Hindi: Safed Musli
Parts used-Tuberous root and rhizome.
Historical Aspects-This plant is listed in Kirtikar and Basu as Shatavar. However, it must be distinguished from Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari).
Habitat-The plant grows in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Hardwar and in the Himalayas.
Botanical Description-This is a thorny plant growing tall and erect. The rhizomes are 0.25-0.5 cm thick and white in colour. Pharmacognosy-The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the plant have been studied. The water-soluble part in the root powder is 77.5%.
Phytochemistry-Spirostanol glycosides (asparanin A and asparanin B) and two furostanol glycosides (asparoside A and B) have been isolated from the methanol extract of the fruits of Asparagus adscendens. Sarsasapogenin and diosgenin have also been reported. Mucilaginous extract of Safed musli is also studied. The protein content is significantly high in the root.
Guna: Guru, Snigdha. Rasa: Madhura, Tikta. Veerya: ushna. Vipaka: Madhura. Dosha: Tridoshahara. Karma: Balya, Shukravriddhikara, Rasayana.
Pharmacology-The demulcent properties have been described. The nutritive properties of the plant are ascribed to the protein content.
Safety-With the clinically recommended does no adverse effects have been reported.
Clinical Usage-It is used as an aphrodisiac as well as to increase sperm count. Its use as general tonic is also well known all over India.
FORMULATIONS AND DOAGES
Root powder-10-15 gms with sugar and milk b.i.d.
Expenditure on cultivation:
1. Planting material 1,80,000/-
(Approx. 4 Quintal/Acre, Rs.450/- kg)
2. Cowdeing Manure 5,000/-
(10 Trollies, Rs.500/- per trolley)
3. Preparation of land 3,000/-
4. Synthetic manure, tonic etc. 2,000/-
5. Green manure and its mixing 5,000/-
6. Weeding 3,000/-
7. Irrigation/Seeding 2,000/-
8. To take out stem & its washing 5,000/-
9. Other misc. expenses 5,000/-
10. To clean and dry 40,000/-
(Rs. 100/- per kg for 400 kg)
11. Sale of dry stem 5,00,000/-
(Rs. 1250/- per kg for 4 quintal)
12. Planting material 50,000/-
13. Net Profit (Per Acre) 3,00,000/-
The above-mentioned process takes place between 6 to 9 months.
CINNAMOMUM TAMALA NEES & EBERM.
Hindi: Tejpata (leaves), Dalchini (bark).
Parts used: Leaves, bark and oil
Historical Aspects: C. tamala is an ingredient of Madhvasava described by Charaka many centuries back. As a spice it has been used in India, China, Middle East and Europe and other countries.
Habitat: Grows in tropical and subtropical Himalayas at 1000-2200 m. Also seen in U.P., Eastern Bengal, the Khasi and the Jaintia Hills and Burma.
Botanical Description: A moderate sized tree, with a slightly rough bark, dark brown in colour. Leaves-opposite or sub-opposite, 5-7.5 by 12.5-20 cm. Glabrous and are scaly, shining above. They are 3-nerved from the base of the apex. Flowers are small, and unisexual. Perianth lobes are 6, oblong and silky. Fruit oblong, dry or slightly fleshy, 13-17 cm. long and dark purple in colour.
Pharmacognosy: The different varieties of bark have been stidued for macroscopic and microscopic features.
Phytochemistry: The leaves contain an essential oil, eugenol, terpin and cinnamic aldehyde. Outer bark on distillation yields an essential oil (similar to cinnamomum oil) having a pale yellow colour. Cinnamic aldehyde is the chief constituent. Roots contain an oil which has eugenol, saffrol, benzaldehyde and terpin.
Guna: Pichchila, Laghu, Tikshna. Rasa: Madhura, Verrya: Ushna. Vitaka: Katu, Tikshna. Dosha: Kaphavatahara. Karma: Rochana, Kandughna, Krimighna, Sangrahi, Kanthya, Artavaparavartaka.
Pharmacology:The components of the essential oil have a carminative effect. The beneficient effects of C. tamala in patients with diabetes mellitus has been shown. Singh et al report that 20 patients on non-insulin dependent diabeters mellitus with polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, were treated with powder of C. tamala leaves in the dose of 2 TSF, t.d.s. The response was estimated on the parameters of Joslin's clinic. 50% cases were controlled well, 33.33% fairly so, while 16.67% patients proved refractory. The hypoglycaemic effect of C. tamala in patients with maturity onset diabetes (non-insulin dependent) was tested and probed using the parameters on fasting and post-prandial blood sugar. Its role in the management of diabetes mellitus is stressed.
Safety: In clinical trials, as regards to safety, no side effects were reported. C. tamala Ileaves as well as the bark is used as a spiece or condiment and as a flavouring agent for long, without any ill effects being reported.
Clinical usage: It possesses carminative, astringent and digestive properties and forms an ingredient of many formulations prescribed for gastrointestinal disorders. The drug is diuretic. The oil distilled from leaves is a powerful stimulant. It is used to reduce halitosis.
FORMULATIONS AND DOSAGE
Trijataka : 250-350 gms b.i.d./t.i.d.
JATROPHA CURCAS, LINN.
(N.O: - EUPHORBIACEAE)
Sans-Kanana-eranda, Parvata-yeranda, Eng-Angular-leaved physic nut, Fr.-Medicinier, Hind-Jangli-erandi, Bag-bereda, Safe-dind, Bhernda, Ben-Bon-bheranada, Bag-bherenda, Eranda-gach, Gab-bherenda, Guj-Jepal, Mah-Moghi-erendi, Ran-erandi, Arab and Pers-Dande-nahri, Punj-Rattanjot, Japhrota, Tel-Pepalam, Adavia-amudamu, Nepalam, Tam-Kattamanakku, Mal-Katamanak, Can-Kadaharalu, Bettada-haralu, Kon-Kad-eradi, Sinh-Valerandu, Burm-Kesugi, Simbo-kesu, Goa-Gala-mark.
Habitat-This evergreen plant is common in waste places throughout India, in the southern parts it is cultivated chiefly for hedges.
Parts Used-Seeds, juice, leaves and oil.
Constituents-Seeds contain a fixed oil 30 p.c., sugar, starch, a tonic albumin (tax-albumin analogous to ricin and named curcin), caseine and inorganic matters. Oil contains jatrophic acid (the active principle of the oil). Kernels and husks yield ash 6% amd nitrogen 3%.
Action-Seeds are acro-narcotic. Oil from the seeds is purgative internally, and externally it is depurative and antiseptic. Leaves are lactagogue locally, stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic. Root-bark is stomachic astringent.
Uses-Seeds yield pale yellow oil which in doses of 10 to 20 drops as purgative in action to one ounce of castor oil, but it is far less certain in its operation and causes more griping than castor oil. Its ill effects, griping ets., are corrected by lime-juice as in the case of croton seeds. Externally it is an esteemed remedy for itch, herpes and eczema, and it is a cleansing application for wounds, sores and ulcers. Dilutd with a bland oil (1 part to 2 or 3) it forms a useful embrocation in chornic heumatism. It is generally used for adulterating olive oil. "Seeds have also been used as drastic purgative but are likely to give rise to toxic symptoms"- are astringent. Whole plant is anthelmintic, deobstruent, diuretic and emmenagogue. From the flowers a perfumed essential oil or otto is prepared, which is greatly esteemed as cooling and used by the rich for anointing their bodies before bathing, also used as perfume. It is cooling when applied externally, in skin diseases, headache and weak eyes. According to Bhavaprakash, leaves are chewed in aphthae and ulcers in the mouth and leaf-juice or oil obtained form it is dropped into the ear, according to Chakradatta, in cases of otorrhoea etc., and the fresh juice of the leaves is a valuable application for soft corns between the toes. For ulcerations in the mouth, throat and gums, the leaves fried in ghee are recommended to be applied. Mahomedan writers mention the use of flowers applied as a plaster to the loins, genitals and pubes as an aphrodisiac. A poultice of the leaves is also used similarly. The plant is used in scorpion-sting.