Handbook on Medicinal Herbs with Uses ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author H. Panda ISBN 817833058X
Code ENI125 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1075   1075 US$ 29   29
Pages: 550 Published 2004
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days

Medicinal herbs are the local heritage with global importance. World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal herbs. The Variety and sheet number of plants with therapeutic properties is quite astonishing. Medicinal herbs have curative properties due to presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. These plant metabolites, according to their composition, are grouped as alkaloids, glycosides, corticosteroids, essential oils etc. During the past decade, a dramatic increase in exports of medicinal herbs attests to worldwide interest in these products as well as in traditional health systems. The pharmaceutical industries have made massive investment on pharmacological, clinical and chemical researches all over the world in past five decades. Efforts have been made to discover still more potent plant drugs. The benefits of these efforts would reach to the masses in future in farmers initiate commercial cultivation of medicinal herbs. In fact, agricultural studies on medicinal herbs, by its very nature, demand an equally large investment and higher priority. India, in particular, has a big scope for the development of pharmaceutical and physiochemical industry. The medical plants for health are used as herbal treatments and therapies that can be new habits for culture. Medicinal plants constitute a large segment of the flora, which provide raw materials for use by various industries. They have been used in the country for a long time for their medicinal properties. These plants are staging a comeback and herbal renaissance is happening all over the globe. The herbal medicines today symbolise safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment.
This book illustrates the cultivation, utilization of Abelmoschus Moschatus, Abroma Augusta, Abrus Precatorius, Abutilon Indicum, Acacia Arabica, Acacia Catechu,AcaciaFernesiana,
Acanthus Ilicifolius, Achillea Millefolium, Achyranthes Aspera, Aconitum Napellus, Aconitum Heterophyllum,Acorus Calamus, Adansonia Degitata, Adina Cordifolia
Adhatoda Vasika, Adonis Vernalis, Aegle Marmels, Aerua Lanata, Aesculus Hippocastanum, Aethusa Cynapium etc. 
The book contains systematic account of the most important plants used in medicines. Each chapter covers botanical description, parts used, Ayurvedic properties, clinical uses, constituents with the figure of the plant. This book will be very useful for those working on medicinal plants, natural products, entrepreneurs, libraries, consultant, research scholars etc.

1. Abelmoschus Moschatus
2. Abroma Augusta 
3. Abrus Precatorius
4. Abutilon Indicum
5. Acacia Arabica
6. Acacia Catechu
7. Acacia Fernesiana
8. Acanthus Ilicifolius
9. Achillea Millefolium
10. Achyranthes Aspera
11. Aconitum Napellus 
12. Aconitum Heterophyllum
13. Acorus Calamus
14. Adansonia Degitata
15. Adina Cordifolia
16. Adhatoda Vasika
17. Adonis Vernalis
18. Aegle Marmelos
19. Aerua Lanata 
20. Aesculus Hippocastanum 
21. Aethusa Cynapium 
22. Agrimonia Eupatoria
23. Agave Americana 
24. Agropyron Repens 
25. Alanguim Salvitolium
26. Albizzia Lebbek
27. Alce Rosea 
28. Albizzia Lebbek 
29. Alchemilla Xanthochlora 
30. Aloe Barbadensis 
31. Allium Cepa
32. Allium Sativum
33. Alnus Glutinosa
34. Alnus Nepalensis
35. Alpinia Galanga 
36. Alternanthera Sessilis 
37. Althaea Officinalis 
38. Anacardium Occidentale
39. Andrographis Paniculata 
40. Anthemis Nobilis
41. Anchusa Officinalis
42. Anethum Graveolens
43. Angelica Archangelica 
44. Anisomeles Malabarica
45. Antennaria Dioica 
46. Anthyllis Vulneraria
47. Amarantus Viridis
48. Ammannia Baccifera
49. Amygdalus Persica
50. Apium Petroselinum
51. Aquilaria Agallocha
52. Arctium Lappa
53. Arctium Tomentosum
54. Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi
55. Argyreia Speciosa
56. Argemone Maxicana 
57. Aristolochia Clematitis 
58. Aristolochia Indica 
59. Armoracia Rusticana
60. Arnica Montana
61. Artemisia Abrotanum
62. Artemisa Absinthium
63. Artemisia Dracunculus
64. Artemisia Vulgaris
65. Arum Maculatum
66. Asarum Europaeum
67. Asparagus Officinalis
68. Asparagus Racemosus 




(N.O. - Scrophulariaceae)

Habitat - A biennial herb which produces a rosette of basal leaves the first year and in the second year, a tall, erect stem with many sessile, lanceolate leaves. The leaves are smaller, narrower and less woolly than those of the common Foxglove (D.purpurea). The bell-shaped, brownish-white woolly flowers are arranged in a long, terminal spike. The flowers secrete abundant nectar and so are attractive to bees. The projecting lower lobe of the two-lipped flowers provides an alighting platform for the insects. The fruit is a capsule. All parts of the plant are extremely poisonous.

Woolly Foxglove is native to the Balkans and is also grown there as a field crop for the pharmaceutical industry. It has been introduced to other countries, including Britain, for commercial growing. The reason that this foxglove is preferred for commercial cultivation is its resistance to frost and to disease and the high concentration of active constituents in the plant. The seed is sown in spring (if the leaves are to be collected) or in autumn (for the collection of seeds the following year).

Constituents & Uses - The principal constituents of the leaves are the cardiac glycosides lanatosides A, B and C, digitoxin and digoxin. Therapeutically lanatosides are four times as potent as the purpureaglycosides of Foxglove. They, but especially digoxin, are used in medical practice in the form of tinctures, tablets, injections, suppositories and other preparations as cardioactive medicines that stimulate and regulate heart action in cases of arrhythmia, tachycardia (an abnormal increase in the heartbeat) and failure. These drugs can be Prescribed only by qualified medical practitioners.

Flowering time - July to August



(N.O. - Ebenaceae)

Sans - Kakatinduka ; kakinduka. Hind. - Tumal ; Ben.-Makragav; Kend. Tam. - Chilta-tumiki.

Is a species found in most parts of Bengal and U.P.

Habitat - Throughout India, especially in Bengal.

Parts Used - Fruit, bark and dried seeds.

Constituents - Tannin, pectin and glucose. Unripe fruits, flowers, and bark contain a large quantity of tannin. Fruits contain about 12.8 p.c. astringent acid closely related to gallo-tannic acid.

Action - Bark and unripe fruit have astringent and styptic properties.

Uses - An infusion or decoction of the rind of the furit is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhoea. Bark is made into a paste and applied to boils and tumours. Infusion of the fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae or stomatitis and sore throat. A solution of one ounce of the extract Diospyros in a pint of water is a valuable vaginal injection in leucorrhoea. Juice of unripe fruit is given in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery ; it is also used in haemorrhages fromthe internal organs; applied to fresh wounds it acts as styptic by checking the bleeding. The ripe fruit is edible and useful in diseases of the blood, gonorrhoea and leprosy. Oil extracted fom the seeds is also used in dysentery and diarrhoea. Seeds are also given in diarrhoea as an astringent. Bark is used in intermittent fevers, in the form of infusion. The drug is also used in snakebite.



(N.O. - Papilionaceae)

Sans - Mimbataru ; Mandalia ; Paribhadra ; Parijataka ; Palitmandar. Eng.- Indian Coral Tree ; Moochy Wood Tree. Fr. - Arbre immortel. Ger. - Indischer korallenbaum. Hind. - Ferrud, Mandar ; Pangra. Ben. - Palita-madar ; Palidhar. Bom. - Pangaru. Mah. - Pangra ; Panara ; Paringa. Guja. - Panarawas ; Pararoo. Tel. - Barijamu ; Machhikara ; Modugo ; Baridachettu ; Badchipa-chettu. Tam. - Kaliyana marukka ; Badisc. Mal.-Mooloomogrikah. Can. - Harawana ; Warjippe ; Hongara ; Pongara. Kon. - Pangiro.

Habitat - This tree is common in Bengal and many parts of India especially in Southern India often grown in gardens as a support for black-pepper vines. E. stricta is the species found in Malabar and used like E. Indica.

Parts Used - Bark, juice and leaves.

Constituents - Bark contains two resins and a bitter poisonous alkaloid erytherine which exists in the leaves also.

Action - Bark is antibilious, expectorant, and febrifuge ; also anthelmintic. It reduces "vayu" and "Kafa" Juice is vermifuge and cathartic. The drug is found to act on the central nervous system so as to diminish or abolish its funtions. Leaves are diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, and galactagogue. Erytherine is in action antagonistic to strychnine and may be used as an antidote to strychnine poisoning.

Preparations - Infusion of leaves (1 in 10), dose. - 2 to 8 drs ; Powder and Decoction of bark (1 in 20), dose. - 2 to 4 drs.

Uses - Bark is used in decoction in dysentery, in worms and useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Inner side of the bark is smeared with ghee and held over the ghee-Lamp flame ; the soot thus deposited is used in watery eye tinea-tarse, and parulent conjunctivitis, being applied to the inner side and edges of the lower lid. Juice of the leaves mixed with castor oil is given for the cure of dysentery. Fresh juice of the leaves with a few drops of honey added, taken in two ounce doses in a good vermifuge, whether for round, tape or thread worms ; it acts as cathartic; it is also used as an injection into the ear for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne for toothache. Crushed leaves are applied hot to rheumatic joints to relieve pain ; and as poultice they are applied hot and bandaged upon venereal buboes, the bandage being changed twice daily. The drug is used in liver troubles also. It is also used as an antidote to snake-bite. A decoction of the root-bark (2 tolas in 16 ounces of water boiled down to four ounces) together with a dose of Vasanta Kusumaker Rasa daily every morning in cases of diabetes is said to reduce the quantity of urine and sugar within a short time. Juice of the bark, and young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Juice is given for syphilis. Young-roots of the white flowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Cooked with cocoanut milk the fresh leaves are used internally and externally as galactagogue and emmenagogue, leaf juice is said to have cured long-standing dysmenorrhoea, and also removed sterility in fatty women by gradually reducing fat and producing natural menstrual flow, the medicine being continued for two to three months. The juice increases the secretion of milk if taken during the period of lactation. The juice in doses of 3 to 4 drachms morning and evening is given to relieve painful and difficult micturition. A decoction made of these leaves and of the leaves of Emblica officinalis one tola each in sixteen ounces of water boiled down to four ounces is a good cathartic useful in chronic dyspepsia with constipation. "Leaves chopped well and mixed with treble the quantity of rice-straw (chopped as well) and given especially to milch cattle as it is, or better still boiled with a little rice-konda, is a rich food having high nutritive qualities. The younger the leaves are the better is their food value, and is an unsurpassed stuff for mixing with rice-straw."





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Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

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Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

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·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

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·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


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·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

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·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR