Plant spices grown in tropical countries on small scale family farms of commercial farms, to provide foods for human or live stock, in dry or humid regions are highly abundant and taxonomically diversified. Vegetables comprise of a large number of plants, mostly annual, of which different parts like leaf, steam, flowers, fruit, root etc. are eaten. They are rich in nutrients and are essential items of a balanced diet. Vegetables are called protective food as their consumption can prevent several diseases. Many vegetables are important items of commerce and thus can play a major role in the economic development. Generally classification of horticulture plants are based on nature of growth climatic requirement continuation of growth types of fruit parts used botanical relationship, salinity tolerance, ripening behaviour , botanical relationship, hardness or temperature tolerance, cool season vegtables, warm season vegetables, parts used as food, methods of raising, etc. Medicinal and aromatic plants are important for human health. These plants have been used from the prehistoric times to present day. These plants based medicines are consumed in all civilizations. It is believed that the herbal medicine can give good effect to body without causing side effects to human life. Besides, the usage of medical plants has been increasing as an important role that can support the economic system. The medical and aromatic plants for health are used as herbal treatments and therapies that can be new habits for culture. Medicinal and aromatic plants constitute a large segment of the flora, which provide raw materials for use by various industries. They have been used in the country for a long time for their medicinal properties. The decision to cultivate medicinal herbs should only be made in response to demand for particular herbs. The market is very competitive and could easily be oversupplied. This book majorly deals with classification of horticultural plants, classification of flowers, classification of spices, soil and climatic requirements of horticultural plants, beet root, bottle gourd, harvesting and post harvest management, poly house vegetable production in temperate regions, vegetables growing in containers, tea, performance of plants from cutting, vegetative propagation, rubber, biofertilizers in vegetable cultivation, postharvest management of tropical tuber crops, etc.This is an informative resource of the cultivation, irrigation, manuring, fertilization, harvesting and post harvest management of tropical, subtropical, vegetables, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants. This book is useful for entrepreneurs, ayurvedic institutes, libraries and consultants.
VEGETABLE CROPS1. CLASSIFICATION OF HORTICULTURAL PLANTS Plant Kingdom Classification of Fruits Based on Nature of Growth Based on Climatic Requirement Based on Continuation of Growth Based on Types of Fruit Based on Parts Used Based on Botanical Relationship Based on Salinity Tolerance Based on Ripening Behaviour Based on Ethylene Evolution Based on Bearing Behaviour Classification of Vegetables Based on Botanical Relationship Based on Hardness or Temperature Tolerance Cool Season Vegetables Warm Season Vegetables Based on Tolerance to Soil Acidity Based on Tolerance to Salt Based on Parts Used as Food Based on Methods of Raising Based on Forcing Based on Rate of Respiration Classification of Flowers Based on Season of Growing Based on Colour of Flower Based on Purpose of Growing Based on Nature of Growth Based on Mode of Propagation Based on Growth Behaviour Classification of Spices Based on Completion of Life Cycle Based on Growth Behaviour Based on Importance Based on Part Used Based on Utility Based on Cultural Management Based on Botanical Relationship Classification of Plantatoin Crops Based on Botanical Relationship Based on Growth Behaviour Based on Utility Based on Extent of Growing Based on Intensity of Cultivation 2. SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS OF HORTICULTURAL PLANTS Soil Alluvial Soils Tarai Soils Arid Soils Black Soils Red Soils Laterite Soils Marshy Soils Climate Temperate Climate Tropical Climate Sub-Tropical Climate Different Types of Horticulturally Potential Zones of the Country Temperate Zone North-Western Sub-Tropical Zone North-Eastern Sub-Tropical Zone Central Tropical Zone Southern Tropical Zone Coastal/Tropical Zone Influence of Climatic Factors On the Growth of Plants Temperature Humidity Wind Rainfall Solar Radiation 3. VARIETAL WEALTH OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS Fruits Vegetables Flowers Plantation Crops Seed Spices 4. AGATHI Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Yield 5. AMARANTH Climte and Soil Varieties Badi Chaulai Chhoti Chaulai Pusa Kiran Pusa Lal Chaulai Pusa Kirti Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Interculture Seed Production Harvesting and Postharvest Management 6. ASH GOURD Climate and Soil Varieties Apau Shakthi Cultivation Irrigation Crop Regulation Manuring and Fertilization Harvesting and Postharvest Management 7. BEET ROOT Climate and Soil Varieties Detroit Dark Red Crimson Globe Propagation and Rootstock Cultivation Planting Training and Pruning Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 8. BITTER GOURD Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Irrigation Manuring and Fertilization Intercultural Operations Harvesting and Postharvest Management 9. BOTTLE GOURD Climate and Soil Varieties Arka Bahar Kalyanpur Hari Lambi Punjab Komal Punjab Long Punjab Round Pusa Manjari Pusa Meghdut Pusa Naveen Pusa Summer Prolific Long Pusa Summer Prolific Round Rajendera Chamatkar Cultivation Field Preparation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Training Interculture Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 10. BRINJAL Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Interculture Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 11. BROCCOLI Climate and Soil Varieties Palam Samridhi Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Interculture Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 12. BRUSSELS SPROUT Climate and Soil Varieties Jade Cross Hilds Ideal Rubine Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Interculture Harvesting and Postharvest Management 13. CABBAGE Climate and Soil Varieties Copenhagen Market Drumhead Savoy Golden Acre Pride of India Pusa Drumhead Pusa Mukta Red Cabbage September Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Interculture Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 14. CAPSICUM Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Planting Training and Pruning Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 15. CARROT Climate and Soil Varieties Tropical or Asiatic Types Temperate or European Types Cultivation Land Preparation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 16. CAULIFLOWER Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Raising of Nursery Transplanting Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders Riceyness Fuzziness Leafy Curds Blindness Buttoning Chlorosis Hollow Stem Browning (brown-rot or red-rot) Whiptail 17. CELERY Climate and Soil Varieties Fork Hook Emperor Standard Beared Wright Grove Giant Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Interculture Harvesting and Postharvest Management 18. CHILLI Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Raising Seedlings Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation and Interculture Weed Control Harvesting and Postharvest Management 19. COWPEA Climate and Soil Varieties Arka Garima Pusa Barsati Pusa Dofasali Pusa Komal Pusa Phalguni Pusa Rituraj Philippines Early Yard Long Bean Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Aftercare Harvesting and Postharvest Management 20. CUCUMBER Climate and Soil Varieties Himangi Japanese Long Green Poinsett Poona Khira Pusa Sanyog Sheetal Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 21. CURRY LEAF Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Propagation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Harvesting and Postharvest Management 22. DRUMSTICK Climate and Soil Varieties Chavakacheri Muringai Chemmurungai Jaffna Type Kattumurungai Kodikalmurungai Palmurungai Punamurungai Yazphanam Muringa Cultivation Sowing Crop Production Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Weeding Intercropping Harvesting and Postharvest Management 23. FRENCH BEAN Climate and Soil Varieties Arka Komal Bountiful Contender Jampa Kentucky Wonder Lakshmi Pant Anupma Premier Pusa Parvati Cultivation Sowing Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 24. GARLIC Climate amd Soil Varieties Propagation and Planting Material Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 25. KALE Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Interculture Harvesting and Postharvest Management 26. KNOL-KHOL Climate and Soil Varieties King of North Large Green Purple Vienna White Vienna Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 27. LABLAB BEAN Climate and Soil Varieties Pusa Early Prolific Cultivation Field Preparation Aftercare Harvesting and Postharvest Management 28. LETTUCE Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Propagation Planting Manuring Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorder 29. MUSKMELON Climate and Soil Varieties Arka Jeet Arka Rajhans Durgapura Madhu Hara Madhu Hisar Madhur Hisar Saras Punjab Hybrid Pusa Madhuras Pusa Rasraj Punjab Rasila Pusa Sharbati Punjab Sunehri Cultivation Sowing Land Preparation Manuring and Fertilization Hoeing and Weeding Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 30. OKRA Climate and Soil Varieties Arka Abhay Arka Anamika Azad Kranti Harbhajan Bhindi Hisar Unnat Parbhani Kranti Perkins Long Green Punjab Padmini Pusa Makhmali Pusa Sawani Red Bhindi Varsha Uphar Cultivation Sowing Training and Pruning Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 31. ONION Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Planting Transplanting Planting by Bulbs Direct Sowing Planting by Sets Manuring and Fertilization Cultural Operations Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 32. PALAK OR INDIAN SPINACH Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Planting Manuring Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 33. PARSLEY Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Interculture Harvesting and Postharvest Management 34. PEA Climate and Soil Varieties Arkel Bonneville Harbhajan Lincoln Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 35. POINTED GOURD Climate and Soil Varieties CHES Elite Line Chhota Hilli Dandali Hilli Shankolia Swarna Alaukik Swarna Rekha Propagation Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Training Interculture Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 36. PUMPKIN Climate and Soil Varieties Ambili Arka Chandan Pusa Vikas Pusa Vishwas Cultivation Sowing Land Preparation Interculture Irrigation Off-season Cultivation Seed Production Hybrid Seed Production Harvesting and Postharvest Management 37. RADISH Climate and Soil Varieties Asiatic or Tropical Arka Nishant Japanese White Jaunpuri Giant or Newari Kalyani White Nadauni Punjab Safed Pusa Chetki Pusa Desi Pusa Himani Pusa Reshmi European or Temperate Varieties Chinese Pink Rapid Red White Tipped Scarlet Globe White Icicle Cultivation Preparation of Land Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Interculture Irrigation Growth Regulators Seed Production Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 38. RIDGE GOURD Climate and Soil Varieties Pusa Nasdar Satputia Cultivation Sowing Interculture 39. ROUND MELON Climate and Soil Varieties Arka Tinda Tinda Ludhiana Tinda Tonk Tamil Nadu Selection Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Interculture Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 40. SNAKE GOURD Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Interculture Harvesting and Postharvest Management 41. SPINACH Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Propagation Planting Manuring Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 42. SPONGE GOURD Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Interculture Harvesting and Postharvest Management 43. TOMATO Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Raising seedlings Direct Seeding Planting Training and Pruning Aftercare Irrigation Seed Production Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 44. TURNIP Climage and Soil Varieties Early Milan Red Top Golden Ball Purple Top White Globe Pusa Chandrima Pusa Kanchan Pusa Swarnima Pusa Sweti Snow Ball Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Interculture Seed Production Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorder 45. WATERMELON Climage and Soil Varieties Arka Jyoti Arka Manik Asahi Yamato Durgapura Kesar Durgapura Meetha Improved Shipper New Hampshire Midget Pusa Bedana Sugar Baby Cultivation Pruning and Training Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Forcing Watermelons out of Season Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 46. POLYHOUSE VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN SUBTROPICS Selection of Sites Polyhouse Structures Frames and Cladding Material Environment Control Selection of Vegetables Nursery Raising Off-season Vegetables Production Aftercare 47. POLYHOUSE VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN TEMPERATE REGIONS Polyhouses Benefits Status Indian Polyhouses Plastic Low Tunnels Soil Trench Site Selection Polyhouse Structure Vegetable Production Nursery Raising Vegetable Production Seed Production Hydroponics and Micropropagated Vegetables Polyhouse Pests and Diseases Some Problems Prospects in India 48. VEGETABLES GROWING IN CONTAINERS Types of Containers Tools, Manures, Seeds, Fungicides and Insecticides Suitable Vegetables and their Varieties Cultivation Sowing/planting Aftercare Harvesting and Postharvest Management PROPAGATION OF PLANTATI ON CROPS49. TEA Seed Propagation Storage Germination Seed-Size Seed-Coat Treatment with Growth Substance Treatment with Fungicides Temperature Biochemical Changes during Germination Seedling Growth Seed Size Effect of Insecticides Irradiation Vegetative Propagation Cutting Type of Cutting Etiolation and Girdling Media Season Clonal Variations Effect of Growth Substances Stock Plant Oxygen Fungicide and Nematicide Type of Cutting and Growth Substances Type of Cutting and Media Type of Cutting and Season Type of Cutting, Media and Temperature Type of Cutting, Season and Growth Substances Type of Cutting, Media and Growth Substance Type of Cutting and Treatment with Nutrients Growth Substance, Media and Temperature Type of Cutting, Light, Humidity, Media and Growth Substance Storage of Cutting Other Treatments Root Cutting Performance of Plants from Cutting Layering Grafting Methods Budding Rootstock Effect on Growth and Yield Micropropagation 50. CACAO Seed Propagation Storage and Viability Germination Stage of Harvest Depth of Sowing Air Drying Size of Pod Position of Seed in Pod Temperature Media Sugar Endogenous Substances Seedling Survival and Growth Stage of Harvest of Seeds Container and Media Effect of Growth Substance and Antitranspirant Hybrids Age of Seedling at Transplanting Vegetative Propagation Cutting Stock Plant Type of Cutting Media Humidity Light Effect of Growth Substances Type of Shoot and Growth Substances Etiolation Growth Substance and Fungicides Type of Cutting and Growth Substance Media and Light Media and Growth Substance Type of cutting and Humidity Type of Cutting, Media and Humidity Type of Cutting, Growth Substance and Media Type of Cutting, Media, Humidity and Temperature Type of Cutting, Media, Light and Growth Substances Humidity, Temperature, Growth Substance and Light Clonal Variation Hardening of Cutting Layering Grafting Budding Methods Preparation of Budwood Top Working Rootstock Effect on Growth and Yield Incompatibility Effect of Different Methods of Propagation Micropropagation 51. COFFEE Seed Propagation Viability Germination Collection of Seed Moisture Content of Seed Effect of Cover Media Seed Treatment Seedling Growth Depth of Sowing Container Media Growth Substances, Fungicides and Nutrition Vegetative Propagation Root Sucker Cutting Type of Cutting Time of Taking Cutting Media Humidity Temperature Effect of Growth Substances Type of Cutting and Growth Substances Type of Cutting, Media and Temperature Type of Cutting, Media and Growth Substances Growth Substances and Media Media, Temperature and Humidity Root Cutting Leaf Cutting Layering Stooling Grafting Methods Type of Scion Season Effect of Leaves Growth of Grafted Plants Top Working Budding Storage of Budwood Rootstock Compatibility Growth and Adaptibility to Environment Nematode, Disease and Pest Resistdant Rootstock Micropropagation 52. RUBBER Seed Propagation Harvesting Viability Germination Seedling Growth Vegetative Propagation Cutting Type of Cutting Juvenility Ringing Effect of Light Effect of Growth Substances Effect of Fungicides Humidity and Temperature Type of Cutting and Growth Substances Grafting Methods Performance of Grafted and Budded Plants Budding Methods Selection of Budwood Age of Rootstock Budding Material Treatment Care of Budded Plants Performance of Budded Plants Top Working Rootstock Effect on Growth and Yield Resistant to Pests and Diseases Influence of Scion on Growth and Yield Micropropagation 53. OIL PALM Seed Propagation Storage and Viability Germination Effect of Media and Temperature Effect of Oxygen Effect of Irradiation Effect of Growth Substances Biochemical Changes Seedling Growth Storage of Clone Vegetative Propagation Micropropagation 54. ARECANUT Seed Propagation Selection of Seed Nuts and Viability Germination Raising of Seedling Selection of Seedlings Vegetative Propagation Layering SPICES55. BETELVINE Climate and Soil Varieties Propagation Cultivation Construction of Bareja or Boroj Raising of Support Plant in Open Cultivation Land Preparation Soil Treatment Planting Training/pruning Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 56. BLACK PEPPER Climate and Soil Varieties Propagation Cultivation Planting Training/pruning Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 57. CARDAMOM (SMALL) Climate and Soil Varieties Propagation Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 58. CARDAMOM (LARGE) Climate and Soil Varieties Bebo Bharlangey Golsey Ramla Ramsey Sawney Propagation Primary Nursery Secondary Nursery Cultivation Planting Aftercare Irrigation Shade Regulation Roguing and Gap-filling Manuring and Fertilization Harvesting and Postharvest Management 59. CINNAMON Climate and Soil Varieties Propagation Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 60. CLOVE Climate and Soil Propagation Cultivation Planting Manuring and Aftercare Irrigation Postharvest Management 61. CORIANDER Climate and Soil Varieties Sindhu Sadhna Swathi Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Weed Control Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorders 62. CUMIN Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Weed Control Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 63. FENNEL Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Weed control Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management Physiological Disorder 64. FENUGREEK Climate and Soil Varieties Rajendra Kanti Hissar Sonali Cultivation Sowing Manuring and Fertilization Weed Control Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 65. GINGER Climate and Soil Varieties Cultivation Planting Manuring and Fertilization Weeding and Mulching Rotation and Intercropping of Ginger Harvesting and Postharvest Management 66. NUTMEG Climate and Soil Varieties Propagation and Rootstock Cultivation Nursery Planting Aftercare Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Management 67. TAMARIND Climate and Soil Varieties Urigam Cultivation Propagation Planting Aftercare Harvesting and Postharvest Management 68. TURMERIC Climate and Soil Varieties Propagation Cultivation Manuring and Fertilization Aftercare Intercropping Irrigation Harvesting and Postharvest Technology MEDICINAL PLANTS69. ASGAND 70. DILL 71. GUGGAL 72. HENBANE 73. ISABGOL 74. KHASI KATERI 75. LIQUORICE 76. OPIUM POPPY 77. PERIWINKLE 78. PIPALI 79. RAUVOLFIA 80. SENNA AROMATIC PLANTS81. AMBRETTE SEED OR MUSKDANA 82. CELERY 83. CHAMOMILE 84. DAVANA 85. FRENCH JASMINE 86. INDIAN BASIL 87. JAVA CITRONELLA 88. KEWADA 89. LEMON GRASS 90. MINT Peppermint Spearmint Bergamot Mint 91. PALMAROSA OIL GRASS 92. PATCHOULI 93. ROSE GERANIUM 94. SCENTED ROSE 95. VETIVER 96. BIOFERTILIZERS Nitrogen Fixing Biofertilizers Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Asymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Azotobacter Phosphate Solubilizing Biofertilizers Mycorrhizal Fungi Actinorhizal Plants Biofertilizers in Vegetable Cultivation Seed Treatment Cutting/Set Treatment Seedling Treatment 97. MANAGEMENT OF DISEASES Disease Management Escape From Pathogen Preventing Entry of Inoculum Eradication Protection Reaction of Host Crop Prophylactic Measures (Therapeutics) Biological Control Chemical Control 98. POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF POTATO Harvesting Postharvest Management Drying, Curing and Grading Dormancy Postharvest Losses Physiological Losses Pathogenic Losses Refrigerated Storage Non-refrigerated Storage Traditional Storage Processing 99. POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL TUBER CROPS Cassava Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization Processing Toxic Principles Sweet Potato Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization Processing Anti-nutritional Factors Elephant-Foot Yam Harvesting and Handling Utilization Anti-nutritional Factors Taro Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization Anti-Nutritional Factors Tannia Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization Anti-Nutritional Factors Lesser Yam Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization Greater Yam Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization White Yam Harvestinig and Handling Storage Utilization Arrow-Root Harvesting and Handling Utilization Chinese Potato Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization Yam Bean Harvesting and Handling Storage Utilization Winged Bean Harvesting and Handling Winged Bean Storage Utilization 100. POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF MUSHROOMS Postharvest Technologies Handling Fresh Mushrooms Harvesting Pre-Cooling Sorting Dipping/Treatments Packaging Transportation Storage Processing Low Temperature High Temperature Drying Chemicals Pickling and Lactic Acid Fermentation Irradiation Minimal Processing Other Products Future Thrust and Export 101.Tools and Equipments used in Horticulture
Broccoli (Braasica oleracea var. italica) is of 2 types-heading and purple or green sprouting. Sprouting broccoli is more popular in India. Heading broccoli forms curds like cauliflower, while sprouting broccoli contains a group of green, immature buds and thick fleshy flower stalk forming a head. In India, its cultivation is negligible but now it is becoming increasingly popular in hotels in Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi and Chennai. It is mostly cultivated in the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Nilgiri hills and northern plains of India.
It is a cool season crop resistant to mild frost. The temperature of 20Â°-25Â°C is optimum for its proper growth, while 15Â°-20Â°C for heading stage. The heads become loose with rise in temperature.
Broccoli can be grown in a wide variety of soils but deep loamy soil is best-suited. Soil should be well-drained and sufficiently fertilized. Broccoli requires moist soil for fast and proper growth. The shoots become more fibrous under dry soil. The pH of 5.0-6.5 is optimum.
There is more demand for green sprouting broccoli having green, firm and compact crown heads. The side shoots or heads are less preferred in the Indian market. They are grouped into early, mid and late types. Important varieties are :
This is a high-yielding variety. Its large terminal head weighs about 300-300 g each.
It is a medium-tall (65-70 cm) variety. Foliage is waxy and dark green with slightly wavy margins. Heads are solid green with small beads slightly raised at the centre. The main head size and weight are about 6.0-15.3 cm and 350-350 g respectively. It matures in 90-105 days after transplanting under temperate climate, while 5-10 days earlier in the tropical plains.
The field is prepared like that of Brussels sprout. Generally small-sized plots or beds of 3m x 3m size are prepared for transplanting the seedlings.
Sprouting broccoli is mainly raised from seeds. However, vegetative propagation by cuttings and tissue culture are also practised. Its seedlings are raised in nursery beds just like other cole crops. About 300-500 g seed is sufficient to raise seedlings for a hectare. Mid-September-early-November is sowing time in plains. Generally it is sown during September-October in lower hills. About 3-6 weeks old seedlings are transplanted. The planting of over mature seedlings should be avoided. Seedlings are transplanted 35 cm apart within and between the rows. In very rich soils, spacing can be reduced to 35cm x 30cm to avoid stem hollowness due to rapid plant growth. At a wider spacing, plants produce more laterals. The closer spacing is preferred for mechanical harvesting of the central head. However, closer spacing delays maturity.
Use of optimum doses of fertilizers is important for its proper growth since both rapid and slow growth are undesirable. The bud clusters become loose and hollow-stem results from rapid growth, however slow growth affect yield adversely.
Generally, application of 15-20 tonnes of farmyard manure, 60-80kg N/ha and l00kg/ha each of P and K are recommended. The doses differ from place-to-place depending upon the fertility status of the soil. The full dose of P, K and half of N are applied at the time of preparation of land. The remaining dose of N should be topdressed in 2 equal split doses. The first is applied 3-5 weeks after transplanting, whereas second before head formation. A high yield of side shoots can be obtained by liberal use of N after harvesting central bud cluster.
Micronutrient requirement of broccoli is fairly high. Molybdenum and Boron may be supplied by soil application or foliar sprays.
Broccoli needs sufficient moisture in the soil for uniform and continuous growth of plants. Therefore, frequent irrigation at 10-15 days are given depending upon weather conditions. The dry conditions adversely affect the quality and yield of shoots by being more fibrous. On the other hand waterlogging condition depresses plant growth. Generally furrow system of irrigation is practised.
The crop should be kept weed-free. Hoeing is done for breaking the surface crust to facilitate better aeration and water absorption. Since it is a shallow-rooted crop, hoeing should not be done beyond the depth of 5-6 cm close to the plant to avoid injuries to the roots. A light earthing-up at final hoeing is beneficial. Pre-planting sprays of 2 kg/ha of Basalin followed by 1 or 2 hoeings help control weeds effectively.
The heads having 10-15cm stems should be harvested with a sharp knife when its bud clusters are green and compact. If harvesting is delayed the bud clusters become loose. The central bud cluster or head matures first. The growth of lateral shoots is promoted in the leaf axils. These sprouts may attain a diameter of 3-10 cm and the harvesting is prolonged for several weeks. The closer planting is adopted for economical and single harvest of the central bud clusters. Generally harvesting continues for 3-6 weeks. Central head weighs about 500-600 g. On an average, its yield varies from 100-150q/ha. However, Pusa KTS 1 provides 100-150 and 60q/ha in hills and plains respectively.
After harvesting, its heads should be immediately sorted, graded, packed in baskets and sent to markets. A high rate of respiration results in deterioration of its quality. They should be cooled at 3.3Â°C and then packed with ice in crates and stored in refrigerators. They can be stored well for 7-10 days at 3Â°C. Broccoli can also be preserved in glass jars after lactic acid fermentation.
Deficiency of molybdenum causes whip-tail in which the lamina of the newly-formed leaves become leathery, irregular and consisting of only mid-rib. This can be prevented by soil application of 1-1.5kg of molybdenum before planting. Foliar application of 0.0-1% solution of ammonium molybdate helps control this disorder.
Browning of heads results due to B deficiency. First water-soaked areas appear on bud clusters which turn pinkish or rusty-brown in advanced stages, resulting in rotting. This can be prevented by soil application of 20kg/ha of borax or sodium borate. Foliar spraying of 0.25-0.5% solution of borax is more effective, especially when the deficiency is acute. The affected portion does not fully recover but helps in appearance of new, healthy bud clusters.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a very common cool season salad crop. Its leaves are rich in vitamin A (900iu), C (l0mg), choline (178mg) and minerals-calcium (50mg) and phosphorus (28mg). If cooked, most of the vitamin C of leaves is lost.
Since lettuce is a cool season vegetable, it performs well under subtropical and temperate (13Â°-16Â°C) conditions. Both lower and higher temperatures affect its seed germination. High temperature induces bolting also. Increased CO2, enrichment (l,000-l,500ppm) under glasshouse conditions results in high yield.
Well-drained, sandy loam soil, rich in organic matter is best-suited for its cultivation. It is highly sensitive to acidic soils. Neutral soils or slightly acidic (pH 6.0-6.5) soils are suitable
Lettuce varieties are classified into various groups-crisp head (heading types with wrinkled non-wrapper leaves, brittle textured), butter head (with small, loose heads having oily soft textured leaves), Cos or Romainer (elongated leaves forming a loaf-shaped head), leaf or bunching (non-heading or leaf type, which produce a rosette of leaves) and stem type (produce thick stem, which are eaten after peeling). A number of varieties exist in each group. 'Great Lakes' (crisphead type), Chinese Yellow (leaf type) and Slow Bolt (leaf type) are varieties recommended for cultivation. Besides, private seed companies also supply seeds of a number of varieties suited to Indian conditions.
Lettuce is propagated by seed. About 300-500g seed/ha is enough. Seeds have a period of dormancy. Chilling treatments given to seed (by keeping seeds in moist sand or cloth at 3-6Â°C for 3-5 days) in refrigerator breaks its dormancy and improves germination.
Early-October-November is sowing time. The seedlings should be transplanted 5-6 weeks after sowing at 35 cm x 35 cm spacing in flat beds.
Application of 10-15 tonnes of farmyard manure and NPK@ 25:90:25kg/ha is recommended as basal dose. At the time of head formation or rosette formation, a dose of 25-30kg N/ha should be applied.
Hoeing, irrigation and weeding are important intercultural operations. First hoeing is done 2-3 weeks after planting.
Pre-sowing irrigation is required in nursery/seed-sown field. Similarly it requires a good irrigation after transplanting. A light irrigation is given 3-3 days after transplanting. Subsequently, weekly irrigation is sufficient. Lack of adequate soil moisture results in bolting of plants.
Heading types are harvested when heads are fully developed. It is better to avoid harvesting when there is rainfall or dew, because the turgid leaves become very crisp and break easily on handling. The produce is graded for removing the diseased and injured leaf/heads and is sent to the market. Its yield varies from 10-12 t/ha.
It can be stored for 3-3 weeks under refrigerated conditions. Pre- and postharvest applications of BA (5-10ppm) helps delay senescence in storage and improves the shelf-life.
Tip burn is a physiological disorder in lettuce. This results in burning or scorching of lateral margins of inner leaves of mature head. Unfavourable seasonal/climatic factors and calcium deficiency are the causes. By applying calcium chloride, this malady can be rectified.
In big towns and cities due to population pressure, there is hardly any space available in houses or multistorey buildings to grow any vegetable. In such situation, pots and containers can be used to raise a vegetable garden. This practice is known as container gardening.
Containers for raising vegetables can be cement pots, earthen pots and pans, wooden barrels, boxes and crates, plastic jars, cans and buckets, tin boxes, cans and drums of various sizes. These containers should have at least one hole of an adequate size at the bottom as in earthen pots, to drain out excess water. These containers can easily be placed on the terrace, window sills, window boxes, balcony and verandah where sunlight is available for the plants
Certain hand tools are the primary need of a gardener. A container garden needs essentially a khurpi, spade or shovel, watering can, small hand-sprayer, garden hose preferably with a sprinkler, bamboo stakes and string (sutli). Good soil, river sand, well-decomposed organic manure (compost or farmyard manure) and nitrogenous fertilizers (urea or ammonium sulphate), insecticides (Malathion or Endosulphan) and fungicide (Captaf) are important inputs.
Quality seed is most important requirement. The seeds can be purchased from the National Seeds Corporation (NSC), agricultural universities, research stations, block development centres and other reliable sources. If one is unable to raise their own seedlings, they may be arranged from reliable nurseries.
The container mixture should be prepared by mixing good soil, river-sand and well-rotten organic manure in equal quantities with the help of a khurpi or shovel. The mixture should be free from various soil-borne insects, termites, red ants and cut worms, which generally damage young seedlings. For precaution, add a small quantity of BHC (5%) or Aldrex dust to the mixture before filling it in the containers. After raising a crop for one season the container mixture should be removed and cleaned of roots and exposed to the sun for a few days. This soil could then be reused after mixing one-third the quantity of organic manure and a small quantity of BHC and Captaf.
All vegetables cannot be grown successfully in containers. Only specific varieties of selected vegetables perform well in containers. Such vegetables, their suitable varieties, sowing or planting time, period of maturity.
Most of the vegetables are raised by sowing their seeds directly in containers. The seedlings of brinjal, chilli, tomato, capsicum, lettuce, Brussel's sprout, broccoli, onion, parsley and leek are transplanted in containers. Their seedlings can be raised in earthen pots or pans. A single healthy seedling may be transplanted in each container. Several seedlings, each of onion, lettuce, knol-khol, parsley and leek can be transplanted in a container of the same size. Two seeds of summer squash and 3-5 seeds of clusterbean, cowpea, okra (bhindi) and Frenchbean are sown in such containers. In radish (table types), turnip and beet root, more number of seeds can be sown in each pot but finally 3-5 seedlings are allowed in a container depending upon the crop. A number of plants can be raised of amaranth, palak, spinach, Fenugreek (methi), mustard, bathua, kulfa and coriander in containers by following thick sowings of their seeds.
Plants in pots and containers need a lot of care and attention. It is essential to water frequently depending on the season, kind of crop and size of the plant and container. Plants need extra water in dry summer season, so watering should be done twice a day (morning and evening). Too much watering can be as harmful in winter as too little in summer. In the rainy season, proper water drainage is essential. If there is heavy rain, containers should be tilted slightly to drain out the excess water from the top.
Topdressing with nitrogenous fertilizers improves plant growth and yield of vegetables directly. This can be done by applying urea or ammonium sulphate in small quantities. In general 5-10 g of urea may be applied in moist soil once a week or 10 days, starting from 3 weeks after sowing or 2 weeks after transplanting. High dose of fertilizer is very harmful since it can kill the plants. If urea or ammonium sulphate is applied in dry soil, the plants must be watered immediately. Plants of cowpea, tomato and bittergourd require staking. Hand-hoeing and weeding with the help of a small khurpi should be done periodically to remove weeds. Weeds should be uprooted gently by hand from amaranth, kulfa, methi, palak, spinach, bathua etc., if thick sowing is done.
Vegetables are attacked by various pests and diseases. Aphids and jassids are small-sucking insects, injuring the plants especially in early stage of their growth. Spraying of Malathion or Endosulphan @ 2ml/litre of water controls these insects. Fruitfly and fruit-borer are serious pests of some vegetable crops. They damage young fruits and make them unfit for consumption. The attacked fruits should be plucked and destroyed. The plants should be sprayed once or twice with Malathion solution @ 1-2ml/litre of water. After spraying, fruits should not be harvested for 7 days for consumption. Fungal diseases (damping off and wilt) and viral diseases affect the plants particularly in the rainy season. Fungal diseases can be controlled by drenching the soil with 'Captaf' solution @ 2g/litre of water. Virus affected plants should be removed and destroyed
Vegetables harvested at the peak of maturity and used promptly are always superior in nutritional content, flavour and appearance. Leafy vegetables should be picked up frequently when they are most succulent and tender. Root vegetables should be pulled out while still tender as a few days delay makes them pithy, tough and unfit for consumption. Except tomato, all fruit and pod vegetables recommended for container gardening should be picked when they attain proper size and are still tender. Tomatoes are allowed to ripen on plants before harvesting.
Rare vegetables-broccoli, leek, fennel, parsley and parslane (soya)-are not usually available in the market. Most of these are required in a small quantity for consumption. These can be advantageously raised in containers with assured success. Some fruit plants-strawberry, raspberry and gooseberry-can also be grown successfully in medium to big-sized containers.
In fact, vegetable container gardening is an interesting hobby and useful method tor growing vegetables in urban areas.
NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.
Our various services are: Detailed Project Report, Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.
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Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.
And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:
• Good Present/Future Demand • Export-Import Market Potential • Raw Material & Manpower Availability • Project Costs and Payback Period
We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.
The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:
• Why I should invest in this project? • What will drive the growth of the product? • What are the costs involved? • What will be the market potential?
The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.
The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.
Reasons for buying the report:
• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.
• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.
• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.
• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.
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Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:
· Project Introduction
· Project Objective and Strategy
· Concise History of the Product
· BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification
· Uses & Applications
Ø Market Study and Assessment
· Current Indian Market Scenario
· Present Market Demand and Supply
· Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast
· Statistics of Import & Export
· Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)
· Market Opportunity
Ø Raw Material
· List of Raw Materials
· Properties of Raw Materials
· Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials
· List of Suppliers and Manufacturers
Ø Personnel (Manpower) Requirements
· Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel
Ø Plant and Machinery
· List of Plant & Machinery
· Miscellaneous Items
· Appliances & Equipments
· Laboratory Equipments & Accessories
· Electric Load & Water
· Maintenance Cost
· Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)
Ø Manufacturing Process and Formulations
· Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation
· Packaging Required
· Process Flow Sheet Diagram
Ø Infrastructure and Utilities
· Project Location
· Requirement of Land Area
· Rates of the Land
· Built Up Area
· Construction Schedule
· Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities
Project at a Glance
Along with financial details as under:
• Assumptions for Profitability workings
• Plant Economics
• Production Schedule
• Land & Building
Factory Land & Building
Site Development Expenses
• Plant & Machinery
Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)
• Other Fixed Assets
Furniture & Fixtures
Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses
Provision of Contingencies
• Working Capital Requirement Per Month
Lab & ETP Chemical Cost
• Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum
Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)
Royalty and Other Charges
Selling and Distribution Expenses
• Salary and Wages
• Turnover Per Annum
• Share Capital
Preference Share Capital
• Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance
• Annexure 2:: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals
Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items
Total Cost of Sales
Net Profit After Taxes
Net Cash Accruals
• Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements
Gross Working. Capital
Net Working Capital
Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process
• Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds
• Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets
ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)
RONW (Average of Share Capital)
ROI (Average of Total Assets)
• Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios
Earnings Per Share (EPS)
Debt Equity Ratio
• Annexure 7 :: Break-Even Analysis
Variable Cost & Expenses
Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)
Fixed Expenses / Cost
• Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume
Resultant PV Ratio
• Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status
Preference Share Capital
• Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks
Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services
Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items
Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items
Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items
• Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation
• Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost
• Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit
• Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost
• Annexure 18 :: Consumables, Store etc.,
• Annexure 19 :: Packing Material Cost
• Annexure 20 :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit
• Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses
• Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses
• Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses
• Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges
• Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.
• Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses
• Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses
• Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses
• Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)
• Annexure 30 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)
• Annexure 31 :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)
• Annexure 32 :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)
• Annexure 33 :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans
• Annexure 34 :: Tax on Profits
• Annexure 35 ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR
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