Dental education occupies a place of pride in the field of medical studies. The basic aim of the dental colleges is to provide health-oriented courses that emphasize the prevention of oral diseases. In a human body mouth is considered to be the mirror dental health being intimately related is part and parcel of the general health and well being of an individual.
One of the upcoming branches for them is Public Health. After BDS, students can opt for a specialisation in any of the regular disciplines. There are new emerging areas like aesthetic dentistry, implantology and forensic orantology. The past decade has witnessed many new dental colleges coming up. Still, there is immense scope for dental surgeons in view of the high incidence of dental problems. There is one dentist on a population of approximately 26,000 in the urban areas, and one on a population of 3 lakh in rural areas.
Dental Health is very important to everyone. It refers to all aspects of the health and functioning of our mouth especially the teeth and gums. Teeth and gums should be free from infection, which can cause dental caries, inflammation of gums, tooth loss and bad breath. Dental caries is also known as the "tooth decay" or "cavities". It is the most common disorder affecting the teeth.
India has more than 250 dental institutions, producing 15,000 to 20,000 BDS graduates every year. For all statistical purposes, this figure along with the existing dental practitioners apparently fulfills the World Health Organization requirement of dentist to population ratio. It is, however, unfortunate to note that there are many places in our country devoid of dental clinics, major dental hospitals or dental institutions.
We have couple of exclusive postgraduate institutions in the country that are highly ranked internationally in terms of academic excellence. In this background, exclusive postgraduate institutions should be initiated by the central government and the statutory bodies by relaxing the existing rules.
Dentistry, a lucrative profession, is concerned with all health problems afflicting the mouth, teeth, gums and other hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. It is accepted as a professional field which includes dental care and correction. Dentists help people maintain their health and appearance. Dentistry is changing rapidly, creating many opportunities and challenges. To an extent, it includes cosmetology where corrective treatment is involved.
Dental surgeons or dentists look after teeth by filling, crowning, scaling. They extract teeth and design and fill artificial dentures. They undertake surgically on the jaw, and some specialised orthodonits mainly for children. The preventive aspect of dentistry are gaining in importance
The Dental College can have comprehensive facilities for:
- Patient care
- Student clinical practice and training,
- Education and research in dental and oral diseases and disorders.
The Dental Council of India, which is the monitoring statutory apex body, has granted approval to our Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) course. In fact, our Dental College was one of the few private Dental College in Uttar Pradesh to get such approval in first instance. The college will also offer post-graduate (M.D.S.) programme in nine disciplines i.e. Prosthodontics, Oral Surgery, Orthodontics, Conservative Dentistry, Oral Pathology, Periodontics, Community Health Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Pedodontics in the near future
The eligible organizations shall abide by Indian Medical Council Act, 1958 as modified from time to time and the regulations framed there under and shall quality to apply for permission to establish new Dental colleges only if the following conditions are fulfilled:
1. That Medical Education is one of the main objectives of the applicant.
2. That suitable plot of land as prescribed by the Medical council of India is owned and possessed by the applicant to set-up the proposed Dental College.
Rated Plant capacity = Dental College with Hospital
100 Students in Dental College
4th Year Course with Dental Hospital
TOTAL Rs. 97,820.00
1. Total Cost of Major Equipments
in Different Departments.
2. Hospital Furniture & Accessories
3. Hostel Equipments & Accessories
4. Kitchen Equipments & Accessories
5. Film Projectors
6. Library Books & Journals
7. Decorative Items
8. Sport Goods & Equipments
9. Fire Fighting Equipments
10. Air Conditioners
TOTAL Rs. 66,600.00
1. LAND & BUILDING
2. PLANT & MACHINERY
3. OTHER FIXED ASSETS
TOTAL Rs. 1,75,620.00
1. Dental Materials Viz Modelling wax
Acrylic Resin teeth Inlay Casting wax,
Dental Syringe, Zinc oxide etc.
2. Dental metals, Viz Gold alloy wire Gold foil,
Gold Solders, Cobalt Chromium
Casting alloy, silver...
3. ...contd... tin amalgam alloy
white Gold alloy etc.
4. Chalk, Duster, & other Consumables
5. News Papers, Journals & Mangazines for Library
6. Other consumables Viz X-Ray Film, Laboratory
Chemicals, Soap & Detergent etc.
7. Food & Beverages for Canteen and Mess
8. Other Raw Materials for Dental College,
Hospital & Hostels.
TOTAL Rs. 950.01
1. RAW MATERIAL
2. SALARY & WAGES
3. UTILITIES & OVERHEADS
TOTAL Rs. 7,612.41
TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL
TOTAL Rs. 1,81,329.31
Turn Over/Annum TOTAL Rs. 1,96,500.00
= 33.54 %
= 51.46 %
“The nation's competitiveness depends, in part, on the skills of tomorrow's engineers.”
As the saying goes, there is need of engineering college in India for the development of country and provide better opportunity. Engineering is concerned with doing, realizing and implementing thongs. Thus, the aim of future engineering education should be the integration of knowledge, skills, understanding and experience.
Globalization has brought in its wake an emphasis on consumer concerns, e.g., quality (quality assurance, need for continuous upgradation of quality at reduced cost), cost and variety. In view of the enormous skilled manpower, India may become a significant production centre of the world. Economic restructuring heavily depends on the performance of technology driven industrial and services sectors.
Education in India is managed through a partnership of the central and state governments. The central government establishes broad education policies and is increasingly responsible for regulating and maintaining standards in higher education. Federal policies serve as guidelines to the state governments, which administer most schools and universities within their jurisdictions.
For setting up engineering college it is basic needs to collect funds by donation and by different government aids and from different generous men.
It is required to purchasing land of about 20 acres or more. After procurement of land it is necessary to planning the civil construction of building and planning to initial start of branch of engineering, like Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical & Electronics Engineering etc. According to branch of engineering, building construction will be on that basis.
A good engineering college should have large class rooms with enough space to accommodate students requirements, tutorials rooms, seminar hall, well equipped library, computer labs, guest room, waiting hall to the ladies with attached toilets with running water facilities, R.O. system to provide safe drinking water free from impurities attached with coolers, canteen, staff rooms, games room, playground, administrative office, principals room, HOD Chambers, separate toilets for students and staff, estate office, reception room, main Office, public telephone facilities, transport facilities for the students and host of other facilities in the campus.
The building area required for an engineering institution can be classified as instructional area, administrative area, amenities area and residential area. Instructional area will include classrooms, tutorial rooms, drawing halls, laboratories, workshops, computer center, library, instructional resource center, seminar hall etc.
India has one of the largest technical manpower in the world. However, compared to its population it is not significant and there is a tremendous scope of improvement in this area. In India, the emphasis has been on general education, with vocational education at the receiving end. This has resulted in large number of educated people remaining unemployed. This phenomenon has now been recognized by the planners and hence there is a greater thrust on vocationalization of education. Another shortcoming in the area of technical and vocational education is that till now, the number of engineers graduating is more than the diploma holders.
To achieve this goals, India needs flexible education and training system that will provide the foundation for learning, secondary and tertiary education and to develop required competencies as means of achieving lifelong learning.
Technical education at all levels in the country is witnessing a consistent growth pattern marked by the setting up of new Institutions and the improvement of the existing ones in tune with the quality assurance norms set by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA). The Council believes in providing a proper impetus to Institutions in generating competent engineers and scientists and encourages them to think beyond the curriculum while imparting training for the advancement of knowledge.
Be a world class organization leading technological and socioeconomic development of the Country by enhancing the global competitiveness of technical manpower, by ensuring high quality technical education to all sections of the society.
The importance of education, especially higher education, has been constantly growing and knowledge-based industries are now occupying the centre stage in development. Though the modern higher education system in India is almost 135 years old, its growth has been much faster after India became independent.
(a) FOR PRIVATE INSTITUTES
- State Director In-charge of the Craftsmen Training Scheme will notify in the leading newspapers of the State to receive particulars in the prescribed perform from the agency seeking permission to start training on the pattern of the Craftsmen Training Scheme from the August session of the following year. The last date for the receipt of the applications will be 31st December.
(b) FOR GOVERNMENT INSTITUTES
• The State Governments may decide to state and institute according to manpower requirements in their States/UTs. Excepting items (i) to (iii) all other items under (a) for private institutes or applicable for government institutes also.
(c) FOR ADDITIONAL TRADES/UNITS
• All additional trade/unit to be started in a affiliated institute (Govt. or Private) are required to be started with the prior approval of the concerned State Director In-charge of Training. If one unit of the trade is already affiliated to National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) additional unit i.e. 2ndunit may be inspected by Departmental Inspection Committee on the same lines as the inspection is carried out by the Standing Committee. Same annexure III may be submitted for seeking affiliation to NCVT.
An Institute/Trade/Unit for which affiliation to NCVT is sought will be inspected by Standing Committee constituted by the State Director In-charge of Craftsmen Training. It will have the following composition:
a. Two members to be nominated by the SCVT(one from industry and other from Labour)
b. One member to be nominated by the Secretary of the NCVT.
c. State Director in-charge of Craftsmen Training or his Senior Officer of the training side.
d. The Committee may co-opt one/two Experts in the relevant trade/trades.
(BBA, MBA, BCA & MCA)
In modern times of upsurging business network in regard to novel business strategies being implemented, Management College occupies a conspicuous niche, and its significance cannot be underestimated.
The basic aim of Management College in to enlist a student for more effective measures to be undertaken to promote business in the perspective for better returns and generating more revenues in global environments.
There is need of management colleges in India for the economic development of the country and give the better opportunity to students. But in our country reservation system will not cater to the merit of the deserving students as well as not adortion of latest application of technology conducive to developments. Now obtaining and assimication of latest/emerging technologies and running of administration is the main thrust of the Indian's industry.
Getting affiliation to run a management college the minimum requirement for Land is 5000 sq. mt in urban area and for rural area is 10,000 sq. mt.
- Land should be registered under the name of college (Trust or Society)
- The minimum requirement of room is at least seven of minimum 90 sq. mt.
- The endorsement amount (Fixed deposit) is Rs. 3,00,000/-
- No objection certificate (NOC) is to be obtained from the concerned departments regarding the allotment of Land in favour of college trust or society.
- For the opening of Management College, permission from the department of Technical Education from the concerned state or Union territory and from the concerned University for BBA and MBA Programme.
1. BBA (Bachelor of Business Administration) duration 3 years.
2. MBA (Master of Business Administrations) duration 2 years.
3. BCA (Bachelor of Computer Applications) duration 3 years.
4. MCA (Master of Computer Application) duration 3 years.
The norms for space and buildings have been arrived at, based on the functions, a management institution offering degree or equivalent programmes, has to perform. In all cases, unit norms have been evolved taking the absolute minimum needs, which are indicated as norms. As such the institutions, while envisaging their space and building requirements, must keep their perspectives for development in mind and formulate their plans accordingly.
There must be adequate veranda space around the administrative buildings, class rooms Computer Centre, Library etc., keeping in view that there will be considerable movement of students. For this reason, the ratio of plinth to carpet area for the normal building may be taken as 1:1.4.
1.1 Classification of Building Area
The building area required for an institution can be classified as instructional area, administrative area, amenities area and residential area.
Instructional area will include classrooms, Syndicate rooms, computer center, library, instructional resource center, seminar hall etc.
Area for amenities consists of common rooms, recreation center, Alumni Association, etc. Residential area includes students, staff quarters wherever required.
1.2 Norms for Building Space for Instructional Area
The course structure of any institution will include lectures, Syndicate, laboratory work and seminars / colloquium. The college must have adequate built in areas for all these instructional activities.
The student strength in a theory class should not exceed 60. The class is divided into smaller groups of 15 for Syndicates and a teacher are assigned to each group.
The seminars / colloquium of the senior students must be conducted with the entire class of a particular discipline.
1.3 Norms of Building Space for Administrative Offices
The space to be provided for administrative office in institution will be as per norms given below:
Carpet Area (Sq.m.)
Head of the Institution / Department
Human beings have always been fascinated by the high tides and vastness of oceans. Throughout the history of civilizations they have shown remarkable will to tame these and utilize them for the betterment of culture and expansion of civilization. But, behind all these efforts, there lay the person who very well understood the ergonomics of ships and designed the ships in such a way that the sailors were able to conquer the world. In the modern era these persons are called Marine Engineers and the discipline they need to know is called Marine Engineering.
Marine Engineers have the complete responsibility of the ship’s technical management. They are responsible for selecting the ships’ machinery, which may include diesel engines, steam turbines, gas turbines; and for the design of mechanical, electrical, fluid and control systems throughout the vessel. They are the members of a ship’s crew who are in charge for managing a team of marine technicians and craftspeople. The construction, operations and maintenance of the engine room are the main duties of a Marine engineer.
One of the most notable historical figures in Marine Engineering was Archimedes, who experimented with buoyancy; developed the water screw; and pre-industrial naval weapon systems. In China, Zhang Heng did early research into hydraulics. Pioneers in Marine engineering in Britain include William Froude, and Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who was responsible for demonstrating the effectiveness of the screw propeller, amongst other notable achievements. The oldest surviving marine engine was designed by William Symington in 1788; original engines from the revolutionary 'Turbinia', which proved the superiority of steam-turbine power still survive.
From the first Five Year Plan onwards India's emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower. India's National Policy on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for regulation and development of higher technical education, which came into being as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament. At the level of the centre the Indian Institutes of Technology are deemed of national importance. AICTE monitors qualitative growth of technical education in relation to planned quantitative growth and proper maintenance of norms and Standards.
Moreover these institutes along with various private institutes and foreign technical colleges have the potential of making technical education accessible to all sections of society in India without compromising on the quality of education.
Marine engineering has gained great popularity in India. Plenty of students are attracted towards this advanced branch of engineering. It offers the best opportunity for the people who like to sail in the sea. Scope of marine engineering courses offers remunerative career options on and off shores. The employment opportunities are available in Merchant Navy, Navy and manufacturing industries. Offshore job opportunities are available in recruitment in ports, government jobs in the Directorate General of Shipping and recruitments by shipping industries. The marine engineers can also work as teachers in the educational institutes.
MEDICAL COLLEGE WITH HOSPITAL
A medical college is meant to impart education of medical field to students to qualify them as doctors in different specialized disciplines so as to treat patients suffering from various ailments. Doctors with their dedicated spirit serve the nation at large by providing medication and treatment for eradication of diseases, which exchange health and add suffering to humanity. Normally a medical college is associated with a hospital. Hospitals provide the facilities of O.P.D. and admission for seriously ill seriously injured, seriously burnt and pregnant ladies, causalities etc.
· No Candidate shall be allowed to be admitted to the Medical Curriculum of first Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Course until:
· He/she shall complete the age of 17 years on or before 31st December of the year of admission to the M.B.B.S course ”Regulations on Graduate Medical Education” – Amendment, 1999
National Goals: At the end of undergraduate program, the Medical student shall endeavor to be able to:
- Recognize ‘health for all’ as a national goal and health right of all citizens and by undergoing training for medical profession fulfill his / her social obligations towards realization of this goal.
- Learn every aspect of National policies on health and devote himself/herself to its practical implementation.
Institutional Goals: In consonance with the national goals each Medical Institution should evolve institutional goals to define the kind of trained manpower (or professionals) they intend to produce. The undergraduate students coming out of a Medical Institute should.
- Be competent in diagnosis and management of common Medical/Oral health problems of the individual and the community, commensurate with his/her position as a member of the health team at the primary, secondary or tertiary levels, using his/ her clinical skills based on history, physical examination and relevant investigations;
- Be competent to practice preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative Health Services in respect to the commonly encountered health problems;
The hospital is proposed to be spread in 5 acres of land with total building construction in 1500 Sq/mtrs. The rest of the compound will provide for inroads, by lawn, parks, parking spaces, fountains and other such arrangements which are essential for a very healthy living both for patients and others who happen to be there as hospital staff or persons attending the patients.
There was a time when the only diagnostic tool in the hands of a physician was a stethoscope. Today medical technology has come far with new technologies emerging with amazing rapidity. These include X-ray image intensifies, catheterization. CT scanner, ultrasound scanners, gamma camera, open-heart surgery, image technique, NMR etc. It is worth pausing and taking stock of the current state of the art in medical instrumentation, which is assisting the medical profession in extending succor to the millions in need.
The basic approach of medical technologists Ultrasound scanner manufactured by indchem Electronics Ltd, of Madras. Medical electronics is a fairly new field in India offering considerable scope for import substitution.
Pharmacy involves preparing, mixing, dispensing or compounding drugs, pills, tablets, ointments or injections. It is related to production of pharmaceutical products and development of quality control processes. Pharmacists are health professionals who give prescribed drugs and medicines to individuals.
During the past few years, the pharmacy profession has expanded significantly in terms of professional services delivery and now has been recognized as an important profession in the multidisciplinary provision of health care.
(1) B.Pharma education is necessity for the pharmacist to know the doses of medicines and injections.
(2) It will develop the skills to analysis of different types of medicines, ointments, syrups and capsules etc.
(3) It will help to develop the new Biotech base products.
Before starting a Pharmaceutical College, it is require to take permission from the state government educational institute and as well as central government educational department. It is require to permission from University Grant Commission (UGC) for getting central government fund facility properly run the college by setting up well-equipped laboratory and library.
The candidate should have completed 17 years of age at the time of admission or will complete the same on or before 31 December of the year of his/her admission to the 1st year.
Senior Secondary (10+2) or equivalent from recognized Board/University with Physics, chemistry, Biology and Mathematics as main subjects.
The candidate should be medically fit.
The term polytechnic comes from the Greek word meaning many and tekhnikós meaning arts. In short, Polytechnic means an institute that offers a variety of professional courses, which is mainly technical and vocational in nature.
In fact, Polytechnics give one the comfort of various career courses under one roof. The courses offered by polytechnics help an individual kick-start his career - it allows him to start his own business or get a decent job at a reputed place.
There are various types of polytechnics in India - government owned polytechnics, private polytechnics, women's polytechnic and likewise. Subjects taught in these polytechnics are numerous and include- mass communication, fashion designing, automobile engineering, chemical engineering, interior decoration, computer engineering, civil, electrical etc.
India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary and secondary education expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. Much of the progress in education has been credited to various private institutions.
From the first Five Year Plan onwards India's emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower. India's National Policy on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for regulation and development of higher technical education, which came into being as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament. At the level of the centre the Indian Institutes of Technology are deemed of national importance. The Indian Institutes of Management are also among the nation's premier education facilities.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is contemplating extending grading system till class VIII. The system is already in place in Delhi schools up till class V.
A section of Delhi’s private schools have also received circulars asking them to prepare for implementing this system up till class VIII. Delhi schools are by and large awarding grades up till class V and grades and marks up till VIII.
In a standard classroom of 25x28 feet, 25 kids should be seated if the ratio is to be maintained, for example Birla High School for Boys has 38 kids in a classroom, but it still fall short of the ‘one square metre per child’ demand of the board. Some serious redesigning is required for the school to flout the Board norms. Some schools have already started planning and redesigning to allow kids more space.
1. Each school has to apply for grant of provisional affiliation on the prescribed Application Form in original for approval of Middle Class Syllabus/Provisional Affiliation/Upgradation to Secondary and Sr. Secondary classes.
2. The prescribed Application Forms alongwith Affiliation-Bye Laws can be obtained either from the Publication Store of the CBSE at ‘Shiksha Kendra’, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092 or any Regional Office of the Board located outside Delhi.
3. The cost of Application Form is Rs. 100/-. If it is required to be obtained through post Rs. 40/- extra are to be sent through crossed Bank Draft drawn in favour of Secretary, CBSE.
4. The prescribed Application Forms are required to be submitted by 30th June of the year, preceding the year, in which Class VII/IX/XI, as the case may be is proposed to be started.
Education is today identified among basic needs, as essential for an individual’s survival as ‘food, clothing and shelter.’ The need for education has been recognized in all parts of the country and among all sections of society. Education brings success and success translates into social recognition. Though we have developed well in higher education system, a limited infrastructure facility is there in most of the educational institutions.
Opening school in India is a herculean task, however more and more people are entering in school business; for the demand for school appears unending in India. The promising business opportunity can be discovered in the light of absence of quality school, growing population, and increasing desire to provide quality education to one’s children.
1. Formation of society, trust or company.
2. Governing board with five or six members with a chairperson, president and secretary.
3. A no objection certificate from the department of education is required stating the requirement of school in that area.
4. Up to class 5 only recognition from municipality is required.
5. From class 6 to 8 recognition come from the department of education.
A uniform structure of school education, the 10+2 system has been adopted by all the States and Union Territories of India. However, within the States and the UTs, there remains variations in the number of classes constituting the Primary, Upper Primary, High and Higher Secondary school stages, age for admission to class I, medium of instruction, public examinations, teaching of Hindi and English, number of working days in a year, academic session, vacation periods, fee structure, compulsory education etc.
Approved By IGCSE (International General Certificate of Secondary Education)
The International General Certificate of Secondary Education is an international qualification for school students.
IGCSE is developed by university of Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) in 1988 and is currently offered as a qualification by CIE and London Examination (Edexcel International).
A Cambridge education is beyond purely learning facts. Instead, we support schools to develop students who are confident, responsible, reflective, innovative and engaged. The increasing number of students taking our qualifications in India shows that schools are aware of the value of this approach and the importance of an international education in today's global economy.
While planning the school building the importance of landscape elements such as open areas, to increase the comfort conditions inside the building and also in the surrounding environment, should be kept in mind.
Plant, hedges and shrubs planted immediately outside the classroom windows, where such windows are principal source of natural light and ventilation should not protrude beyond the still levels.
Access to the Site
A separate access is required for motor vehicles, which should be reasonably segregated from pedestrian access routes. Provision may be necessary for school buses with appropriate setting down area giving on to the pedestrian circulation routes.
Access to Buildings and Circulation within the Site
Depending on the size of the school, several entrances may be necessary, arranged to give access to the divisions into which the schools is organized, e.g. Lower school, Middle school, 6th Form. Pedestrian and service vehicle routes should be arranged in so far as is possible to be segregated from each other whilst giving access to all buildings.
There is require one car park space to be provided for Head Teacher and one space to three teacher for the remainder of the staff. It may, however, be necessary to provide more in rural areas by agreement to provide more in rural areas.
It should be possible for local community users to park in an organized manner for extra curricular activities. Allowance should be made at the rate of 23 m2 per car place including access roads to and within car parks.
Allowance should be made at the rate of 1m2 per bicycle.
The regulations specify that a paved or hard porous area suitable for play yards for nursery children, appropriate games, properly graded and drained, shall be provided.
For the establishment of an international school to be uniform and its administration smooth, the following regulations and standards are stipulated by the Ministry of Education.
An International School is an educational institution which is responsible for providing the education for students without any restriction or limitation on nationality, religion or form of government.
Establishment of the school: The project and curriculum are proposed to the Office of the Private Education Commission for their consideration. The form and content in the project have to comply with those stipulated by the Office of the Private Education Commission - annexed.
The International school project will be automatically revoked if it is not established within one year from the date it is approved by the Office of the Private Education Commission without any acceptable reasons and without prior written notice sent to the Office of the Private Education Commission.