resins

        General Remarks

        Formulation Latitude

        Esters Produced from Liquid Epoxy Resins

        Precatalyzed Liquid Epoxy Resin for the Production of Solid Epoxy Resins and Epoxy-Resin Esters

        Cooking Procedure

        Two-Step Liquid-Epoxy-Resin Route to Epoxy-Resin Esters

        Cooking Procedure

        Solid-Epoxy-Resin Solution Coatings

        Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Systems

        Polyamine Curing Agents

        Polyamine-Adduct Curing Agents

        Polyamide-Resin Curing Agents

        Polyamide-Adduct Curing Agents

        Tertiary Amine Curing Agents

        Industrial Maintenance Coatings Based on Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Systems

        High-Film-Build Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Coatings

        Application Instructions

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Epoxy Baking Finishes

        Epoxy-Phenolic Coating Systems

        Epoxy-Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Coating Systems

        Epoxy-Thermosetting Acrylic Coating Systems

        Liquid Epoxy Resins in Solventless and Super-High-Solids Systems

        Special Application Equipment and Formulation for Solventless Systems

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application

        Ketimine Curing Agents

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application

        Curing Characteristics

        Powder Coatings

        Application Equipment

        Epoxy-Resin Powder-Coating Formulations

        Fusion-Produced Epoxy-Resin Powders

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Applications Instructions

        Dry-blended Epoxy-Resin Powders

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Properties and Applications

        Thermoplastic Epoxy Resins

        Zinc-Rich and General Purpose Shop Primers

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Thermoplastic-Epoxy-Resin Crosslinked Systems

        Water-Reducible Epoxy Resin Coatings

        Water-Reducible Epoxy-Ester Baking Finishes

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Water-Reducible Polyamide-Cured Epoxy-Resin Coatings

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Water-Reducible Epoxy-Resin Coatings for Electrodeposition

        General Remarks

        Maleinization Step After Complete Esterification of the Epoxy Resin with Organic Acids

        Cooking Procedure

        Application Instructions

  

8.  Epoxy Coating Give into Water                                        

  

9.  Electrical and Electronic Applications : Sealants and Foams                                                        

        Electronic and Electrical Applications

        Introduction

        Casting

        Potting

        Encapsulation

        Coatings

        Sealing

        Molding

        Formulation of the Resin System

        Internal Stresses

        Rapid Cures

        Flexibilizing Epoxy Resins

        Fillers

        Reactive Diluents

        Cycloaliphatic Epoxides

        High-Temperature Epoxy-Resin Systems

        Flame-Retardant Epoxy Resins

        Colorless Epoxy Resins

        Epoxy Formulations

        Molding

        Molding Compounds

        Molding Technology

        Liquid-Injection Molding

        Pellets and Preforms

        Epoxy Sealants

        Epoxy Foams

        Gas-Blown Foams

        Syntactic Foams

        One-Package Foams

        Epoxy-Foam Applications

        Epoxy Strippers

        Handling of Epoxy Casting Systems

 

  10.  Analysis of Epoxides and Epoxy Resins                        

        Uncured Epoxy Resins

        Qualitative Tests

        Detection of Free Epoxy Groups

        Determination of Epoxy GroupLithium-Chloride Test

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Determination of Epoxy GroupPeriodic Acid Test

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Determination of Epoxy GroupPyrolysis Test

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Determination of Epoxy GroupLepidine Test

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Detection of the Bisphenol A Skeleton

        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy ResinsMercuric Oxide and Nitric Acid Tests

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins in CoatingsNitric Acid Test Reagents

        Reagent

        Procedure

        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy ResinsFilter-Paper Test

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy ResinFormaldehyde Test

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy ResinsPhenylenediamine Test

        Reagent

        Procedure

        Detection of Epoxy Resins Based on 4,4--Diamino-diphenylmethane

        Determination of Epoxy Resins Based on 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Detection of Other Epoxy Resins

        Quantitative Tests of the Epoxy Group

        Hydrohalogenation Methods

        Estimation of Epoxy GroupHydrochloric Acid in Dioxane, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, or Dimethylformamide

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Calculations

        Estimation of the Epoxy GroupPyridinium Chloride in Pyridine

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Hydrohalogenation by Direct Titration

        Estimation of Epoxy Group

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Calculations

        Other Chemical Methods

        Estimation of Other Functional Groups

        Hydroxyl Group

        a-Glycol Group

        Estimation of a-Glycol Group

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Calculation

        Chlorine

        Esterification Equivalent Weight

        Estimation of Esterification Equivalent Weight

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Calculation

        Infrared Spectroscopy

        Technique

        Epoxide Absorption Bands

        Epoxy Resins

        Quantitative Estimation

        Following the Degree of Cure

        Other Physical Methods

        Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

        Electron Spin and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods

        Gas Chromatography

        Paper Chromatography

        Thin-Layer and Gel-Permeation Chromatography

        Handling Properties

        Molecular Weight

        Softening Point

        Viscosity

        Color

        Blends and Compounds

        Hardeners and Accelerators

        Organic Acid Anhydrides

        Determination of Acid and Anhydride Content

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Calculations

        Amines

        Determination of Amine Number

        Reagents

        Procedure

        Calculation

        The Curing Process

        Curing Characteristics of Epoxy Resin-Hardener Systems

        Determining the Degree of Cure

        Analysis of Cured Epoxy Resins

 

11.  The Toxicology of Epoxy Resins                                     

        Introduction

        Experimental Method

        Materials

        Acute Toxicity

        Chronic Toxicity

        Irritation

        Sensitization

        Results

        Acute Toxicity

        Chronic Toxicity

        Irritation

        Sensitization

        Medical Experience with Epoxy Resins

        Comment

ABOUT NPCS

 

NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.

 


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:


• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
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We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.

 

The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
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The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.


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• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.

 

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:

 

 

Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications

 

Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity

 

Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers

 

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·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

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·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

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·         Project Location

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·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

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Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:

 

  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital

 

  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals

                Revenue/Income/Realisation

                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios

                D.S.C.R

                Earnings Per Share (EPS)

               

             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 

                B.E.P

  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR