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The Complete Technology Book on Candle Making & Designs ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers ISBN 8186623663
Code ENI40 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 650   650 US$ 100   100
Pages: 354 Published 2004
Publisher National institute of industrial Research
Usually Ships within 5 days

 

Candles have been used for luminosity and to light up man's celebrations for more than thousand years. The ancient Egyptians have been credited with the honour of developing the first candle, who used rush lights or torches made by soaking the pithy core of reeds in melted animal fat. However, the rush lights had no wick like a true candle. The development of candle to the present stage went through several stages.
Candle making today has taken a shape of small scale industry. It has got attention of a lot of people. From celebrities to designers all are trying their hand in this emerging industry. One pertinent reason is that the use of candle now has not been confined only for devotional purpose or some special occasion. They are now a part of every single moment is it special or routine. They add a touch of warmth in the occasion and that does why have become largely popular.
Creativity has added a new spark to the candle making industry. Candle making is a very flourishing industry in modern times owing to the versatile use of candles on various occasions and ceremonies. Candles are prepared by well established methods in multifarious fascinating colours, designs and shapes. The book is one of the best seller and has chapters on: Thermometer Weighing scales ,Measuring flask or jug ,Dipping can ,Bowl ,Iron, Hairdryer ,Pouring jug Materials ,Wicking needle ,Wick ,Wax , ,Dipping ,How to   dipped candles Method ,More about dipping , Appliquéd candles ,Painting with wax ,Transfers ,Surface techniques Pressed flowers and grasses How to pressed flower candle Over dipping, etc.
This is one of its kind book which deals ostensibly with different candle making processes viz. Dipping, Pouring, Moulding or Casting and Drawing, delineating their technicalities in most illustrious manner with pictorial representations. The book will significantly add your knowledge if you are looking for comprehensive information on candle making industry to start their venture in said industry.         

