Fashion Technology Handbook ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Meenakshi Narang ISBN 8178330970
Code ENI42 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 325   325 US$ 50   50
Pages: 238 Published 2003
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 3 days

Fashion and life style exist parallel to each other. Fashion leads the world & it will continue to do so through times. Human cannot be ever segregated from fashion. Fashion keeps on changing along with the times, it can be old styled, and traditional, modern, rigid, practical, customary, experimental, trendy, sober, etc. generation have witnessed the colour and glamour that constitutes the fashion. Accessories are the extra elements of fashion which enhance the look of your garments design. They form an excellent focal point if used carefully. It helps in making you appear taller or shorter. Some of the examples of accessories are scarves, belts, jewellery, handbags, shoes etc. The Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the structural elements of design. Again, the way in which these principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work. The principles are: balance, proportion, rhythm, emphasis and unity. The elements of design converge to create a equal distribution of visual weight within the particular composition. Balance in design principles is the design or arrangement of elements that appear to be a whole with equilibrium. The simplistic type of balance is called symmetrical balance which has a basic appeal to the viewer. Asymmetrical balance is achieved by unlike object that has equal eye attraction. Asymmetrical balance is based on: balance by value and colour, balance of shape and texture and by position and eye direction. The Indian fashion industry has experienced significant expansion in the last decade mainly driven by the growth of domestic designers, some of whom have gained international recognition in recent years. Industry growth in India is mainly driven by the growing exposure of domestic designers at international forums, but growth is also supported by other factors such as the launch of focused business education courses for emerging designers and the establishment of an industry association.
This book basically deals with history of fashion, sketching, designing principles, drawing the garments, understanding and application of silhouettes, basic principles of fashion illustrations, fashion accessories and their creative uses, designing techniques, achieving texture in pen and ink, sketching human body, drawing of hands & postures, structure of feet & postures drawing of other parts of body, contemporary western fashion style, etc. 
Professional students, new entrepreneurs and designers will find valuable educational material and wider knowledge of fashion technology in the book. Comprehensive in scope, the book provides solutions that are directly applicable to the basic principles, history, designing principles, language guide of fashion industry.

1. Introduction

2. CHAPTER I
HISTORY OF FASHION
Vedic Age
The Persian Influence
Greek Influence
The Purdah System

3. CHAPTER II
SKETCHING
Proportion 
Elevation
Showing Curvature
Sketching Colour
Enhancing Your Image

4. CHAPTER III
DESIGNING PRINCIPLES
Introduction
Use of Illustrations
Drawing the Garments
Creating Designs
Proportion Illusions
Horizontal Proportions
Vertical Style Lines
Horizontal Style Lines
Diagonal Style Lines
Curved Lines
Various Lines and their Meanings
Optical Illusions and its Application

5. CHAPTER IV
THEORY OF COLOUR
The Lexicon of Colours 
Colour Mixture

6. CHAPTER V
BASIC SILHOUTTE
Understanding and Application of Silhouttes
Various Ways to Show Size or Accentuate different Parts of the Body 
Silhouttes of Garment

7. CHAPTER VI
FASHION ILLUSTRATIONS
Proportion of the Ideal Figure
Major Muscles of the Neck
Three Quarter View
Changing the Angle of the Head
The Third Dimension
Construction in Simplified Block Form
Drawing Women
Drawing Men
Design Development Sheets
Working Drawings
Illustrating Various Details

8. CHAPTER VII
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FASHION ILLUSTRATIONS
Drawing Still Objects 
Perspective

9. CHAPTER VIII
FASHION ACCESSORIES
Fashion accessories and their Creative Uses
Does and Don'ts

10 CHAPTER IX
DESIGNING TECHNIQUES
Design, Research and Sources of Ideas
Design Techniques Materials
Achieving Texture in Pen and Ink
Wax-Resistant Effects
Line Drawings
Drawing Pens
Figure Proportion
Figure Proportion Table

11. CHAPTER X
SKETCHING HUMAN BODY
Sizes and Proportions of Different Parts of Body
Profile of Head or Face
Front Position of Head
Drawing of Hands & Postures
Structure of Feet & Postures
Drawing of Other Parts of Body
Illustrations

12. CHAPTER XI
FASHION INDUSTRY LANGUAGE GUIDE

13. CHAPTER XII
CONTEMPORARY WESTERN FASHION STYLE


 

Designing Techniques

Students of fashion design are given design projects by their college lecturer or by a manufacturer, a professional designer or a buyer. Each assignment will give the students of professionals the chance to design in different areas of fashion. The design briefs are presented in a concise way explaining the requirements and stages in which to work and when the project needs to be completed. It is important to understand the brief fully before commencing and interpret the requirements correctly. This will also avoid any kind of confusion or loopholes in their work.

Details that should be taken care of before starting designing should be like :-

  • What exactly has been asked to design?
  • The design is meant for whom-a company, the consumer or a retail outlet?
  • The garment would be worn under what occasion and in what environment?

Following strategy should be planned before hand :-

  • How the work is to be planned & produced ?
  • Specific consideration stated in the brief.
  • The deadline when the work needs to be completed.

Design Research and Sources of Ideas

When developing research and bring for a theme on which to formulate the basic ideas, the designer can scan following different areas :

  • Films
  • Theater
  • Television
  • Sports
  • Paintings
  • Nature
  • History of Costume
  • Different Periods of Fashion
  • National Costume
  • Defense Uniforms
  • Street Fashion.

It is important that a designer is constantly aware of the changes and influences taking place in the fashion industry. Effectiveness of fashion exhibitions, trade fairs and fashion shows. Fashion magazines and jewels should be thought of in terms of their readership and editorial context.

Starting with the Basic Figure

Students require ability to produce design ideas with clarity and speed. One should be able to sketch the figure by estimating the number of heads into the body.

During design collection student should start by entering ideas in a sketch book. A camera may also be used to record images and textures like - cloud formation, flower and plant form & architectural details. Research material is often displayed on a pin board for time to time reference. From the research, sample design sheets are produced working to the selected them and developing many design sketches. Presentation drawing is often produced, illustrating the design in full colour with samples of leather and trimmings and a fashion sketch suggesting the total image is often included.

Design Techniques Materials

Photocopiers

It is an invaluable tool for the fashion design illustrator. It can be used to :-

  • Reduce or enlarge drawings.
  • Reproduce drawings on which to experiment with. Colour pattern and texture techniques before working on the origin.
  • Produce material for background effects on presentation boards.
  • Transfer drawings on to different coloured papers.
  • Transfer drawings and photographs on to acetate-which is very effective for presentation work.
  • Paste-up drawings when working on the arrangement of design work. Cut out the figures and general artwork, and use spray mount to fix it on to clean white card. Photocopy in black & white or colour for a clean professional look.
  • Photocopy artwork for reference when sending your originals off for competitions etc.
  • Enlarge sections of design drawings details of collars, pockets and style features.
    1. Tone : Use one colour to produce four clearways. Vary the squares from light to progressively darker tones.
    2. Burnishing : Colour may be smoothed out by burnishing. This is achieved by going over the colour with a white or light grey pencil.
    3. Mixing colours : Coloured pencils may be mixed to create a wide range of colours.
    4. Changing tones : Tones of colours are made by changing the pressure on the pencils.
    1. The drawing is sketched with a black Fine liner pen on smooth white illustration card.
    2. The denim jacket and trousers is coloured with an ultramarine pencil, shaded in one direction from one side of the figure in a darker tone by putting more pressure on the pencil. This gives the effect of more light falling on one side of the figure.
    3. In the last stage the darker tones were added to the garment under the collar, pocket, and folds in the jacket and trousers. A soft lead pencil has been used over the blue denim to give the effect of the texture and weave. The face was tinted with a burnt sienna pencil, shading the face on one side. A thick line has been added round the figure with a medium Stabilo black pen and burnished with a white pencil to smooth out the colour.
    4. The drawing was completed with a thick black outline round the figure, the latter being cut out and mounted using a spray mount on to a clean sheet of card.
    1. Technical pens
    2. Plastic-tipped pens
    3. Fiber-tipped pens
    4. Roller pens
    5. Ballpoint pens.
    • Markers tend to bleed on some papers and may go beyond a line. Always experiment with pens first before applying colour to an original drawing.
    • Some areas of the work will tend to look darker if these are gone over twice with the same marker.
    • Always clean the nib if one colour is to be used over another.
  • [/ul]

    Marker Pens

    They are available in a wide range of colours and sizes, with many different nib sizes from cylindrical shaped heads blunt bullet like points, shapes and fine points. The inks are either water soluble or spirit based. Markers can be used for filling in areas of colour or for making bold outlines, to give a clean and pleasing effect. They are very convenient as they dry rapidly and are especially noted for their clarity of colour.

    The range of markers available can bewildering. Some contain soluble ink and others permanent colourfast ink. The nibs tend to be fibre-tipped nylon or foam. Sizes range from fine to broad, and they may be round, square, bullet or chisel shaped. They are also available in a wide range of colours. Note that the caps must always be replaced after use otherwise the pens tend to cry out. Spirit-based pens should always be used in ventilated areas.

    Studio markers are also available in a wide range of colours and tones. Some are made with two nibs, broad and fine, combined on the one pen, and produce a clean smooth flat effect. They tend to be expensive but looked after they will last a long time. Bleed-proof paper which prevents ink passing through on to the backing sheets is available for use with permanent markers.

    Pastels

    Although no brushes are used, the use of pastels is more akin to painting than drawing. The advantage being that there is no liquid medium and hence no drying time to consider. The range of tints in each colour is considerable. A variety of tones can be achieved by beating the tinted paper as a mid-tone, and a coloured paper may be used as a key for the rest of the colour scheme. Different effects can be created, depending on which part of the pastel stick is used.

    Water Colour

    Water colour may be bought as solid tablets or as paste in tubes thinned with water before use. Paint boxes of different sizes are easily available. Paint brushes vary in quality from sable to nylon. The paper surface is also very important. Unless you are using good quality paper, it should be stretched. If this is not done, the paper will react to the water by crackling and your work will be distorted.

    Stretching Paper

    Fill the sink with clean cold water. Pass the paper through the water, hold it up for few seconds to let all the excess water run off, then lay it flat on the drawing board. Fix the paper down on the board with brown gum strip round the edges. When the paper has dried it will be perfectly flat and ready for use. When the drawing is completed and perfectly dry, use a scalpel and straight edge rule to cut the paper from the board.

    Gouache

    Gouache is the same water colour but is mixed with white pigment, which makes it opaque. When dry, gouache forms a positive film of colour. Hard divisions of solid colour are associated with it. A free style of painting may also be achieved where the brush strokes are visible, working with wet paint on wet paper. Watercolour paper or boards are most suitable for gouache. Cartridge and layout paper are not suitable. Wheather method is used, the main characterstic is the ability to provide a strong contrast of colour and tone.

    Water colour broods or papers ore most suitable for gouache. Tinted papers may also be used as the paint is opaque.

    Coloured Pencils

    Coloured pencil is easily available, graded from very hard to extra soft. Pencils offer the most versatile methods of colouring a drawing. By varying the pressure, different tone values may be obtained.

    Water soluble pencils are also available in a wide colour range. To use them, the drawing is produced as normal, and then a water colour wash is applied to produce an even colour, which obliterates the pencil marks.

    Coloured pencils can be graded from soft to hard. They may be purchased in boxes with a large or small selection of colours, or obtained individually. Some are water-solvent and may be combined with water for application with a brush over the pencil, in order to give a water colour effect.

    Always try these pencils before applying them to the drawing. The more pressure applied to the pancil, the deeper the tone and the more intense the colour will be. It is more effective to stroke in one direction only (as illustrated).

    Select a paper, from rough to smooth depending on the effect required. Remember to use an absorbent paper when applying water.

     

    Experiment with Pencils

    Coloured pencils and black fineliner pen

    The sketch can be produced in four stages.

    Inks

    Pen and ink creates immediate visual effects, in both line and tone, which may take the form of lines, dots, hatching and cross hatching. Ink drawings combined with washes of coloured inks are most effective. Many different colours are available. Inks on either be used on their own mixed together or diluted with water.

    Achieving Texture in Pen and Ink

    Textures can be shown by using different line values in the same drawing. Examples are shown of herringbone, tweed, checks, ribbed and cable-stitch knitwear.

     

    Wax-Resistant Effects

    A wax crayon or candle may be used as a resistant to water colour and inks.

    First draw with the candle to make the paper waterproof beneath the wax. Add a wash and the area will remain free of colour. A rubber solution may also be used to gain a similar effect.

    Various selection of wax crayons is available and they come in different thick nesses. They produce a solid bright colour and the harder the pressure, the deeper the tone, but it is difficult to produce different tone with wax crayons. Experiment with the crayons on paper of different textures and colours. Some crayons are wax based, others are water solvent and may be used combined with water.

    Lightbox

    A box with a glass top containing a light for tracing. By placing the work to be traced under a sheet of paper which rests on the glass and is illuminated underneath by the light, the work is then shown clearly. These boxes are available in range of sizes.

    Airbrush

    The airbrush provides perfect even tones, graded tones and soft lines. It will also blend colour. It is operated by a motor compressor or compressed air propellant aerosols.

    Layout Paper

    White layout detail paper with a surface ideal for ink and pencil. The paper is semi-transparent, which is useful when working over roughs and developing work.

    Line Drawings

    Various pens used for drawing can be divided into five groups :

    New types are constantly being produced. When selecting a pen, experiment with it first to see if it produces the line required. The paper or card to be used also has to be considered carefully as the surface will affect the line value.

    These sketches illustrated the use of different techniques using a variety of pens with different line values, often within the same drawing.

    Drawing Pens

    Technical pens

    The ink pens used by designers are known as technical pens. They produce a clear line, the nib of the pen being in the shape of a tube. The ink is fed down the tube, the size of which produces the width of the line. Technical pens are extremely accurate for very fine detailed work.

    Plastic-tipped pens

    These produce very fine accurate lines.

    Fiber-tipped pens

    The nibs are made from vinyl tip or nylon, and vary from firm to supple. They are made in a selection of sizes for different line values.

    Roller pens

    These have a very smooth action, producing an even flow of ink. A range of colours and widths are available.

    Ball-point pens

    The point is made from a steel carbide ball that rolls, and is available in a range of colours and widths.

    Figure Proportion

    The height of the average figure varies from between seven and a half or eight times the height of the head. When drawing a fashion sketch, the Proportions are usually eight of eight and a half with exaggeration on the length of the legs. Try not to over-exaggerate when producing sketches, however, as this may distort the proportions of your designing.

     

 

 

ABOUT NPCS

 

NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.

 


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:


• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period


We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.

 

The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
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The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.


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• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.

 

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• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.

 

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:

 

 

Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications

 

Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity

 

Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers

 

Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel

 

Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)

 

Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram

 

Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities

 

Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:

 

  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital

 

  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals

                Revenue/Income/Realisation

                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios

                D.S.C.R

                Earnings Per Share (EPS)

               

             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 

                B.E.P

  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR