The Complete Technology Book on Vermiculture and Vermicompost (Earthworm) with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details & Plant Layout_2nd Edition ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. Himadri Panda ISBN 9788195370146
Code ENI116 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1275   1275 US$ 34   34
Pages: 368 Published 2022
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days


The Complete Technology Book on

Vermiculture and Vermicompost (Earthworm)

with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details & Plant Layout

Advantage of vermicomposting is that it composts the wastes of rural areas. They clean our villages by using unnecessary organic and non-organic materials. Improves the texture of the soil and its ability to store water. Improves root growth and the multiplication of beneficial soil microorganisms by providing optimum aeration to the soil.

Vermicompost (vermi-compost) is a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast created by the decomposition process using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms. This is known as vermicomposting, and the practise of raising worms for this purpose is known as vermiculture. Sewage treatment can also be done with vermicomposting.

The Global Vermicompost Market is reach growing at a CAGR of 16.74%. The Growth of the global vermicompost market is caused by various factors, such as improved soil aeration, improved water holding capacity, better nutrient cycle, and enriched soil with micro-organism, helps in plant root growth and structure, enhanced germination. The vermicomposting method is used in organic farming. Increasing the use of sustainable agricultural practices, such as vermicomposting along with Government support for organic farming is significantly contributing to the global vermicompost market growth. Vermicompost offers plants with necessary nutrients and helps in plant diseases suppression. Worm castings often comprise 7 times more phosphorus, 11 times more potassium, and 5 times more nitrogen than ordinary soil, which are crucial minerals required for plant growth.

Vermiculture and Vermicompost (Earthworm), as well as their manufacturing methods, are all covered in depth in this book. It also offers photos of equipment as well as contact information for industrial providers.

This book is a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about the Vermiculture and Vermicompost (Earthworm) industry, which is ripe for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only book that goes into great detail about Vermiculture and Vermicompost. It's a genuine feast of how-to material, from concept to equipment buying.




       Advantages of Vermicomposting                             

       Vermicomposting in Daily Life                                

       Vermiculture v/s Vermicomposting                        

       Vermitechnology (VT)                                              

       Progress of Worm Industry                                     

       Turning Garbage into Money                                  

       Chemical Composition of the Vermicompost          

       Vermicomposting at Home                                      

       Vermicomposting on the Farm                                

       The Business of Worms                                          

       Interaction of Vermicompost-Earthworm-Mulch-Plantroot (Vemp)        

       Earthworm Farming is not Hard


2. earthworms : Ecological Types

       Trophic Classification of Earthworms                    


       Physical Effects of Earthworms on Soils                 

       Chemical Effects of Earthworms on Soils               

       The Effect of absence of Earthworms in Soils




       Economic Importance

       Pheretima Poshuma                                                

       The Body Wall                                                         


       The Coelom                                                             

       The Digestive System                                              

       Food and Digestion                                                 


       Excretory Organs                                                    

       Physiology of Excretion                                           

       Chloragogen Cells                                                   

       Vascular System                                                     

       The Nervous System                                               

       Working of the Nervous System                              

       Receptor Organs                                                     

       Generative Organs                                                  


       Fertilization and Coccon Formation                       



4.   Earthworms : Life Cycle

       Life Cycle Studies

       Life Cycle Patterns                                                   

       Life cycle—Lampito mauritii                                      





       Life Cycle—Perionyx excavatus                                





       Doubling Time

       Biochemical Changes During Growth


5.   Earthworms: For Culture

       Worms for Vermiculture                                         

       Earthworm Breeding                                               


       Collecting local Earthworms


6.   Why Vermicomposting

       Fertilizers use and Deterioration of Soil Environment

       Testing the Impact of Vermicomposting                  

       Nitrogen and Humification in Vermicomposting    

       Vermicompost - a Quality Manure                          

       Recycling of Wastes through Vermi-Composting    

       Minimizing Pollution Hazard                                   

       Providing Growth Promoters                                   

       Vermicomposting : Advantages                               

       Black Gold (Worm Castings) from Worms              

       Adverse Effects on Crops                                        

       Economic Vibility


7.   Vermicompost High-Grade Fertilizer

       Crucial to Organic Agriculture

       Wide-spread use in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics

       Flexible Method

       Rapid Conversion

       What Exactly is Vermicompost?


       Conversion Processes

       Plant Nutritionists - Ncouragement of Soil Fertility

       Soil Conditioning and Plant Strengthening Effect

       Minimisation of Solid Waste with Low Toxicity and Containing Heavy Metals

       Which Species of Earthworms?

       Eisenia Fetida - Hard Workers

       Transformation of the Organic Material:


       Under Perfect Conditions

       Further Uses


       Source Material for the Fodder

       Nutritional Balance in Feed

       Feeding Process

       Various Worm Composting Methods

       Size of the Worm Compost Heap


       Construction of a Worm Farm

       Harvesting the Vermicompost

       Storage of Vermicompost

       Spreading the Vermicompost

       The Liquid Variety: Vermiwash

       A Method to Prepare Vermiwash

       Application of Vermiwash


       Great Potential for Large and Small Organic Farms alike


8.   Vermiculture and Vermitech

      How to Start Vermiculture                                       

      Preparation of Vermibeds                                        

      Setting Up of a Vermiwash Unit                              

      An Enterprise                                                          

      Economics of Vermitech (In Indian Rupees)                

      Construction and Maintenance of a Twin Unit System Marketing



      Animal Dung                                                             

      Agricultural Waste                                                    

      Forestry Wastes                                                        

      City leaf Litter                                                           

      Waste Paper and Cotton Cloth etc.                            

      City Refuge                                                               

      Biogas Slurry                                                            

      Industrial Wastes                                                      

      Feeding Vermicomposting Materials                       

      What should not be Fed to Earthworms?                   

      How much Earthworm Eat                                        

      How to Feed Earthworm?                                          

      Vermicomposting : Types                                         

      Small Scale or Indoor Vermicomposting                     

      Large Scale or Outdoor Vermicomposting                   

      In-situ Culturing of Earthworms                                 

      Simple Promotion of Vermic Activity in Fields             

      Development of Eathworms in Gardens and Orchards Large Scale

      Commercialized Vermicomposting in Open Heaps

      Vermicomposting : Requirements                               

      Environmental Requirements                                     

      Air (Aeration)                                                             

      Moisture Content                                                       


      How to Construct a Worm Bin                                 

      Bedding Materials                                                     

      Other Requirements                                                


      Containers : Types                                                    

      Small Barrel or Drum Composter                               

      Large Barrel or Drum Composter                               

      Three-chambered Bin                                                

      Making of three-chambered bin                                 

      Bedding Material                                                       

      Ideal Conditions for Life of Earthworms

      Food for Worms                                                        

      Adding Food Waste                                                   

      Proper Ingredient Mixture                                          



      Particle Size                                                              

      Fertilizer and Lime                                                    


      Other Factor Affecting Earthworm’s Growth           

      Eathworm and Insects                                              

      Tilling and Earthworm Population                             

      Earthworm and come Drounding                               

      Maintaining the Bin                                                

      Harvesting the Compost and Worms                       

      General Problems in Production of Vermicomposting Remember


10. Experiments from the field

      Earthworms: Their Effect on Plant Growth             

      Growing Vegetables                                                  

      Are Earthworms Alone?                                           

      Effect on Soil Quality                                                

      Soil Loss                                                                   

      Adverse Effects on Crops                                         

      Impact of Chemicals on Earthworms                      

      Impact of Heavy Metals                                            

      Earthworms in Food Chains                                    

      Earthworm Parasites


11. Earthworms : Their Application in

      Organic Agriculture

      Organic Method Under Rainfed Conditions            

       I. Cultivation of Groundnut (per acre) (All costs in Indian ruppes)  

      Cost of Field Preparation                                         

      Net Profit From Both Types of Cultivation (Per Acre)                               

      II. Cultivation of Brinjal (Per Acre)                          

      Net Profits from both Types of Cultivation (Per Acre)                              

      III. Cultivation of Okra (Per Acre)                             

      Net Profit from Cultivation                                       

       IV. Cultivation of Paddy                                            

       V. Cultivation of Sugarcane


12. Ways to Make Compost

      Selection of Suitable Species                                   

      Epiges (Eisenia Foetida)                                            

      Endoges (Eudrilus Eugeniae)                                    


      Basic Characteristics of Suitable Species                   

      Composting Material : Preliminary Treatment        

      Vermicomposting Schemes                                      

      Maintenance of Vermicomposting Beds                      

       Scheme One                                                             

       Scheme Two                                                             

       Scheme Three                                                           

       Scheme Four                                                            

       Scheme Five                                                             

       Scheme Six                                                               

      Harvesting the Worms and Compost                       

      Using Worm Compost                                              

      Vermicomposting Efficiency                                       

      Transportation of Live Worms                                   

      Vermicompost : Applications                                   

      Flower or Garden pots                                              

      In Horticulture                                                           

      In Agriculture                                                            

      Vermicomposts : Characterization                          


      Problems in Using Vermiwash                                   

      Earthworm Paste                                                      

      Vermicomposting : General Procedure at Home      

      Vermicomposting : General Procedures at Agricultural Farms               

      Vermicomposting : Kiss Plan                                   

      Advantages of KISS Plan                                          

       Step 1: Windrow Preparation                                    

      Important Considerations                                          

       Step 2: Extending the Windrow                                 

       Step 3: Making Quality Castings                               

       Step 4: Moisture and Irrigation                                  

       Step 5: Windrow Cover                                             

       Step 6: Harvesting                                                    

      Earthworms Predators and Parasites                     

      Mite pests in Earthworm Beds                                   

      White or Brown Mites                                                

      Red Mites                                                                  

      Mite Prevention                                                          

      Removal of Mite                                                        

      Parasites and pathogens


13. Earthworms : End Uses and Potential

      Earthworms in Medicine                                         

      Earthworms as Feed                                                

      Economic Potential                                                    

      Legal Constraints                                                      



14. Methods of Earthworms


      Sampling Methods                                                   

      Hand Sorting                                                           




      Washing and Sieving                                               




      Use of Chemical Repellants                                     




      Electrical Methods                                                   




      Trapping Methods                                                    



      Other Method                                                           


      Heat Extraction                                                        

      Number of Casts                                                       

      Measurement of Earthworm Biomass                     

      Storage and Identification                                       



15. Vermicomposting: A world Scenario

      Grace McKellar Centre, Geelong, Victoria, Australia   

      Hobart City Council, Tasmania, Australia                  

      National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States

      Newcastle City Council, New South Wales, Australia

      Oregon Soil Corporation, Beaverton, Oregon, United States

      Pacific Southwest Farms, Ontairo, California, United States           

      Resource Conversion Corporation/Canyon Recycling, San Diego, California, U.S.  

      Rideau Regional Hospital, Perth, Ontario, Canada     

      San Quentin Prison, California                                  

      Seattle Kingdome Stadium, Seattle, Washington, United States

      Sovadec, La Voulte, France                                       

      Vermiculture Production Center, Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba

      Vermicycle Organics, Inc., Charlotte, North     Carolina, United States


      Green Cross Society of Mumbai, India                       

      Indian Aluminum Co. Ltd, Belgaum, India                 

      M.R. Morarka - GDC Rural Research Foundation, Jaipur


      In sustainable Agriculture                                      

      Organic Farming                                                      

      Earthworms Activities                                             

      Soil Fertility and Texture                                         

      Soil Aeration                                                            

      Water Impercolation                                                

      Decomposition and Moisture


17. Monitoring Worm Bed Environment

       Moisture Control

       Keeping Beds Warm during Winter


       Earthworm Predators or Annoyances

           • Flies

           • Mites

          White or Brown Mites

          Red Mites

           • Hammerhead Worms

           • Centipedes

           • Ants

           • Black Soldier Fly Larvae

       Troubleshooting Worm Bed Conditions


       Bedding Too Dry

       Red Mite Infestation

       Deformed Worms                                                                         




      In Other Coutries                                                     

      In India                                                                    


19. Advantages of vermiculture

      Production of Cheap Animal Protein

      Vermi Cast                                                               

      Soil and Vermi Cast                                                 

      Earthworm Inoculation in Soil                                

      Decomposition of Bio-Degradeable Wastes and VermiComposting         

      Vermiculture in Pollution Abatement


20. Vermiculture

      General and Planning

      Selection of Suitable Species                                   

      Basic Characteristics of Suitable Species              

      Description of Suitable Species                               

      Family : Lumbricidae                                               

                1.Bimastos parvus (= Allolobophora (Bimastos) parvus Eisen)         

                2.Eisenia foetida (Sav.)                                    

      Family : Eudrilidae                                                  

                1.Eudrilus Eugeniae (Kinb.)                             

      Family : Megascolecidae                                          

                1.Lamptio mauritii (Kinb.)                                 

                2. Metaphire anomala Mich. (= Pheretima  Anomala)

                3. Metaphire Posthuma (= Pheretima posthuma)                                          

                4. Perionyx Excavatus E. Perr.                        

                5. Perionyx sansbaricus Michaelson                

      Family: Octochaetidae                                             

                1. Octochaetus (Octochaetoides) Surnensis Mich.                                         

                2. Ramiella Bishambari (Steph.)                      

       Sub-family : Diplocardinae                                     

                1. Dichogaster Bolaui (Mich.)                           

                2. Dichogaster Affinis (Mich.)                           

                3. Dichogaster Curgensis (Micha.)                    

                4. Dichogaster Saliens (Bedd.)                         

                5. Ramiella Bishambari (Steph.)                      

                6. Erythodraeodrilus Suctorius (Steph.)            

                7. Ocnerodrilus (Ocnerodrilus) Occidentails (Eisen.)            

                Family : Moniligastridae                                  

                1. Moniligaster Perrieri (Mich.)                          

                2. Drawida Willisi (Mich.)                                 

      Maintenance of Base Culture




      Advantages of Vermicomposting                              

      Vermicomposting Materials                                     

      Preliminary Treatment of Composting Material      

      Small Scale or Indoor Vermicomposting                  

      Large Scale or Outdoor Vermicomposting               

      Other Types of Vemi-Composting                            

      Requirement for Vermicomposting                          

      Feed for Earthworms                                               

      Vermicomposting Schemes                                      

      Maintenance of Vermicomposting Beds                  

      Vermicomposting Efficiency                                     

      Collection of Vermicompost                                     

      Transportation of Live Worms                                 

      Marketing Outlets


22. Granulation of Vermicompost





       Impact of Using Vermiwash as the Binding Media

       Vermicompost Fertilizer Granule Machine


       Types of Granulator Machines

         Disc Fertilizer Granulator

         Double Roller Extrusion Granulator

         Organic Fertilizer Granulator

         New Type Organic Fertilizer Granulator

         Rotary Drum Granulator

         Cat Litter Disc Fertilizer Granulator


23. BIS Specifications


24.Photographs of Machinery with

      Suppliers Contact Details

       Vermi Compost Tank

       Sprayer Pump

       Rotary Drum Dryers

       Vermi Compost Maker

       Vermicompost Seiving Machine

       Leaf Waste Shredder Machine

       Packing Machine

       Waste Fully Automatic Compost Machine

       Rotary Twin Drum Composter

       Fertilizer Granule Machine

       Waste Compost Tumbler

       Waste Compost Machine

       Fertilizer Drum Granulator Machine

       Fertilizer Granulator Machine


25. Plant Layout & Process  Flow Chart





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Ø  Introduction

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·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

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Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


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  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR