BREEDS AND BREEDING OF PIGS
Pig has 38 somatic chromosomes. There are about 60 breeds of domestic pigs in the word.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN WILD BOAR (Sus Scrofa Cristatus)
Colour-rusty grey (in young), dark chestnut brown (in adults) snout-long ribs-short, ears-longs, distinct sparse coat and full crest or name of black bristles running from nape down to the back. Male have both upper and lower tusks curving outwards from mouth. They live in groups of 10-20.
Pigmy Hog (sus salvanlus)
They live in the dense forest along the base of Himalyan in Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, Colour is brown/black, ears-small, slightly long hair on hind part of neck and middle of back: have no distinct crest. Adult animal measures about one foot (12 inches) and weigh approximately 7.5 kg. They also live in-group 18.
INDIGENOUS DOMESTICATED PIG
Have no distinct breed features. Therefore, characteristic very with topography and climatic conditions from region to region. This is black brown, grey, rusty-grey or blending/admixture of two or more of these colours. These are raised traditionally by weaker section of the community.
EXOTIC/IMPROVED BREEDS OF PIGS
1. REGION-WISE CLASSIFICATION OF PIGS
2. CLASSIFICATION OF SWINE BREEDS BASED ON UTILITY
| ||Lard type e.g.|| ||Bacon type e.g
||Spotted poland china
3. EXOTIC BREEDS EXPERIENCED IN INDIA
- Large white yorkshire
- Middle white yorkshire
- Saddle back
ACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF BREED
- Availability of good breeding stock
- Growth ability
- Carcass quality
- Efficient feed conversion
- Nicking ability
- Market demand
- Disease resistance
FACTORS FOR SELECTION OF BREEDING STOCK
- Size of litter (minimum eight piglets)
- Strength and vigour of litters
- Milking ability
- Gain and feed efficiency of progeny
- Free from defects
- Weaning weight of litter in gilts = 120 kg; in sow = 150 kg.
- Selection of individual animals is more important than breed.
- There are more differences within a breed than between breeds.
Characteristics of important breeder of Pigs Experinced in India
ECONOMIC TRAITS OF SWINE
It includeds choosing the parents of next generation. Selection responses to a particular trait depends upon the selection differential and heritabiltiy of traits. The selction differential in standard deviation units is called intensity of selection.
1. PARAMETERES FOR APPRAISING GROWTH POTENTIAL
- Average daily gain during specific post weaning period.
- An Index combining-average daily gain, post weaning and weaning weight.
- Measurement of weight for age.
METHOD OF IMPROVEMENT
This depends upon the following:
- Heritability of the characters.
- Whether traits is sex-linked /limited.
- Weather trait is measurable.
More direct the selection is, cheaper it will be, Emphasis must be given to relative cost efficiency of improvement by performance testing, progeny testing and nucleus hard testing.
Of these nucleus method is considerably cheaper and gives flexibility for introducing new genetic material and hence this is likely to be basis of all improvement schemes.
It involves mating of related animals for following purposes
- To increase homozygosity in progeny
- To develop inbred lines
- To Keep animals pure bred.
This system is not adopted commercially for the following adverse effects:
- Decreases mean litter size with increase in age of pigs.
- Causes slight decrease in post weaning weight.
- Causes decline in milking and mothering ability of sows.
- Delays sexual maturity in pigs.
- Decreases sex libid in boars.
- Reduce fecundity and prolificacy, in general.
2. OUT BREEDING
It consists of mating of unrelated animals and systems of it are being extensively used for achievement of good results with regard to performance of pigs.
1. Out crossing
This is the common method of breeding and multiplying purebred swine which involves mating of unrelated animals of the same breed. Compared to inbreeding this system is better for crossing inbreds for following advantages.
- Keeps animals pure bred.
- Slight gain in litter size
- Helps to regain the vigour in animals.
- Some increase in livability and growth rate.
- Poor performance of inbreds.
- Higher cost involved in development of inbred lines.
The non-descript indigenious pigs froms the bulk of the pig population in the country. It involves use of improved breed with indigenious hogs. It will be advantage to grade up bulk of indigenous hogs by successive use of boars of large white Yorkshire or landrace breed. These two breeds were used in All India Corordinated Research project in the country. Following are the merit of this sysetm.
- Causes improvement in productive traits of vast population of nondescripts pigs in India.
- Suited to areas where high quality pure brews cannot be maintained due to poor management and feeding conditions.
- Increases fertility and prolificacy in successive stages.
For commercial swine production programme it is common method used in area around bacon factories. It involves mating animals of two different breeds. i.e. crossing of Landrace sow with Yorkshire boar or vice-versa. Following are the merits of this method.
- Fewer embryonic losses
- Causes increase in litter size and uniform birth weight and weaning weight
- Crossbred sow wean larger litter/more weight are weaning.
- Greater resistance to environmental stress.
- Increase in growth rate.
- Early age of maturity
- Increase livability of pigs and high and high vigour.
- Regularity in breeding.
- Increased efficiency of feed conversion.
- Mothering ability and higher milk production.
Table-1. Performance of Indigenous, exotic breed and crossbred in India
Final dressing percentge
|Traits||Desi||Middle/White York shire||Crossbred
|Percentage of piglet born dead.
|Mean litter size
|Mean birth weight of piglet (kg.)
|Mean weaning weight (kg.)
|Mean weight at 48 week (kg)
|Growth rate from birth to weaning (kg.)
|Feed Efficiency gain/ kg. of
Table 2. Growth and feed efficiency of indigenous and large white Yorkshire Pigs
|Parameter||Indigenous variely||Large white Yorkshire
|Initial body weight
|Final body weight at slaughter (kg.)
(A) Grower period (upto 35 kg. live weight)
|Number of pigs
|Period to reach 35 kg weight
|Feed consumed (kg./day)
|Daily gain (g)
|Feed per kg gain (kg.)
(B) Finisher period (upto slaughter)
|Number of pigs
|Period of reach slaughter weight (Days)
|Feed consumed (Kg./Day)
|Daily gain (g)
|Feed per kg gain (kg.)/FCR
(C) From initial weight to slaughter weight
Sheet force value (1b/sq'')
|Number of pigs
|Period to reach slaughter weight
|feed consumed (kg./day)
|Daily gain (g)
|Feed per kg gain (kg.)/FCR
|Carcass characters-Quantitave :
|Dressed weight (kg.)
|Carcass length (cm)
|Back fat thickness (cm)
|Loin eye area (cm2)
|Primal cuts (%)
|Meat to bone ratio
|Fibre diameter (micon)
|Water holding capacity (Cm3)
|Proximate composition of L. Dorsi muscle
|Crude protein %
|Ether extract %
STARTING A PIG FARM
For a medium size farm a unit of 10 sows and one boar will be enough. For a beginner a small unit of 5 sows and 1 boar will be advisable. For initial lower cost it will be better if started with young piglets.
SELECTION OF BOAR
Consider following parameters :
- True to the breed
- Masculine appearance
- Long deep body
- Strong legs and smooth shoulders
- Sound health and performance record.
- No cryptorchid condition.
- Age between 1.5 to 2 years.
- Select only fertile with well developed teste.
- No overfat condition
- Strong back
- 11. Active look.
- A irritable boar difficult to drive and one who inclines to fight may transmit a nervous disposition to piglets. This may make them poor mothers.
- The litter size has been found to vary significantly (p[0.01) between boars but not between seasons. This points out the necessity for selection of boars based on the litter size to obtain maximum offsprings.[/LI]
SELECTION OF SOWS
Consider following parameters in view:
- Sow must be from a litter whose litter size and weight at birth and weaning weight is maximum.
- Have minimum back fat thickness.
- Sow must have well developed under with twelve teats and at least 6 teats in each row, evenly distributed on belly sides.
- Teat of sow must be free from any abnormality.
- Sow must have deep body.
- Select the sows that are already bred at least once.
- Age of brood sows must be 2 to 3 years.
- Sows must produce numerous young ones each year.
- Sows must have good mothering ability.
- Sows must be ready for rebreeding at the end of location.
- Select gilt/sows that are healthy.
- Sows offsprings must thrive well.
- Sow must have quiet disposition.
Note : Many farmers make error of depending much on boar quality because boar is considered to be "half the herd'' in the matter of inheritance, but in swine there are so many youngs. Motherliness of sow can make difference in raising 5 to 8 piglets out of 10 farrowed.
CULLING OF ANIMALS
- Infertile ones
- Boars of over 5 years age.
- Irritable nature and nervous disposition.
- Over fat and too heavy, finds difficult to mount.
- Not true to the breed.
- Weak limbs.
- One third of older sows annually.
- Gilts or sows not settled after 4 days breeding period.
- Nervous and irritable nature.
- Produce small litter.
- Sows with defective teats and poor milkers.
- Sows with small vulva is an indication of internal reproductive defects.
- Sows/gilts with inverted teats.
- Gilts and sows which do not meet the standard of meaty hogs.
GUIDELINES FOR NORMAL REPRODUCTION OF PIGS
|Age at pubetry
||6 to 7 months
|Breeding age of gilts
||10 to 12 months
|Breeding weight of gilts
||90 to 100 kg.
|Breeding age of boar
||18 to 24 months
|Number of sows per boar
||19-23 days (Ave.21)
||Gilfts-first day of heat and second day of onset of heat in sows
|Number of services per conception
||Two at interval of 12 to 14 hours.
||112 to 114 days
|Average litter size at birth
||10 to 14
|Average litter size at weaning
||8 to 10
|Occurrence of heat after weaning
||2 to 10 days
|Period of mating
||15 days after weaning
|Volume of ejaculate
|Average number of sperms/cumm.
|Average age to castrate pigs
||4 to 8 weeks
|Market age of fattening pigs
|Market weight at 6 month
||70 to 75 kg.
||7 to 7Â½ month
|Years-sows are known to breed.
||8 to 10 years
|Average life of sow
Note : Boars with low protein intake have reduced libido. This reduction in Iibido may be a result of decresed estrogen concentration in circulation.
MANAGEMENT AT BREEDING OF PIGS
Freeding gilts and dry sows liberally to increase energy intake 10 to 15 days prior to mating is called flushing. It may be done as follows:
- Feed leguminous hay (Cowpea/lucerne/berseem) for it suppliers more protein, minerals and vitamins)
- Extra allowance of grains
- Give multivitamin injection along with "Flushing"
Note :1. Boars fed low of protein take longer to mount a dummy and start ejaculating and produce less sperms.
2. Pandey and Singh reported highly significant correlation coefficent between farrowing percentage and mean percentage of seminal charcteristics of preserved boar semen.
ADVANTAGES OF FLUSHING
- Improvement in physical condition of female
- Prompt post weaning oestrus
- Shows prominent heat symptoms.
- Increases ovulation rate
- Good litter size
- Shortens period between weaning to successful conception.
- High numbers born
- More uniform litter size
- Minimize embryonic losses.
DETECTION OF "HEAT" IN SOWS
Following are the symptoms of heat in sows:
- Vulvar swelling and redness
- Vaginal discharge
- Urination frequently
- Reduced appetite
- Mounting behaviour
- Immobility when normal manual pressure is applied on the back region (Limbo-Sacral) "Standing heat"
- Restlessness and excitement.
- Mucus discharge from vulva.
- Peculiar grunting sound.
- Erection of ears when pressure applied on back.
OPTIMUM TIME TO BREED SOWS/GILTS
Standing heat as directed by immobility of sow in oestrus particularly exhibited by erection of ears when manual pressure is applied on the back of sow.
INFLUENCE OF BOAR CONTACT ON AGE AT PUBERTY IN GILTS
Five minutes of daily contact with mature boar is sufficient to stimulate early puberty in gilts providing gilts have adequte opportunity for physical contact with the boars. Gilts that are of 165 days of age appear to require daily boar exposure to obtain rapid and maximum pubertal response.