The Complete Technology Book on Biofertilizer and Organic Farming (Potash, Greenhouse Farming, Hydroponic Farming, Pellet Fertilizer, Seaweed Fertilizer, Biogas with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details) 3rd Edition ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. Himadri Panda ISBN 9789381039076
Code ENI115 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1895   1895 US$ 48   48
Pages: 480 Published 2023
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days


Organic fertilisers derived from natural sources such as plants, animals, and microorganisms are known as biofertilizers. They are high in nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Biofertilizers are environmentally friendly, long-lasting, and less expensive than synthetic fertilisers. Biofertilizers can be applied directly to the soil to improve fertility and crop yield. They are also used in conjunction with other organic farming practises to improve soil health, such as composting and mulching. Biofertilizers contribute to a reduction in the use of chemical fertilisers, which can pollute water sources and harm the environment. Biofertilizers improve crop quality by increasing nutrient content and improving taste, in addition to their environmental benefits. They also improve plant resistance to diseases and pests. Organic farming is a subset of agriculture that emphasizes natural methods such as composting, crop rotation, and the use of organic fertilisers and pest control. Organic farmers grow their crops without the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides, or genetic engineering. Instead, they rely on naturally occurring nutrients in the soil and organic matter, such as compost and manure, to provide essential nutrients and minerals to their plants. Organic farmers also use traditional farming methods that promote biodiversity, soil fertility, and water conservation. Organic farming focuses on producing food in an environmentally friendly manner while also respecting animals and nature.


The global biofertilizers market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 12.04% during the forecast, from $2.02 billion to $4.47 billion. Organic farming is one of the fastest-growing agricultural methods in the world, with 72.3 million hectares of agricultural land under organic agriculture management globally, according to the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture. The use of synthetic fertilisers contaminated the soil and killed microorganisms. Organic farming is rapidly becoming popular in order to reduce soil pollution. Organic agriculture makes the best use of local resources to improve soil fertility while avoiding agrochemicals, GMOs, and many synthetic compounds used as food additives. The growing demand for organic food motivates farmers to use bio-based fertilisers that are compatible with organic food production. Higher product appreciation and adoption among farmers in developing and developed economies are expected to positively influence the growth of the Biofertilizers Market in the coming years. Furthermore, agricultural producers' active participation in ramping up their biological agriculture, such as bio-origin fertilisers, is expected to boost the growth of the Biofertilizers Market in the coming years. Furthermore, the rise in food product demand and per capita income has created enormous opportunities for the growth of the Biofertilizers Market in various regions and countries around the world.


The book's main contents are Biofertilizer, Organic Farming, Potash, Greenhouse Farming, Hydroponic Farming, Pellet Fertilizer, Seaweed Fertilizer, Biogas, Anaerobic Digesters, Biopesticides, and Organic Manure. The Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details, and Photographs with Suppliers Contact Details are also given.


A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in today’s most demandable Biofertilizer and Organic Farming industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the Biofertilizer and Organic Farming industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of Biofertilizer. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.



1. Introduction

            1.1    Role 

            1.2.   The reason for using biofertilizers

            1.3.   Benefits

            1.4.   Types

                     1.4.1. Rhizobium

                     1.4.2. Azotobacter

                     1.4.3. Azospirillum

                     1.4.4. Azolla

                     1.4.5. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)            

                     1.4.6. Potassium Mobilizing Biofertilizer (KMB)    

                     1.4.7. Zinc Solubilizing Biofertilizer (ZSB)

                     1.4.8. Phosphate Absorbers Mycorrhizaeaeaeae

            1.5.   Components

                     1.5.1. Symbiotic nit rogen-fixing bacteria 

                     1.5.2. Symbiotic nit rogen-fixing Cyanobacteria

                     1.5.3. Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria

                     1.5.4. Other Components of biofertilizers

            1.6.   Compost Biofertilizers

            1.7.   Methods

   2.     How to Start a Biofertilizer Business

            2.1.   Plan

            2.2.   The growth potential of the Biofertilizer business            

            2.3.   Different types of fertilizers to start your fertilizer business          

                     2.3.1. Organic fertilizer

                     2.3.2. Chemical fertilizer

                     2.3.3. Biofertilizer business: Things to consider

            2.4.   Starting a Biofertilizer business in India: A step-by-step guide

                     2.4.1. Creating a business plan

                     2.4.2. A suitable location must be selected and leased              

                     2.4.3. Business permit, licence, and legal documents required for organic fertilizers

                     2.4.4. Supply Expertise

                     2.4.5. Organize the laboratory and manufacturing facility in the house

                     2.4.6. Machines & Equipment     

                     2.4.7. Refrigerator

   3.     Types of Biofertilizers

            3.1.   Types of Biofertilizers

                     3.1.1. Bio NPK               

                     3.1.2. Acetobacter           

                     3.1.3. Azospirillum       

                     3.1.4. Mycorrhiza

                     3.1.5. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria      

                     3.1.6. Potassium Solubilizing Bacteria

            3.2.   Biofertilizer Applications

            3.3.   What is the purpose of using biofertilizers?

                     3.3.1. Advantages

   4.     Biofertilizer Production Method and Process          

            4.1.   Purpose

            4.2.   Production    

                     4.2.1. Strain Choice

                     4.2.2. Plant Pelletizing 

                     4.2.3. Vaccinant Transporters

            4.3.   Quality Standards for Inoculants

            4.4.   Packaging

            4.5.   Storage

            4.6.   Immunization of the Field

            4.7.   Preparation

            4.8.   Production Line from Animal Wastes

            4.9.   Cow Dung Fertilizer Machine

            4.10. Dry Cow Dung Fertilizer by Using Fertilizer Machines

            4.11. Types of Cow Dung Fertilizer Machines Use for Composting     

            4.12. Compost Windrow Turner for Cow Manure Composting

            4.13. Manure Making Machine

            4.14. Crop Growth

            4.15. Aims of Production

            4.16. Rotary Cooler

            4.17. Cooling Fertilizer Pellets

            4.18. Fertilizer Dryer

            4.19. What Drying Technology Does The Fertilizer Dryer Use?             

            4.20. Smart Rotary Drum Dryer

            4.21. Drum Dryer  

            4.22. Fertilizer Packing Machine

            4.23. Powdery Fertilisers Packing Facility

            4.24. Package Organic Fertilisers

            4.25. Fertilizer Mixer for Blending Plant

            4.26. Hot selling double shafts horizontal cow dung mixer fertiliser equipment

            4.27. Tiny Chicken Manure Fertiliser Mixer

            4.28. Pan Mixer Machine

            4.29. BB Fertilizer Blending Equipment for Mixed Fertilizer Granules Processing

            4.30. Batch Mix Plant

            4.31. Fertilizer Crusher

            4.32. Vertical Crushing

            4.33. Chain Crusher

            4.34. Hammer Mill Crushing

            4.35. Hot Semi-Wet Crusher

            4.36. Cage Crush Machine 

            4.37. Small Straw Grinders

            4.38. Urea Fertilizer Powder Grinding Machine

            4.39. High-Quality Materials for Smoother Operation

            4.40. Organic Fertilizer Granulator 

            4.41. Uses of Organic Fertilizer Granulator  

            4.42. Raw Materials

            4.43. Organic Fertilizer Using Chicken Manure

            4.44. Organic Fertilizer from Food Waste

            4.45. Amino Acid Organic Fertilizer

            4.46. Setup an Organic Fertilizer Manufacturing Unit

            4.47. Compost Machine

            4.48. Use

                     4.48.1. Windrow & Trench

            4.49. Hydraulic Organic Waste Crawler

            4.50. Forklift Type Manure Compost Turner Machine

            4.51. Cow Dung Compost Windrow Turner

            4.52. Poultry Waste Compost Fertilizer Machine

            4.53. Chain Plate Type Compost Fertilizer Making Machine

   5.     Simplified Anaerobic Digesters for Biofertilizer

            5.1.   Abstract

            5.2.   Foreword

            5.3.   Batch Digester Plant  

            5.4.   Plug Flow Digester Plant

            5.5.   Covered Langoon Biogas System

            5.6.   Continuous Expansion Digester

            5.7.   Tests on a Small Electric Generator set Fuelled by Biogas

            5.8.   An Economic Evaluation of the Plants

            5.9.   Conclusions

   6.     Operating Conditions for AnaerobicDigestion of Biofertilizer              

            6.1.   Abstract         

            6.2.   Introduction

            6.3.   Design of the Experiment

            6.4.   Results and Discussion

                     6.4.1. Effect of the initial total solids (TS) concentration on

                     6.4.2. Effect of hydraulic retention time (0) on         

                     6.4.3. Effect of temperature on

                     6.4.4. Effect of mode of operation on

   7.     Potash Production Process

            7.1.   Comminution

            7.2.   Potash Flotation Process

            7.3.   Common Salt or Halite: NaCl 

            7.4.   Crushing Section

            7.5.   Scrubbing and Desliming

            7.6.   Grinding and Classification

            7.7.   Conditioning

            7.8.   Potash Flotation

            7.9.   Thickening, Filtering and Brine Recovery

            7.10. Pumping of Products

   8.     Application and Evaluation Techniques

            8.1.   Different Methods for Biofertilizer Inoculation

                     8.1.2. Seed inoculation

            8.2.   Top dressing of Biofertilizers

                     8.2.1. Granular biofertilizers

                     8.2.2. Solarisation of FYM/Compost

                     8.2.3. Granular biofertilizer mixed with seed

                     8.2.4. Broadcasting of granular biofertilizers

                     8.2.5. Frequency of inoculation

                     8.2.6. Liquid inoculation of Biofertilizers

            8.3.   Methods of application of liquid inoculation

                     8.3.1. Drenching by Sprayers

                     8.3.2. Application in root zone

                     8.3.3. Culture pellet

            8.4.   Methods of Application of Other Biofertilizers

                     8.4.1. Blue Green Algae

                     8.4.2. Azolla

                     8.4.3. As green manuring

                     8.4.4. Azolla dual cropping

            8.5.   Azotobacter

                     8.5.1. Preparation and use of Azotobacter inoculant

                     8.5.2. Application

            8.6.   Azospirillum

         8.7. Mycorrhizae

                     8.7.1. Endomycorrhizae

                     8.7.2. Ectomycorrhizae

            8.8.   Foliar Biofertilizer

            8.9.   Humar

         8.10. Humic Acid

                     8.10.1. Intorduction

                     8.10.2. Application

                     8.10.3. Soil

                     8.10.4. Foliar

                     8.10.5. Seed treatment

                     8.10.6. Soil Benefit

                     8.10.7. Root

                     8.10.8. Seeds   

                     8.10.9. Plants

                     8.10.10. Precautions

            8.11. Different Media Used to Study Biofertilizer

                     8.11.1. Growth Media for Rhizobium

            8.12. Media for Testing Nodulating Ability of Rhizobium      

                     8.12.1. Isolation of Frankia

            8.13. Media Used

         8.14. Precautions in handling

   9.     Crop Response to Biofertilizers

            9.1.   Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

                     9.1.1. Rhizobium

            9.2.   Azolla

            9.3.   Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

                     9.3.1. Blue Green Algae (BGA)

            9.4.   Azotobacter  

            9.5.   Azospirillum

         9.6. Phosphate Solubilizers and Fixers

                     9.6.1. Mycorrhiza

            9.7.   Phosphate Solubilizing  Microganisms

            9.8.   Factors Affecting Crop Response to Biofertilizers

            9.9.   Host Response to Biofertilizers

            9.10. Interaction of Inoculants with other Nutrients

            9.11. Multi-Microbial Inoculation

            9.12. Compatability Between Biofertilizers and Chemical Fertilizers

            9.13. Adaptive Trials

10.     Biogas Production from Organic Biofertilizer

            10.1. Abstract

            10.2. Introduction 

            10.3. Materials and Methods

                     10.3.1. Organic Wastes

                     10.3.1. Starter 166

                     10.3.2 Analytical procedures

            10.4. Experimental               

            10.5. Results and Discussion

            10.6. Biogas Production from Geranium Flour (GF)

                     10.6.1. Biogas Production from Akalona (AK)

                     10.6.2. Biogas Production from Watermelon Residue (WR)

11.     Biogas from Liquid Biofertilizer Derived

            from Banana and Coffee Processing

            11.1. Abstract

            11.2. Introduction 

            11.3. Results           

12.     Steps for How to Start Organic Farming

13.     Organic Farming

            13.1. Pollution Problems with Fertilizers

                     13.1.1. Water Pollution

                     13.1.2. Atmospheric pollution

                     13.1.3. Damage to crops and soils

                     13.1.4. Heavy Metal Contamination

            13.2. Environment Restoration with Fertiliser

            13.3. Pollution Abatement Startegies

            13.4. Organic Farming

            13.5. Why Organic Farming

            13.6. Basic Concepts of Organic Farming

                     13.6.1. Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply Management (IPNSM)

                     13.6.2. Intergrated Insect Pest and Disease Management

                     13.6.3. Integrated Soil and Water Management

            13.7. Alternatives  

            13.8. Organic Manures

            13.9. Plant Origin Pesticides

            13.10. Biopesticides

            13.11. Bioherbicides

            13.12. Biofertilizers

                     13.12.1. Microorganisms as nutrient regulators

                     13.12.2. Organic Matter in Agroecosystem

                     13.12.3. Soil Microbial biomass  

                     13.12.4. Nutrient Availability

                     13.12.5. Losses

            13.13. Cultural Practies

14.     Methods and Types of Organic Farming

            14.1. A Step-By-Step Manual for Organic Agricultural Techniques

            14.2. Characteristics

            14.3. Goals of Switching to Organic Farming

            14.4. Different Methods of Organic Farming

                     14.4.1. Crop Diversity 

                     14.4.2. Crop Rotation   

                     14.4.3. Biological Pest Control   

                     14.4.4. Soil Management

                     14.4.5. Green Manure   

                     14.4.6. Compost

                     14.4.7. Weed Management

                     14.4.8. Controlling Other Organisms

                     14.4.9. Livestock

                     14.4.10. Genetic Modification

15.     Organic Manures

            15.1. Organic Matter

                     15.1.1. Chemical nature of organic matter

            15.2. Organic Manures

                     15.2.1. Organic residues

                     15.2.2. Cow dung manure

                     15.2.3. Live stock wastes

            15.3. Green Manure

                     15.3.1. Importance of green manure

                     15.3.2. Green manure crops

                     15.3.3. Turning of green manure crops

                      15.3.4. Biological control of plant disease and green manure

                     15.3.5. Fate of green manures      

                     15.3.6. Nutrient status

                     15.3.7. Compost

                     15.3.8. Sources

                     15.3.9. Methods

                     15.3.10. Indore method

                     15.3.11. Bangalore Method

                     15.3.12. NADEP Method

                     15.3.13. Role of microbes in Compost making          

            15.4. Vermicompost

                     15.4.1. Vermi composting

            15.5. Phospho-Compost

            15.6. Oil Cakes

                      15.6.1. Poultry waste compost

            15.7. Organic Industrial Wastes

            15.8. Materials

                     15.8.1. Flyash

                     15.8.2. Coir pith

                     15.8.3. Pressmud

                     15.8.4. Phosphogypsum               

                     15.8.5. Sewage and sewage sludge

                     15.8.6. Sugar factory waste and sugarcane trash

            15.9. Biomethanation

            15.10. Constraints

16.     Biopesticides

            16.1. Discovery

            16.2. Development

            16.3. Registration

            16.4. Biological Control of Insect

                     16.4.1. Fungal Insecticides

                     16.4.2. Bacterial Insecticides

                     16.4.3. Bacillus thuringlensls (BT)

                     16.4.4. Mode of action

                     16.4.5. The question of resistance

                     16.4.6. Commercial Prospects

                     16.4.7. Improvements in BT through genetic engineering

                     16.4.8. The BT protein and the efforts on recombinant DNA in this area

                     16.4.9. Limitations of BT

                     16.4.10. Safety

                     16.4.11. Viral Insecticides

                     16.4.12. Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

                     16.4.13. Protozon Insecticides

                     16.4.14. Possibilities of field application

            16.5. Botanical Pesticides

                     16.5.1. Pheamon trap    

                     16.5.2. Trichocards

            16.6. Biological control of plant diseases

                     16.6.1. Soilborne diseases

                     16.6.2. Mehods for biocontrol      

                     16.6.3. Biological Seed Treatment

            16.7. Foliar Diseases

                     16.7.1. Introduction

                     16.7.2. Selection of biocontrol agents

                     16.7.3. Formulation and delivery system

                     16.7.4. Improved efficacy

                     16.7.5. Commercialization

            16.8. Nematodes as Biological Control Agents

                     16.8.1. Production and Formulation

            16.9. Biological Control of Nematodes

            16.10. Biological Control of Weeds

            16.11. Role of Genetic Engineering 

17.     Sustainable Agriculture

            17.1. Definition

            17.2. Dimensions

                     17.2.1. Perceptions

            17.3. Components

                     17.3.1. Crop Diversification

                     17.3.2. Crop Rotation   

                     17.3.3. Biological Nitrogen Fixation

                     17.3.4. Mixed Cropping

                     17.3.5. Soil Micorbes on Crops

                     17.3.6. Genetic Diversity

                     17.3.7. Integrated Nurient Management (INM)

                     17.3.8. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

                     17.3.9. Sustainable Water Management

                     17.3.10. Post Harvest Technology

                     17.3.11. Extension Programmes 

                     17.3.12. Sustainable Agriculture for India

                     17.3.13. Role of biotechnology

                     17.3.14. Government support to farmers

            17.4. Conclusion

18.     Greenhouse Cultivation

            18.1. Designs and classification of greenhouse

            18.2. Classifications

            18.3. Poly House

            18.4. Shade House

            18.5. Orientation of greenhouse / polyhouse

                     18.5.1. Design

                     18.5.2. Orientation

                     18.5.3. Wind Effects      

                     18.5.4. Size of the greenhouse      

                     18.5.5. Spacing between greenhouses         

                     18.5.6. Height of greenhouse

                     18.5.7. Structural Design

                     18.5.8. Components

                     18.5.9. Cladding Material

                     18.5.10. Plant Growing Structures

                     18.5.11. Environmental Factors Influencing Greenhouse Cultivation 

                     18.5.12. Natural Ventilation

            18.6. Heating of greenhouse

                     18.6.1. Heating Systems

                     18.6.2. Boiler

                     18.6.3. Unit Heaters

                     18.6.4. Infra-Red Heaters

                     18.6.5. Solar Heating

            18.7. Environmental Control

                     18.7.1. Temperature Control

                     18.7.2. Relative Humidity Control

                     18.7.3. Light Intensity Control

                     18.7.4. Quality of Light

         18.8. Fan and Pad               

                     18.8.1. Selection of Fan

            18.9. Media Preparation and Fumigation

                     18.9.1. Getting the media ready for greenhouse production

                      18.9.2. Gravel Culture

                     18.9.3. Media Ingredients and Mix

                      18.9.4. Pasteurization of Greenhouse Plant Growing Media

                     18.9.5. Fungicides and their effect on a few fungi

                     18.9.6. Temperature necessary to kill soil pests

            18.10. Fumigation in Greenhouse

            18.11. Drip Irrigation and Fertigation Systems in Greenhouse Cultivation

                     18.11.1. Watering System

                     18.11.2. Fertigation System

                     18.11.3. Fertilizers

            18.12. Forms of Inorganic Fertilizers

                     18.12.1. Slow Release Fertilizer

                     18.12.3. Liquid Fertilizer

            18.13. Fertilizer Application Methods

                     18.13.1. Constant Feed

                     18.13.2. Intermittent Application

            18.14. Fertilizer Injectors    

                     18.14.1. Multiple Injectors

                     18.14.2. Fertilizer Injectors

            18.15. General Fertigation Issues

            18.16. Problem-Solving

            18.17. Inadequacies in fertilizers

            18.18. Aluminum Surplus

            18.19. Corrective Actions for Excessive Fertiliser

            18.20. Harm Caused by Poisonous Gases

            18.21. Unique Horticulture Techniques

            18.22. Postharvest Handling Practices for Important Cut Flowers

19.     Greenhouse Farming

            19.1. Introduction 

            19.2. The various greenhouse kinds

            19.3. Advantages

            19.4. Types

                     19.4.1. Greenhouse Conventional Freestanding

                     19.4.2. Hoop House/High Tunnel

                     19.4.3. Greenhouse Lean-to or Attached

                     19.4.4. Cold Frames/Cold House

            19.5. Advantages of Greenhouse Agriculture

            19.6. Plants That Can Grow in a Greenhouse

                     19.6.1. Sweet Corn

                     19.6.2. Cucumbers

                     19.6.3. Baby Carrots

                     19.6.4. Pumpkins          

                     19.6.5. Spinach              

                     19.6.6. Tomatoes            

                     19.6.7. Herbs  

                     19.6.8. Garlic 

                     19.6.9. String beans      

                     19.6.10. Squash             

20.     Greenhouses Construction

            20.1. Earthmoving and Level Surface

            20.2. Set Out and Preparation of the Foundation

            20.3. Reception of Materials. Preassembly at Work   

            20.4. Assembly of the Greenhouse  

21.     How to Start a Hydroponic Farm Business

            21.1.         Step 1: Create a Business Plan

                      21.1.1. What recurring costs are there for a hydroponic agricultural operation?

                      21.1.2. Who is the intended audience?

                      21.1.3. How can a hydroponic farm operation generate revenue?

                      21.1.4. How much can charge customers?

                      21.1.5. How much money can a hydroponic farm operation bring in?

                      21.1.6. How can increase the profitability of company?

                      21.1.7. What will the name of company be?

            21.2. Step 2: Form a Legal Entity

            21.3.         Step 3: Register for Taxes

                      21.3.1. Taxes for small businesses

            21.4. Step 4: Open a Business Bank Account & Credit Card

            21.5. Step 5: Set Up Business Accounting

            21.6. Step 6: Obtain Necessary Permits and Licenses

                      21.6.1. Requirements for Federal Business Licenses

                      21.6.2. Requirements for State and Local Business Licensing

                      21.6.3. The Occupancy Permit

                      21.6.4. Food Regulations

            21.7. Step 7: Get Business Insurance

            21.8. Step 8: Define Brand  

                      21.8.1. How to market and advertise a hydroponic farm operation

                      21.8.2. How to get new clients?

            21.9. Step 9: Create Business Website

            21.10. Step 10: Set Up Business Phone System

22.     Hydroponic Farming

            22.1. Benefits

            22.2. Similarity with Greenhouse Gardening

            22.3. Advantages

            22.4. Types

                     22.4.1. Aerated Nutrient Standing Solution

                     22.4.2. Outer Structure

                     22.4.3. Growing Method

                     22.4.4. System for Regulating Irrigation and Temperature

                     22.4.5. Hydroponic Equipment Installation

                     22.4.6. Provide Instruction for Mastering the Hydroponic Technique

            22.5. A Hydroponics System: How Does It Operate?

                     22.5.1. Soilless Gardening

                     22.5.2. Components

                     22.5.3. Rich Nutrients

                     22.5.4. Freshwater

                     22.5.5. Light

                     22.5.6. Oxygen

                     22.5.7. Root Support

                     22.5.8. Future Scope of This Technology

23.     Hydroponic Farming Equipments

            23.1. Water Pumps

            23.2. Air Pumps and Air Stones for Hydroponics Systems

            23.3. Water Heaters and Chillers     

            23.4. Hydroponic Reservoirs, Trays and Flood Tables

            23.5. Reservoir Considerations

            23.6. Reservoir Use in Various Hydroponic Systems

            23.7. Ebb and Flow (Flood and Drain)

            23.8. Hydroponic Lighting System Basics

            23.9. Grow Room Ventilation

            23.10. Climate Control

            23.11. Indoor Grow Tents  

            23.12. Additional Components

24.     Pellet Fertilizer Manufacturing Process

            24.1. Mineral–Organic Addition

            24.2. Mixing           

            24.3. Pelleting

            24.4. Cooling

            24.5. Sifting

            24.6. Bagging

25.     Seaweed Fertiliser

            25.1. Nomenclature and Taxonomy

            25.2. Production and Application Methods 

            25.3. Nutrient Cycling         

            25.4. Coastal Eutrophication

            25.5. Bio-Remediation in Eutrophic Ecosystems

            25.6. Blue Carbon 

            25.7. Functions and Benefits of Seaweed Fertilizer    

                     25.7.1. Fertilization

                     25.7.2. Soil Conditioning

                     25.7.3. Bio-Remediation of Polluted Soils 

                     25.7.4. Integrated Pest Management

                     25.7.5. Soil Microbial Response to Seaweed Fertilizer Treatment           

                     25.7.6. Resistance to Plant Pathogens

26.     Seaweed Fertilizer Production Process

            26.1. Seaweed Extract as Fertiliser  

            26.2. Sesweed Fertilizer Fermentation Vessel

            26.3. Principle of Fermentation Equipment 

            26.4. Ingredients of Seaweed Fertilizer

            26.5. Uses

            26.6. Process

            26.7. Features

            26.8. Advantages of Seaweed Processing Plant

            26.9. The way heat pump drying equipment operates

27.     BIS Specifications

28.     ISO Standards

29.     China Standards

30.     Photographs of Plant and Machinery with Suppliers Contact Details

·         Biofertilizer Packing Filling Machine

·         Biofertilizer Fermenter

·         Bioreactor Machine

·         Bio Fertilizer Packaging Machine

·         Liquid Bio Fertilizer Plant

·         Waste Shredder

·         Organic Waste Converter

·         HP Steam Sterilizer Horizontal Autoclave

·         Fertilizer Cleaner

·         Fertilizer Pan Mixer

·         Fertilizer Granule Making Machine

·         Biofertilizer Granulator

·         Blender Machine

·         Pulverizer Mills

·         Pesticide Making Machine

·         Pellet Making Machine

·         Fluid Bed Gasifier for Thermal & Electrical

·         Compost Machine

·         Bucket Elevator

·         Steel Jacketed Tank

·         Storage Tank          

·         Ultra Filtration System

·         Water Soften Plant

·         Tray Dryer

·         Ribbon Mixer         

·         Air Compressor                    

31.     Factory Layout and Process Flow Chart & Diagram

·         Biofertilizer Production Layout       

·         Biofertilizer Production Layout       

·         Organic Fertilizer Plant      

·         Biofertilizer Production Layout       

·         Organic Fertilizer Production          

·         Process of Production of Bio-Fertilizer

·         Experimental Process for Biofertilizer

·         Biofertilizer Quality Control




NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR