UHT MILK PLANT
Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. The exact components of raw milk vary by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic.
There are two distinct types of milk consumption: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals, and a food product for humans of all ages derived from other animals.
Nutrition for Infant Mammals
In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. Some cultures, historically or currently, continue to use breast milk to feed their children until they are 7 years old.
Food Product for Humans
In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. For millennia, cow milk has been processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese. Industrial science has brought us casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additive and industrial products.
Humans are an exception in the natural world for consuming milk past infancy, though some humans are lactose intolerant. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestines after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly. On the other hand, those groups that do continue to tolerate milk often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cows, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, horses, and camels. The largest producer and consumer of cow's milk in the world is India.
The term milk is also used for whitish non-animal substitutes such as soymilk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. Even the regurgitated substance secreted by glands in the mucosa of their upper digestive tract which pigeons feed their young is called crop milk though it bears little resemblance to mammalian milk.
Animal milk is first known to have been used as human food at the beginning of animal domestication. Cow milk was first used as human food in the East. Goats and sheep are ruminants: mammals adapted to survive on a diet of dry grass, a food source otherwise useless to humans, and one that is easily stockpiled. The animals dairying proved to be a more efficient way of turning uncultivated grasslands into sustenance: the food value of an animal killed for meat can be matched by perhaps one year's worth of milk from the same animal, which will keep producing milk in convenient daily portions for years.
Around 7000 BC, cattle were being herded in parts of Turkey. There is evidence from DNA extraction of skeletons from the Neolithic period that people in northern Europe were missing the necessary genes to process lactase. Scientists claim it is more likely that the genetic mutation allowing the digestion of milk arose at some point after dairy farming began. The use of cheese and butter spread in Europe, parts of Asia and parts of Africa.
Milk was first delivered in bottles on January 11, 1878. The day is now remembered as Milk Day and is celebrated annually. The town of Harvard, Illinois also celebrates milk in the summer with a festival known as Milk Days. Theirs is a different tradition meant to celebrate dairy farmers in the Milk Capital of the World.
In most Western countries, a centralized dairy facility processes milk and products obtained from milk (dairy products), such as cream, butter, and cheese. In the United States, these dairies are usually local companies, while in the southern hemisphere facilities may be run by very large nationwide or trans-national corporations (such as Fonterra).
Pasteurization is used to kill harmful microorganisms by heating the milk for a short time and then cooling it for storage and transportation. Pasteurized milk is still perishable and must be stored cold by both suppliers and consumers. Dairies print expiration dates on each container, after which stores will remove any unsold milk from their shelves.
A newer process, Ultra Pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment (UHT), heats the milk to a higher temperature for a shorter time. This extends its shelf life and allows the milk to be stored un-refrigerated because of the longer lasting sterilization effect.
Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk. In this process, cream is separated from the whey and is pasteurized in the usual way, but the whey is forced through ceramic microfilters that trap 99.9% of microorganisms in the milk (as compared to 95% killing of microorganisms in conventional pasteurization). The whey is then recombined with the pasteurized cream to reconstitute the original milk composition.
Creaming and Homogenization
Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer. The cream is often sold as a separate product with its own uses; today the separation of the cream from the milk is usually accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water. The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow milk much more quickly than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins. These clusters rise faster than individual globules can. The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters so readily and are smaller to begin with; cream is very slow to separate from these milks.
Milk is often homogenized, a treatment which prevents a cream layer from separating out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation. A greater number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller number of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cover them. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly exposed fat surfaces; nearly one-third of the micelles in the milk end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clustering that accelerated separation. The exposed fat globules are briefly vulnerable to certain enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavors. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk immediately before or during homogenization.
Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than un homogenized; it is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors. Cream line, or cream-top, milk is un-homogenized; it may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk, which has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labeled as ultra-homogenized, has a longer shelf life than milk, which has undergone ordinary homogenization at lower pressures. Homogenized milk may be more digestible than un homogenized milk.
Kurt A. Oster, M.D., who worked in the 1960s through the 1980s, suggested a link between homogenized milk and arterosclerosis, due to damage to plasmalogen as a result of the release of bovine xanthine oxidize (BXO) from the milk fat globular membrane (MFGM) during homogenization. However, Oster's hypothesis has been widely criticized and has not been generally accepted by the scientific community. No link has been found between arterosclerosis and milk consumption.
1. The milk in the tankers received at the plant site.
2. After test sampling, the tanker load is transferred to the storage tanks.
3. The milk is subjected to heat treatment (Pasteurization), passed through the heat exchanger maintained at high temperature.
4. The pasteurized milk collected in the storage tank and subjected to the chilling at low temperature.
5. The chilled pasteurized milk is filled in the suitable container and stored at the low temperature and dispatch.
Pasteurization is a process, which slows microbial growth in food. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April 20, 1862. The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring.
Unlike sterilization, inventor Nicolas Appert, pasteurization is not intended to kill all pathogenic microorganisms in the food or liquid. Instead, pasteurization aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurization product is refrigerated and consumed before its expiration date). Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and quality of the product. Certain food products are processed to achieve the state of commercial sterility.
Pasteurization typically uses temperatures below boiling since at temperatures above the boiling point for milk, casein micelles will irreversibly aggregate (or curdle). There are two main types of pasteurization used today: High Temperature/Short Time (HTST) and Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment. Ultra-high temperature (UHT or ultra-heat treated) is also used for milk treatment. In the HTST process, milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 71.7°C (161°F) for 15-20 seconds. UHT processing holds the milk at a temperature of 138°C (280°F) for a fraction of a second. ESL milk has a microbial filtration step and lower temperatures than HTST. Milk simply labeled pasteurization is usually treated with the HTST method, whereas milk labeled ultra-pasteurization or simply UHT has been treated with the UHT method.
Pasteurization methods are usually standardized and controlled by national food safety agencies (such as the FDA.). These agencies require milk to be HTST pasteurized in order to qualify for the pasteurization label. There are different standards for different dairy products, depending on the fat content and the intended usage.
The HTST pasteurization standard was designed to achieve a 5-log reduction, killing 99.999% of the number of viable microorganisms in milk. This is considered adequate for destroying almost all yeasts, mold, and common spoilage bacteria and also to ensure adequate destruction of common pathogenic heat-resistant organisms (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis and Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever). HTST pasteurization processes must be designed so that the milk is heated evenly, and no part of the milk is subject to a shorter time or a lower temperature.
Pasteurization of Milk
Pasteurization is typically associated with milk, first suggested by Franz von Soxhlet in 1886. HTST pasteurized milk typically has a refrigerated shelf life of two to three weeks, whereas ultra pasteurized milk can last much longer when refrigerated, sometimes two to three months. When UHT treatment is combined with sterile handling and container technology (such as aseptic packaging), it can even be stored un-refrigerated for 3-4 months.
The Purpose of Pasteurization
1. To increase milk safety for the consumer by destroying disease causing microorganisms (pathogens) that may be present in milk.
2. To increase keeping the quality of milk products by destroying spoilage microorganisms and enzymes that contributes to the reduced quality and shelf life of milk.
Minimum pasteurization requirements for milk products are shown in Table 1 below, and are based on regulations outlined in the Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). These conditions were determined to be the minimum processing conditions needed to kill Coxiella burnetii, the organism that causes Q fever in humans, which is the most heat resistant pathogen currently recognized in milk. Milk can be pasteurized using processing times and temperatures greater than the required minimums.
Pasteurization can be done as a batch or a continuous process. A vat pasteurizer consists of a temperature-controlled, closed vat. The milk is pumped into the vat, the milk is heated to the appropriate temperature and held at that temperature for the appropriate time and then cooled. The cooled milk is then pumped out of the vat to the rest of the processing line, for example to the bottling station or cheese vat. Batch pasteurization is still used in some smaller processing plants. The most common process used for fluid milk is the continuous process. The milk is pumped from the raw milk silo to a holding tank that feeds into the continuous pasteurization system. The milk continuously flows from the tank through a series of thin plates that heat up the milk to the appropriate temperature. The milk flow system is set up to make sure that the milk stays at the pasteurization temperature for the appropriate time before it flows through the cooling area of the pasteurizer. The cooled milk then flows to the rest of the processing line, for example to the bottling station. There are several options for temperatures and times available for continuous processing of refrigerated fluid milk. Although processing conditions are defined for temperatures above 200°F, they are rarely used because they can impart an undesirable cooked flavor to milk.
Milk is a liquid and therefore requires a container at every stage of movement from the cow to the consumer. At the early stages of dairy development the cow's udder was used as the basic container for all purposes. The cow, kept in the town stall, was brought to the customer's doorstep for milking. In some cases the milk was sold from a shop adjacent to the cowshed. In many European countries town cow-keepers could still be found after the First World War but, for reasons of hygiene and economy, they quickly disappeared. This trend seems to be unavoidable for the dairy industry worldwide and will certainly be applied to cities in developing countries where town cow keeping still exists.
The growing demand for milk in towns and the high costs of milk production within their boundaries led to the development - probably around 1860-70 - of containers suitable for various stages of marketing and distribution. These were metal cans, provided with a lid and having capacities up to about 80 litres.
The introduction of this type of container (until recent years often called a ‘churn') facilitated the transport by railway from rural areas to towns, thus contributing substantially to the rapid growth of milk distribution. Similar containers were also used for retail delivery to the consumer, the milk being dispensed in the street or at the doorstep into the consumer's container.
The first significant development in the packaging of milk for retail sale came at the very end of last century with the introduction of the process for sterilized milk in which the retail container, the glass bottle, formed an integral and essential part. In the third decade of this century bottling of pasteurized milk developed rapidly, first in America and soon after in Europe. The glass bottle as the retail package for milk remained unchallenged until 1933 when the first carton made of waxed paper was introduced. The development and introduction of plastic materials for packaging in the dairy industry (initially polyethylene in 1940), alone and in combination with paper, resulted in a wide range of containers, termed cartons, suitable for liquid milk.
When we refer to liquid milk we usually mean a product, either processed or, less often, sold raw to the consumer, deriving from a lactating ruminant, mainly the cow. Processing depends on the grade of milk to be manufactured following the regulations and customs of the country. Heat treatment and, in most countries, standardization of butterfat content, are the basic parts of the processing procedures.
Rated Plant capacity = 24.00 KLs/day
= 8640.00 KLs/annum
UHT MILK PLANT
No. of working days = 30 days/month
= 360 days/annum
No. of shifts = 3 per day
One shift = 8 hours
1 ltr POUCHES/DAY 12000 NOS.
500 ML POUCHES/DAY 24000 NOS.
Currency - Rs.
LAND & BUILDING cost Rs. 66.06 Lakh
PLANT & MACHINERY
1. Storage Tank
2. UHT Plant
3. Aseptic Homogenizer
4. Storage Tank
5. Pouch Filling Sealing Machine
6. Aseptic Filling Machine
8. R/O System
10. Chilling System
11. Fuel Storage Tank
12. Piping & Fittings
13. Laboratory Equipment
14. Erection & Installation TOTAL Rs. 113 Lakh
1. LAND & BUILDING Rs. 66.06 Lakh
2. PLANT & MACHINERY Rs. 113 Lakh
3. OTHER FIXED ASSETS Rs. 93.13 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 272.19 Lakh
WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENT/MONTH
1. Raw Milk
2. Cleaning Chemicals and Lab Chemicals
3. Labels, Gums, Tape & Cartoons
4. Pouches of 1 ltr
5. Pouches of 500 ml TOTAL: Rs. 175.63
TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL/MONTH
1. RAW MATERIAL Rs. 175.63 Lakh
2. SALARY & WAGES Rs. 7 Lakh
3. UTILITIES & OVERHEADS Rs. 8.75 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 191.38 Lakh
COST OF PROJECT
TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL Rs. 272.19 Lakh
MARGIN MONEY Rs. 143.63 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 415.82 Lakh
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL Rs. 272.19 Lakh
TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS Rs. 574.38 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 846.57 Lakh
TURN OVER/ANNUM = Rs. 2807.5 Lakh
PROFIT SALES RATIO = 13.87 %
RATE OF RETURN = 46.00 %
BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P) = 33.62 %