Introduction
Equipment and materials
Equipment
Heat source
Double boiler
Thermometer
Weighing scales
Measuring flask or jug
Dipping can
Bowl
Iron
Hairdryer
Pouring jug
Materials
Wicking needle
Wick
Wax 
Additives
Wax glue
Mould seal
Dyes and perfumes 
Creating colour
Using perfumes
Common sense with wax 
Working with heat
Fire safety
Working with wax
Preventing accidents
Cleaning up
How to begin
Working with heat
Priming wicks
How to     priming wicks
Method
Dipping
How to   dipped candles
Method
More about dipping
Over dipping
How to over dipping (blue on white)
Method
Hand finishing
How to plaited candles
Method
How to twisted candles
Method
Rolling
How to     flared spiral candles
Method
Beeswax sheet
How to tapered beeswax candles
Method
Hand modelling
Perfumed wax flowers
How to     floating rose
Method
Wax fungi
How to   fly agaric toadstool
Method
Common sense with candles
Fire Safety
Workshop Wisdom
Prevention
Cure
Dipped candles
Basic dipped candles
Overdipped candles
Spiral candles
Using templates
Floating candles
Beeswax sheets
Column candles
Spiral candles
Decorative candles
Sand candle
Stencilled candles
Surface texture
Appliqued candles
Painting with wax
Transfers
Surface techniques
Pressed flowers and grasses
How to     pressed flower candle
Method
Applique
Inlays
How to     bulls     eye candle
Method
Carving
Method
Dip and iron back
Method
Hammering
Painting
Novelty candles
Whipped wax candles
How to     ice cream cone
Method
Birthday cake candles
Balloon candles
How to     balloon candle
Method
Sand candles
How to     sand candle
Method
Water candles
How to     water candles
Method   Plunge
Method   Pour
Ice candles
How to     ice candle
Method
Burning down
Faults
Dipping
Casting in Moulds
Advanced Surface Techniques
Dip and carve
How to     dip and carve candle
Method
Peeled Banana
How to     peeled Banana Candles
Method   Fruit
Method   skin
Cutting corners
How to     basic techniques
Method   Dipping
Method   Cut and Curl Corners
Method     spirals
Snakes
Raw Materials
The Fuel
Paraffin Wax
Stearine
Micro   Crystalline Wax
Tallow
Beeswax 
Vegetable Waxes
The wick
Candle Making Processes
The Dipping Process
Dipping
Equipment Required
The Pouring Process
The Moulding or Casting Process
Equipment Required
Moulding
The Candle Drawing Method
Drawing
Wax Melting
Methods
Heating Equipment
Chemical Colours Used in Candles
Candle Power
Waxes used in Candles
Selection of Good Quality Waxes
Effect of Blending with Stearic Acid on m.pt
Selected Formulations
Foreign Type Candles
Transparent Candles
Procedure
Milky Candles
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedur
Milky White Candles
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Purification of Wax
Coloured Candles Manufacture
Perfumed Candles
Medicated Candles Mosquito Repellent Candles
Formulation of Mosquito Repellant Candle
Procedure
Magic Candles
Formulations for Coloured Flame Candles
Procedure to Prepare Saturated Solution
Petroleum Waxes
Processes And Applications of Petroleum Waxes
Introduction
Manufacture of petroleum waxes
Paraffin Wax
Microcrystalline Wax and Petrolatum
Composition of Petroleum Waxes
Paraffin Wax
Microcrystalline Wax and Petrolatum
Physical Properties of Normal Alkanes
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Waxes
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Toxicity of Petroleum Waxes
Methods of testing paraffin waxes, 
Microcrystalline waxes, and petrolata
Melting and Setting Point
Colour 
Odour
Oil Content
Penetration (for Waxes ASTM D 1321   65)
Tensile Strength (ASTM 1320   67; TAPPI T 644 os   67)
Viscosity
Industrial Applications of Petroleum Waxes
Paper Packaging Materials
*Waxed paper
*Folding cartons
*Corrugated board 
*Flexible packaging applications
Application equipment for kiss coating and curtain coating 
Candles
Polishes
Matches
Wax as a Base Material for the Chemical Industry
Testing of Waxed Paper Products
Water   Vapour Permeability
Resistance to Water
Blocking of Waxed Papers
Gloss and Gloss Stability
Scuffing Resistance/Flaking
Sealing Strength
The Mineral Waxes
Petroleum
Petroleum
Properties
Vaseline
Adulteration
Ozokerite
Properties
Uses
The Natural Waxes
Vegetable Waxes
Carnaoba Wax
Physical and Chemical Data
Chemical Composition
Adulteration
Technical
*Source
*Yield
*Method
*Refinement
*Grades
Candelilla Wax
Animal Waxes
Wool Wax
General and Analytical
Physical and Chemical Data
Chemical Composition
Technical
Properties and Uses
Beeswax
General and Analytical
Physical and Chemical Data
Chemical Composition
Adulteration
Preliminary Test
Technical
Source
Method of Obtaining Wax
Refinement
Spermaceti
Insect Wax
Bitumen Waxes
Refinement
Refinement by means of Nitric acid
Candle Making Plant & Machineries with 
Photographs & Supplier Details
Product Catalogue
Directory Section
Suppliers of Raw Materials
A. Paraffinic Wax 
B. Supplier of Stearic Acid 
C. Crude Petroleum
Plants & Machineries Suppliers/ Manufacturer
Fractionating, Distillation Column : Reboilers
Condenser
Storage Tanks
Heat Exchanger
Filter Press
Boilers
Thermometer
For Moulding/Casting
Water Bath
Mixer 320

 

Dipped candles

Dipping is the traditional way to make candles. Dipped candles have a beautiful tapered shape and can be made in a solid colour, or translucent effects can be created by adding a coating of dyed wax to a basic white candle. The technique is simple-repeating the wick priming process over and over again. By repeatedly dipping the wick in molten wax, you can build up any thickness of candle. The candles are dipped in a dipping can standing in a large pan of hot water-or you can use any tall metal or heat-proof glass container. Candles are usually dipped in pairs and separated when they are cool.

Basic dipped candles

The materials listed for this project are sufficient to make six candles, 250mm (10in) tall and 12-20mm (½-¾in) in diameter.

Overdipped candles

Dramatic effects can be achieved with this simple technique. Once you have dipped your candles, add a further 600g (1lb 5oz) of paraffin wax to the dipping can, heat it to 82oC (180oF) and add two dye discs.

Spiral candles

While dipped candles are still warm, they are malleable enough to model into other shapes. A spiral candle is simply a dipped candle flattened and then twisted.

Using templates

As an alternative to tradi-tional dipped candles, you can make your own wax sheets by dipping flat temp-lates into liquid wax.

Properly cut and smoothed 6mm (¼in) thick glass makes an excellent tem-plate, but good quality plywood of the same thickness can be used. Allow room for holding the template during dipping; attach a string loop at the top to hang it up with during the cooling process.

If you are using a wooden template, first soak it in water, then wipe off any excess.

The quantities given for this project are sufficient to make a large quantity of candles. This amount of wax is required so as to fill the dipping cans. Any wax that you do not use, may be reheated and used again at a later dated.

Begin by dividing the wax in half and transferring each half into separate dipping cans. Add chalky white dye to one of the cans, and a coloured dye to the other.Heat the wax .

Floating candles

Dip and carve wax can be made into beautiful floating candles. Add a little perfume to create a stunning scented centrepiece for a special occasion. First melt the wax and prime the wicks.

Beeswax sheets

These candles are made from preformed honeycomb sheets, which are beautifully textured. They are simple to make, and add elegance and a touch of class to any dinner table.

Beeswax sheets are approximately 300 x 200mm (12x 8in) in size. They are workable at room temperature, although in cold weather they may need to be held near a heater for a few minutes until they soften, or you could use a hairdryer. Natural sheets are available in creamy white to rich medium brown; and dyed sheets can also be bought in a variety of colours.

Column candles

Beeswax sheet candles are simple to make. A sheet of wax will make a candle 300mm (12in) high and 20mm (¾in) in diameter. This wax is best worked at a warm room temperature and candles should be rolled on a damp surface. You will need a beeswax wick, which is round, not flat like those used with paraffin wax candles.

Spiral candles

You can make a spectacular spiral candle by simply using a triangle instead of a rectangle of beeswax.

Decorative candles

Beautiful decorated candles can be made easily, using just a few simple techniques. The surface of a candle can be embellished by painting, stencilling, carving, or by inserting corrugated card into the mould. You can also cast candles in sand. The candle must be set and cool before applying any Decoration. Always follow the manufacturers' instructions when using any of the products for decoration. When using the spray paints, work in a well-ventilated area, and never use them near a naked flame.

Sand candle

Beautiful candles can be created from shapeless sand and wax-this is simple candlemaking at its very best. For sheer flickering, glowing effects, nothing compares with a sand candle, as the light soaks through the textured outer layer.

Stencilled candles

Use a repeat pattern to create delicate effects. Stencils are available from most craft suppliers and they can be used to create borders or motifs.

Before you begin, check that the stencil you have chosen will cover the surface of the candle, then fix the stencil in place with tape. Follow the manufacturer's instructions and lightly coat the surface with paint. Do not worry about a smooth finish-textured effects can be attractive, especially in candlelight.

 

 

ABOUT NPCS

 

NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.

 


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:


• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period


We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.

 

The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?


The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.


Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.

 

Our Approach:


• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.

 

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:

 

 

Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications

 

Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity

 

Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers

 

Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel

 

Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)

 

Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram

 

Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities

 

Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:

 

  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital

 

  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals

                Revenue/Income/Realisation

                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios

                D.S.C.R

                Earnings Per Share (EPS)

               

             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 

                B.E.P

  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR