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Leather Processing & Tanning Technology Handbook ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9788190568593
Code ENI143 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1400   1400 US$ 150   150
Pages: 592 Published 2011
Publisher NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
Usually Ships within 5 days

Leather Industry has been one of the traditional industries operating at present. The hides and skins of animals are the source of leather and preserving hides and tanning them into leather has become an important industry. Leather-making is now a scientifically based industry, but still retains some of the charm and mystery of the original craft. Animal skin that has been processed to retain its flexibility, toughness, and waterproof nature is known as leather. "Leather tanning" is a general term for the numerous processing steps involved in converting animal hides or skins into finished leather. 

Tanning is the final process in turning hides and skins into leather. Tanning involves a complex combination of mechanical and chemical processes. The heart of the process is the tanning operation itself in which organic or inorganic materials become chemically bound to the protein structure of the hide and preserve it from deterioration. The main chemical processes carried out by the tanner are the unhairing, liming, tanning, neutralizing and dyeing.

This indispensable handbook provides a detailed insight into the leather industry, leather processing and tanning technology with manufacturing of different forms of leather products. The book contains the manufacturing process of different forms and type of leather products like box and willow sides, glazed kid, sole leather, lace leather, belting and bag leather, chamois leather, upholstery leather, antique leather, light and fancy leather, etc. to name a few. This book will be very helpful to its readers, upcoming entrepreneurs, scientists, existing industries, technical institutions, technocrats, etc. 

1. FROM CRAFT TO INDUSTRY
2. WHAT LEATHER IS AND HOW IT IS MADE
Early Methods of Preparing Leather
The Sources of Hides and Skins
The Nature of Hides and Skins
Preparation for Tanning
Tanning
Dressing and Finishing
Colouring
3. THE BOOMING LEATHER INDUSTRY
Market
Leather Footwear Industry
4. LEATHER: PUTTING BEST FOOT FORWARD
Major Importing Countries of Indian Leather and 
Leather Products 
5. INDIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY SHINING BRIGHT
Tanning Industry
Leather Product Industries
Role of Training Institutions
6. CLARI PROCESSOR 
Innovation through Engineering
Conventional Wooden Drum
Practical Wise Limitation
CLaRI Processor
7. HIDES AND SKINS
Kips 
Slaughtered and Fallen (Dead) Hides
Flaying
8. CURING AND PRESERVATION OF HIDES AND SKINS
Wet Salting
Dry salting or Plaster Curing
Curing by Drying
Common Defects of Hides
Common Defects of Goat Skins
Defects of Sheep Skins
9. OPERATIONS PRELIMINARY TO TANNING
Soaking
Liming
Deliming
Pickling
Tanning
10. FINISHING OF LEATHER
Finishing of Vegetable tanned Leather
Finishing of Chrome Leather
11. MANUFACTURE OF BOX AND WILLOW SIDES BY THE SINGLE BATH PROCESS OF CHROME TANNING
Raw Hides
Green Fleshing
Soaking
Liming
Bating
Pickling
Tanning
A Combined Double and Single Bath Tannage Using Farina Liquor
Shaving
Sorting for Dyeing
Neutralization
Dyeing
Method of Making Different Types of Fat liquor
Striking Out
Setting
Drying
Damping in Sawdust
Staking
Nailing on Board 
Pigmenting, Seasoning and Glazing
Boarding or Graining
Manufacture of a Cheap Class of Box and Willow Sides Known as China Chrome in Calcutta
Manufacture of Embossed Chrome Leather for Ammunition Boot Uppers
Chrome Retanned Leather for Army Boots
12. MANUFACTURE OF GLAZED KID
Raw Material
Soaking
Pasting for Unhairing
Liming
Deliming 
Puering or Bating
Scudding
Pickling
Tanning
Neutralizing
Dyeing and Fat liquoring
Setting and Drying
Damping for Staking
Staking
Nailing the Skins
Buffing
Re staking
Clearing
Seasoning
Glazing
Ironing
Measuring
Grading and Bundling
13. MANUFACTURE OF CHROME SOLE LEATHER
Raw Materials
Soaking
Unhairing and Liming
Deliming
Pickling
Tanning
Neutralizing
Fat liquoring or Oiling
Process of Making Chrome Sole White
Waxed or Stuffed Chrome Sole Leather
14. MANUFACTURE OF CHROME PICKING BAND AND LACE LEATHER
Raw Material
Soaking
Rounding
Unhairing and Liming
Deliming
Pickling
Tanning
Samming and Shaving
Neutralizing
Fat liquoring and Stuffing
Setting, Drying and Cutting into Straps
Colouring Picking Band
Hairy Bands
Further Processes for Picking Band Leather
Chrome Tanning of Lace Leather
Chrome Belting Leather
15. MANUFACTURE OF VEGETABLE TANNED SOLE LEATHER
Raw Material
Soaking
Liming
Rounding
Deliming
Tanning
Pit Tanning Process
Liquor Process of Pit Tannage
Leaching and Leach Pits
Carrying Out the Process of Liquor Tannage
Drum Tannage of Sole Leather
Finishing of the Usual Pit Tanned Sole Leather
Bag Tannage of Sole Leather
Deliming
Tanning
16. MANUFACTURE OF HARNESS, SADDLERY, BELTING AND BAG LEATHER
Raw Material
Soaking
Liming
Deliming
Tanning
Yield
Currying
Rolling
Glassing
Tallowing in
Finishing
Currying and Finishing of Strap Butts
Finishing Black Harness from Crust Condition
Belting Leather
Drum Stuffing Belting Butts
Leather for Bags, Trunks, Suit cases, etc
Tanning
Finishing
17. MANUFACTURE OF CHAMOIS LEATHER
Theories to Explain Chamoising
Tanning or Chamoising
Oiling and Stocking
Degreasing
Bleaching
Dyeing
Staining
Finishing
Water proofing
Combination Formaldehyde and Oil tannage of 
Chamois Leather
18. MANUFACTURE OF JAPANNED AND ENAMELLED LEATHER
Preparation of Leather for Japanning
Preparation of Japan
Villon s Formula of Japan
Davis Recipe
Use of Nitro cellulose in Patent Leather
Manufacture of Chrome Patent Leather
Rough Patent or Varnished Leather Manufactured in Calcutta
Manufacture of Chrome Patent Leather with Various Metallic Lustres 
Abu Varnish
Alternative Methods
Abu Varnish (Alternative Method)
19. MANUFACTURE OF UPHOLSTERY LEATHER
Morocco Leather for Upholstery Work: 
Manufacture of
Upholstery Hides
Upholstery Leather Prepared with Kepolac Coloured Lacquers
Leather for Furniture, Carriage and Automobile Upholstery
20. MANUFACTURE OF ANTIQUE LEATHER
Chrome Tanned Antique Leather
21. MANUFACTURE OF LIGHT AND FANCY LEATHERS
Leathers from Calf Skins
Velvet or Suede Calf
Leathers from Goat Skins
Leather from Sheep Skins
General Method of Treating Sheep Skins
Suede Leather from Chrome Tanned Sheep and 
Goat Skins
22. MANUFACTURE OF HALF TANNED LEATHER FOR EXPORT
Different Barks Used in Tannage
Methods followed in Madras for the Manufacture of 
Half tanned or Crust Leather for Export
23. TANNING OF REPTILE SKINS BY THE VEGETABLE PROCESS
Sizes of Lizard Skins
Dyeing and Finishing of Lizard Skins
Other Reptile Skins
Bleaching of Reptile Skins
A German Process of Vegetable Tanning Reptile Skins
24. ALUM TANNING
Typical Recipes
Tawing and Ageing
Calf Kid
Clove Kid 
Dressing of Wool Rugs and Skins with Hair on
25. FORMALDEHYDE TANNING
26. WATER PIGMENT FINISHES FOR LEATHER
Materials in Composition of Pigment Finishes
A Few Recipes of Pigment Finishes
Black
Medium Brown
Ox Blood
White
Names of Some Pigment Finishes on Market
Application of Pigment Finishes
Directions for Using Eukesol Dyes
Carpenol Pigment Finishes
Finishing of Box and Willow Sides, i.e., 
Full Chrome Kip Sides
Finishing of Fully Chromed Coloured Calf Skins
Finishing of Fully Chromed Black Box Calf
Finishing Instructions for Hard Grain Goats
Finishing Instructions for Glazed Goat and Sheep
Finishing Instructions for Grain Bellies
Finishing Instructions for E. I. Tanned Kip
Application on Cheap Grade Leather
Recipe of Tung Oil Emulsion
Pigments Suitable for Leather
27. CELLULOSE LACQUERS FOR LEATHER
Manufacture of Cellulose Lacquers
Solvents
Direct Solvents
Cellulose Nitrate Non solvents
Thinners
Plasticisers
Gums and Resins
Dyes and Pigments
Grinding the Pigment
Final Mixing
Application of the Cellulose Finish
APPENDIX I
Principal Materials Required for Chrome Tanning
Principal Materials Required for Vegetable Tanning 
Appendix II
Appendix III 
Appendix IV
Appendix V
Appendix VI
Appendix VII 
Measurement of the Thickness of Leather
Appendix VIII
Appendix IX
Appendix X
Solid chrome extract
Appendix XI 
Appendix XII
Appendix XIII
Appendix XIV
GLOSSARY
ABC of Leather Industry 

The Booming Leather Industry

Leather enriches our lives in numerous pleasant ways. The belts and shoes that we wear and the wallets and purses that we carry are made of leather. In the developed countries, almost all of which are located in the frigid North, leather jackets, trousers and suits have long become a status symbol and so are the leather upholstered furniture and lavish interiors available only in top-of-the-line luxury cars.

Leather has long outgrown its practical purposes and today is regarded more as a luxury than a necessity, particularly in the affluent West. This transformation has been made possible primarily due to the induction of state-of-the-art treatment and tanning technologies to give leather a never-before-possible thickness, unlimited colour variations, luxurious feel and silky touch. This has also turned leather into as comfortable a material to work with as any other fabric for any or all of the uses mentioned above.

Indian leather Industry occupies a place of prominence in Indian economy. The sector has massive potential for growth since India leads in the availability of raw materials and also the use of leather is gaining prominence in many sectors and its vast potential for exports. The availability of cheap labour is another factor which is in its favour.

Leather industry also occupies a place of prominence in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and exports. There has been increasing emphasis on its planned development, aimed at optimum utilisation of available raw materials for maximising the returns, particularly from exports.

Leather technology in recent times is fast emerging as a lucrative career option. Until a few years ago, those who happened to be in the industry were there through experience rather than through any formal training. But now, in India, scores of institutes are offering certificate as well as diploma courses in designing as well as production, adding a much needed professionalism to this industry.

MARKET

The Indian leather industry is growing by leaps and bounds. One must be wondering why is India exporting so much of leather to western countries. Apparently because leatherwear still enjoys a great demand abroad and of late even the domestic market is developing and consuming the offerings of this industry.

To many, it would also be a surprise to know that the Indian leather industry is the fourth largest export earner in the country. One can only imagine what shape this industry will take on further maturing.

There has been increasing emphasis on the planned development of the leather and footwear industry aimed at optimum utilization of available raw materials for maximizing the returns, particularly from exports. The exports of leather and leather products gained momentum during the past decades. The exports from leather sector constitute 7% in country's export basket. With the scientific advancement in footwear technology and modernization of techniques, this industry now requires managerial and supervisory staff and designers, all of a high caliber to optimize and upgrade our productions to meet international standards. There is an ever-increasing demand for these trained personnel.

LEATHER FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

The footwear industry is a significant segment of the leather industry in India. India ranks second among the footwear producing countries next to China. The industry is labour intensive and is concentrated in the small and cottage industry sectors. While leather shoes and uppers are concentrated in large scale units, the sandals and chappals are produced in the household and cottage sector.

India produces more of gents' footwear while the world's major production is in ladies footwear. In the case of chappals and sandals, use of non-leather material is prevalent in the domestic market. The major production centers in India are Chennai, Ranipet, Ambur in Tamil Nadu. Mumbai in Maharashtra, Kanpur in U.P., Jalandhar in Punjab, Agra and Delhi.

Shoes manufactured in India with various brand names play a lead role in the global trade. The Indian leather industry is focusing on key deliverables of innovative design, consistently superior quality and unfailing delivery schedules. India in itself has a huge domestic market, which is largely untapped. The Indian footwear industry is provided with institutional infrastructure support through premier institutions like Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, Footwear Design & Development Institute, Noida, National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi, etc. in the areas of technological development, design and product development and human resource development.

Name of Institute Address and E-mail
Council for Leather Exports (CLE) Leather Centre, 53 Raja Muthiah Road Periamet, Chennai- 600 003 Email: cle@giasmd01.vsnl.net.in
Footwear Design & Development Institute (FDDI) A-10/A, Sector-24 Noida-201 301 Email: fddi@del2.vsnl.net.in
Central Footwear Training Institute (CFTI) Agra: 41-42 Industrial Area, Site C, Sikandra Agra - 282002 (U.P) E-mail cftiagra@usa.net Chennai: 65/1 GST Road, Guindy, Chennai-600032 Email: cfti@md5.vsnl.net.in

Indian foot wear Industry has to go miles to achieve its objective of making Indian footwear number one in the world. But certain steps if taken can naturally increase its pace of development.

The availability of abundant raw material base, large domestic market and the opportunity to cater to world markets makes India an attractive destination for technology and investments.

ABOUT NPCS

 

NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.

 


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:


• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period


We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.

 

The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?


The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.


Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.

 

Our Approach:


• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.

 

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:

 

 

Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications

 

Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity

 

Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers

 

Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel

 

Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)

 

Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram

 

Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities

 

Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:

 

  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital

 

  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals

                Revenue/Income/Realisation

                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios

                D.S.C.R

                Earnings Per Share (EPS)

               

             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 

                B.E.P

  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR