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Medical, Municipal and Plastic Waste Management Handbook ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 8186623914
Code ENI145 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1275   1275 US$ 125   125
Pages: 544 Published 2005
Publisher National institute of industrial Research

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. Concern over environment is being seen a massive increase in recycling globally which has grown to be an important part of modern civilization. The consumption habits of modern consumerist lifestyles are causing a huge global waste problem. Rapid urbanization and industrial diversification has led generation of considerable qualities of municipal, plastic, hazardous and biomedical waste. Further the rapid industrial developments have, led to the generation of huge quantities of hazardous wastes, which have further aggravated the environmental problems in the country by depleting and polluting natural resources. Therefore, rational and sustainable utilization of natural resources and its protection from toxic releases is vital for sustainable socioeconomic development. Hazardous waste management is a new concept for most of the Asian countries including India. The utilization of resources and generation of waste is for beyond the limit that the biosphere was made to carry. Recycling of plastics should be carried in such a manner to minimize the pollution level during the process and as a result to enhance the efficiency of the process and conserve the energy. The concern for bio medical waste management has been felt globally with the rise in infectious diseases and indiscriminate disposal of waste. It is to be understood that management of bio medical waste is an integral part of health care. There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal in India that is focussed on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology, to move more towards waste processing and waste recycling (that involves public private partnerships, aiming for eventual waste minimization driven at the community level, and using low energy/low technology resources.
This book basically deals with characterization of medical waste, medical waste data collection activities, medical waste treatment effectiveness, gas sterilization , medical waste reuse, recycling and reduction, selection of waste management options, fundamental concepts related to hospital waste incineration , linkage of bio medical waste management with municipal waste management , waste identification and waste control program for the health care establishments, waste treatment and disposal : the rules and the available options , recycle spoiled photographic film and paper etc.
Waste management is one of the essential obligatory functions of the country. This service is falling too short of the desired level of efficiency and satisfaction resulting in problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation. This book provides overview of the status of medical, municipal and plastic waste management. A treatment technique includes sterilization, incineration and number of recycling methods.

1. Characterization of Medical Waste
1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 
2. MEDICAL WASTE GENERATION 
Methodology 
Summary of Preliminary Results 
3. MEDICAL WASTE DATA COLLECTION ACTIVITIES 
Transporter Notification 
Results 
Transporter Periodic Reports 
On-Site Incinerators 
2. Medical Waste Treatment Effectiveness
1. INCINERATION 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Medical Waste Treatment Effectiveness   
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
2. STEAM STERILIZATION 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
3. GAS STERILIZATION 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
4. CHEMICAL DISINFECTION 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Quality assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
5.   THERMAL INACTIVATION 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
6.   IRRADIATION 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
7. MICROWAVE TREATMENT 
Factors Impacting Effectiveness 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
8.   GRINDING AND SHREDDING 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
9.   COMPACTION 
Factors Affecting Effectiveness 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures 
Maintenance and Operator Training 
3. Medical Waste Handling Methods
1.   INTRODUCTION 
2. CURRENT PRACTICES 
Handling and packaging practices 
For Off-Site Incineration 
Medical Waste Handling Materials   
For Landfill Disposal 
For On-site Treatment or Disposal 
For Sewer and Ocean Disposal 
3.   STANDARDS IMPLEMENTED BY THE RULE 
Segregation 
Packaging 
Labeling 
Marking 
Storage 
Transport 
4.   EVOLVING HANDLING AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 19
Handling 
Compaction 
5.   METHODS TO EVALUATE MEDICAL WASTE HANDLING 
4. Medical Waste Reuse, Recycling and Reduction 
1. RECYCLING AND REUSE 
2. SOURCE REDUCTION 
3. GENERATION RATES 
4. AGENCY ACTION 
5. Infectious Waste Characterization
1. DEFINITION OF INFECTIOUS WASTE 
2. TYPES OF INFECTIOUS WASTE 
1. Isolation Wastes 
2. Cultures and Stocks of Infectious Agents and Associated Biologicals
3. Human Blood and Blood Products 
4. Pathological Wastes 
5. Contaminated Sharps 
6. Contaminated Animal Carcasses, Body Parts, and Bedding 
3. MISCELLANEOUS CON TAMINATED WASTES - (OPTIONAL CATEGORY) 
6. Infectious Waste Management
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. SELECTION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS 
3. INFECTIOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN 
1. Designation of Infectious Waste 
2. Segregation of Infectious Waste 
3. Packaging of Infectious Waste 
4. Storage of Infectious Waste 
5. Transport of Infectious Waste (on- and off-site) 
6. Treatment of Infectious Waste 
7. Disposal of Treated Wastes 
8. Contingency Planning 
9. Staff Training 
7. Treatment of Infectious Waste
1. INTRODUCTION 
1. Monitoring 
2. Steam Sterilization 
3. Incineration 
4. Thermal inactivation 
5. Gas/Vapour Sterilization 
6. Chemical Disinfection 
7. Sterilization by Irradiation 
8. Other Treatment Methods 
8. Medical Waste 
1.   CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS 
2.   HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS 
3. PATHOGENS 
4. TOXIC METALS 
5. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS 
9. Hospital Incineration Systems
1.   INTRODUCTION 
2.   FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO HOSPITAL WASTE INCINERATION 
1. Chemical Reactions 
2. Stoichiometric Combustion Air 
3. Thermochemical Relations 
4. Volumetric Gas Flows 
5. The Combustion Process 
3. HOSPITAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS 
4.   TYPES OF HOSPITAL WASTE INCINERATOR SYSTEMS 
1. Introduction 
2. Multiple-chamber incinerators 
1. Principle of Combustion and AirDistribution 
2. Mode of Operation 
3. Waste Feed Charging Systems 
4. Ash Removal Systems 
5. Use of Multiple-Chamber lncinerators for Incinerating Hospital Wastes 
3. Controlled-Air Incinerators 
1. Principle of Controlled Air Incineration 
2. Batch/Controlled-Air incinerators 
3. Intermittent-Duty, Controlled Air Incinerators 
4. Continuous-Duty, Controlled Air incinerators 
4. Rotary Kilns 
1. Principle of Operation 
2. Mode of Operation 
3. Charging System 
4. Ash Removal 
5. Auxilliary Equipment 
1. Waste Meat Boilers 
2. Auxiliary Waste Liquid Infection 
10. Bio-Medical Waste 
1. INTRODUCTION 
1.   Linkage of Bio-medical Waste Management with Municipal Waste Management 
2. ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT SITUATION 
1. Waste Generation 
(i) Health Care Establishments 
(ii). Whole Town/City 
2. Current Practices 
3.   Allocation of Responsibilities 
3. BASIC ISSUES 
1.   Management Issues of Bio-medical Waste Management 
2. Current Issues in Management of Health Care Waste 
4.   LEGAL ASPECTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN 
1. Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 
Scope and application of the Rules 
Environmental Concern 
5.   WASTE IDENTIFICATION AND WASTE CONTROL PROGRAM FOR THE HEALTH CARE ESTABLISHMENTS 
1. Identification of Various Components of the Waste Generated 
2. An Exercise in Waste Control Programme 
6. WASTE STORAGE 
1. Recommended Labelling and Colour Coding 
2. Segregated Storage in Separate Containers (at the Point of Generation) 
3. Certification 
4.   COMMON/INTERMEDIATE STORAGE AREA
5. Parking Lot for Collection Vehicles 
7.   HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION 
1. Collection of Waste Inside the Hospital/Health Care Establishment 
2. Transportation of Segregated Waste Inside the Premises 
3. Collection and Transportation of Waste for Small Units 
4. Transportation of Waste Outside 
8.   WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL : THE RULES AND THE AVAILABLE OPTIONS 
Transportation of Waste Outside 
1. Incineration 
2. Autoclave Treatment 
3. Hydroclave Treatment 
4. Microwave Treatment 
5. Chemical Disinfection 
6. Sanitary and Secured Landfilling 
7. General Waste 
9.   COMMON TREATMENT/DISPOSAL FACILITY 
1.   Establishment of the Facility 
2.   Tie Up of Health Care Set Ups 
3. Private Sector Participation 
10.   OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 
11. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY MEASURES 
1. Occupational Hazards 
2. Safety Measures for the Medical and Para-medical Staff 
3. Safety Measures for Cleaning and Transportation Staff 
12. FINANCIAL ASPECTS 
13. TRAINING AND MOTIVATION 
1. Training Modules for Different Levels of Staff 
(i)   Medical and laboratory personnel: 
(ii) Para-medical personnel: 
(iii) Sweepers, cleaning staff, guards etc.: 
(iv) Administrative and management staff: 
2. Incentives and Motivation 
3. Awareness Generation 
14.   PLANNING ELEMENTS 
1. Planning Inside the Health Care Establishment Premises 
2. Planning Outside the Health Care Establishment 
3. Relation to Overall Town Planning 
4. Examples 
15.   MANAGEMENT ASPECTS 
1. Organisational Set Up 104
2. Administration and Managerial Aspects 105
16.   ANIMAL WASTE 105
11. Air Pollution Control 
1. INTRODUCTION 108
2.   POLLUTANT FORMATION AND GENERATION 108
3.   CONTROL STRATEGIES 109
1. Controlling Feed Material 
2. Combustion Control 111
3. Add-On Air Pollution Control Systems 
1. Wet Scrubbers 
2. Fabric Filters 
3. Dry Scrubbers 
12. Waste Minimization Options
Description of Techniques 
Better Operating Practices 
Chemotherapy and Antineoplastic Wastes 
Formaldehyde Wastes 
Instal Reverse Osmosis (RO) Water Supply Equipment 
Determine Minimum Effective Cleaning Procedures 
Reuse/Recycle Waste Solutions 
Proper Waste Management 
Photographic Chemical Waste 
Store Materials Properly 
Recycle Spoiled Photographic Film and Paper 
Test Expired Material for Usefulness 
Extend Processing Bath Life 
Use Squeegees 
Use Countercurrent Washing 
Recover Silver and Recycle Spent Chemicals 
Radionuclides 
Solvents 
Material Substitution 
Improved Laboratory Techniques 
Recycle Solvents 
Mercury 
Electronic Sensing Devices 
Proper Spill Clean Up 
Recycle/Reuse 
Waste Anesthetic Gases 
Toxics, Corrosives, and Miscellaneous Chemicals 
Ethylene Oxide 
Use of Recyclable Drums 
Proper Material Handling 
Material Substitution 
13. Vermiculturing
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. INTRODUCTION TO VERMICOMPOSTING 
Reduction of particle size 
Vermicomposting 
Different stages and methods 
3. THE INORA PROCESS 
The biological means 
Selection of biological methods 
Bisanitization or accelerated aerobiosis 
The biogas plants 
The earthworm 
4. ASSESSMENT 
Environmental assessment 
Water 
Gases 
Pollutants 
Aesthetics 
Financial assessment 
5. QUALITY AND STABILITY FACTORS IN COMPOSTING 
Introduction 
Appropriate standards 
Raw versus composted waste 
Identification 
5. CONCLUSION 
14. Municipal waste water treatment and energy recovery
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. THE GANGA ACTION PLAN 
3. INDO-DUTCH ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT 
INTEGRATED APPROACH 
UASB SYSTEM -A CLEAN TECHNOLOGY 
Advantages of UASB over traditional aerobic processes 
Technical aspects 
Energy recovery from municipal sewage 
Technology options for municipal waste water treatment 
Case-studies 
5 mld UASB treatment plant at Kanpur 
Energy savings and biogas generation 
Conclusions 
Recommendations 
14 mld UASB treatment plant at Mirzapur 
Energy recovery 
Financial aspects 
15. Principles of Municipal Solid Waste Management
1. INTRODUCTION 
Solid Waste Generation 
Environmental Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Land 
Objective of Solid Waste Management 
2. PRINCIPLES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 
Waste Reduction 
Effective Management of Solid Waste 
Functional Elements of Municipal Solid Waste Management 
3. HIERARCHY OF WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS 
4. WASTE MINIMISATION 
5.   RESOURCE RECOVERY THROUGH MATERIAL RECYCLING
Sorting at Source 
Centralised Sorting 
Sorting Prior to Waste Processing or Landfilling 
6. RESOURCE RECOVERY THROUGH WASTE PROCESSING 
Biological Processes 
Thermal Processes 
Other Processes 
7. WASTE TRNSFORMATION (WITHOUT RESOURCE RECOVERY) PRIOR TO DI POSAL
Mechanical Transformation
Thermal Transformation 
Other Methods
8. DISPOSAL ON LAND 
9. COMPONENTS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 
10. LINKAGES BETWEEN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND OTHER TYPES OF WASTES GENERATED IN AN URBAN CENTRE 
11. MATERIALS FLOW CHART FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE   MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (1000 t.p.d. WASTE GENERATION 
16. Composition and Quantity of Solid Waste
1.   INTRODUCTION 
Terminology and Classification 
Variations in Composition and Characteristics 
2.   DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTES 
Definitions 
(i) Domestic/Residential Waste: 
(ii) Municipal Waste: 
(iii) Commercial Waste: 
(iv) Institutional Waste: 
(v) Garbage: 
(vi) Rubbish: 
(vii) Ashes: 
(viii) Bulky Wastes: 
(ix) Street Sweeping: 
(x) Dead Animals: 
(xi) Construction and Demolition Wastes: 
(xii)   Industrial Wastes: 
(xiii) Hazardous Wastes: 
(xiv) Sewage Wastes: 
Classification 
3. COMPOSITION, CHARACTERISTICS AND QUANTITIES 
Need for Analysis 
Field Investigations 
Number of Samples to be Collected 
Collection of Samples of Solid Waste 
Composition and Characteristics 
Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in Indian Urban Centres 
Per Capita Quantity of Municipal Solid Waste in Indian Urban Centres 
Estimation of Future Per Capita Waste Quantity 
Relation between Gross National Product (GNP) and Municipal Solid Waste Generation 
Rate of Increase liased on Experience in Other Cities 
Seasonal Variations 
Physical Characteristics 
Density 
Bulk Density Measurement 
1. Material and apparutus: 
2. Moisture Content 
3. Size of Waste Constituents 
4. Calorific Value 
Chemical Characteristics 
Classification 
(i)     Lipids: 
(ii)   Carbohydrates: 
(iii)   Proteins: 
(iv)   Natural Fibres: 
(v)   Synthetic Organic Materials (Plastic): 
(vi)   Non-combustibles: 
4. CONCLUSION 
17. Slaughter House Waste and Dead Animals
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM 
3. CLASSIFICATION 
4. OPERATIONS DURING SLAUGHTERING OF ANIMALS 
Present Scenario 
Slaughtering 
Bleeding 
Dressing 
Evisceration 
5.   MEASURES   PROPOSED TO IMPROVE THE   SLAUGHTER HOUSE WASTE MANAGEMENT 
Liquid Waste/Effluent 
Collection of Blood 
Improved Method of Dressing 
Evisceration 
Safe Disposal of Waste Products 
Odours Control 
Modernisation of Slaughter House   
Curbing Activities of Illegal Slaughtering of Animals 
Provision of Dry Rendering Plants 
6. CONCLUSION 
18. Industrial Solid Waste
1.   INTRODUCTION 
2. THE PROBLEMS 
3.   INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE 
4.   DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE 
Coal Ash 
Integrated Iron & Steel Plant Slag 
Phosphogypsum 
Red Mud 
Lime Mud 
Waste Sludge and Residues 
Potential Reuse of Solid Wastes 
5.   WASTE MANAGEMENT APPROACH 
Prevention-A Waste Minimisation Approach 
Inventory Management and Improved Operations 
Waste Management at Source 
6.   AREA OF APPLICATION OF SOME IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL WASTES 
7.   CURRENT PRACTICE OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 
Collection and Transport of Wastes 
Storage & Transportation 
Disposal of Industrial Solid Waste 
8. HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF POOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISPOSAL 
9.   COLLECTION, STORAGE TREATMENT & DISPOSAL   OF WASTES 
Waste Segregation 
Collection, Storage and Transport 
Combined Treatment Facilities 
Disposal   Methods 
Landfills? 
(i) Definitions 
Why landfills? 
Design: 
10. CASE STUDIES 
Construction: 
Closure & Post Closure: 
Incineration 
Manifest System 
Post Treatment 
Back-transport 
Monitoring 
Record Keeping 
11. LEGISLATION FOR MAN AGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE   AND CATEGORISATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE 
11. HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS 
12. INDUSTRIAL LOCATION 
13. MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID   WASTES CO­ORDINATION (SPCBs & LOCAL BODIES) 
19. Emerging Processing Technologies
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. VERMICOMPOSTING 
3. BIOGAS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES 
4. CONVERSION OF SOLID WASTES TO PROTEIN 
5. ALCOHOL FERMENTATION 259
6. PYROLYSIS 
Plasma Arc Technology/Plasma Pyrolysis Vitrification (PPV) 
7.   REFUSE DERIVED FUEL 
8. HYDROPULPING 
9. SLURRY CARB PROCESS 
10. TREATMENT FOR RECOVERY OF USEFUL PRODUCTS 
11.   SUMMARY 
20. Wastewater and Its Collection 
1. ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO POLLUTION CONTROL 
Food Chains and Webs 
Accumulation of Substances in Food Chains and Webs 
Accumulation of Pollutants in Waterbodies 
Species Diversity and Ecosystem Stability 
Nature of Pollutants 
Effects of Pollutants 
Control of Pollutants 
2. WASTE WATER CHARACTERISTICS 
Municipal Wastewater 
Industrial Wastewater 
Fluctuations In Flow and Composition 
3. TYPES OF WASTES AND APPLICABLE RULES 
4. PLANNING FOR WASTEWATER COLLECTION 
Introduction 
Data Requirements and Surveys 
On-Site and Off-Site Disposal Systems 
Sewer Discharge Standards 
Proportion of Industrial and Domestic Wastes 
Potential Health Benefits 
New Approaches in Sewerage System Design 
21. Principles of Reactor Design 
1. REACTION ORDER 
2. FLOW PATTERNS OF REACTORS 
Batch Reactors 
Ideal Plug Flow 
Ideal Completely Mixed Flow 
3. ESTIMATION OF DISPERSION NUMBER, D/UL 
Use of Tracer Tests 
Use of Empirical Equations 
Cells in Series Parallel Arrangements 
4. EFFECT OF SHOCK LOADS 
5. ESTIMATION OF WASTEWATER TEMPERATURE IN LARGE REACTORS 
6.   FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF REACTORS 
Nature of the Waste 
Process Optimization 
Other Factors 
22. Principles of Biological Treatment
1. MICROBIAL GROWTH RATES 
2. TREATMENT KINETICS 
3.   HANDLING OF SOLIDS 
4. SLUDGE AGE AND HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME 
5. FOOD/MICROORGANISMS RATIO 
6. BUILD UP OF SOLIDS IN SYSTEM 
7.   SUBSTRATE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY 
8.   TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 
9.   ESTIMATION OF FINAL EFFLUENT BOD 
10. OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS 
For Facultative and Flow-through Units 
For Flow-through Systems with Recycling 
11. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 
12. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL 
13. NITROGEN REMOVAL 
14. CHOICE OF SLUDGE AGE 
23. Mechanically Aerated Lagoons
1.   TYPES OF AERATED LAGOONS 
Facultative Aerated Lagoons 
Aerobic Flow-through Lagoons 
Aerobic Lagoons with Recycling of Solids 
2.   DESIGN OF FACULTATIVE AERATED LAGOONS 
Substrate Removal Rate 
Lagoon Mixing Conditions and Efficiency 
Lagoon Depth 
Solids in Suspension and Power Level 
Oxygenation and Power Level 
Anaerobic Activity In Facultative Lagoons 
Performance 
Sludge Accumulation 
3.   DESIGN OF AEROBIC FLOW-THROUGH TYPE LAGOONS 
Substrate Removal and Solids Concentration 
Detention Time 
Solids Concentration 
Final Effluent BOD 
Oxygen Requirements 
Aeration Power and Power Level 
4. DESIGN OF DUAL-POWERED AERATED LAGOONS 
Design Basis 
Retention Time 
Performance Power Requirement   
Sludge Accumulation 
5. DESIGN OF AEROBIC LAGOONS WITH RECYCLING OF SOLIDS (EXTENDED AERATION LAGOONS) 
6. CHOICE OF COMBINATIONS AND LAYOUTS OF UASBs, AERATED LAGOONS AND ALGAL PONDS 
7. OPTIMIZATION TRIALS 
8. CONSTRUCTION FEATURES 
24. Power Generation Based on Distillery Spentwash
INTRODUCTION 
THE BIOPAQ TECHNOLOGY 
Pre-acidification/buffer tank 
Sludge disposal 
Biogas handling 
CASE-STUDY 
NEW DEVELOPMENT 
Power generation scheme 
CONCLUSION 
25. Production, Use, and Disposal of Plastics and Plastic Products
1. SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS 
2. TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW 
Manufacturing Resins 
Incorporating Additives 
3. PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION STATISTICS 
Historical Overview 
Domestic Production of Plastics 
Import/Export and Domestic Consumption 
Economic Profile of the Plastics Industry 
Sector Charscteristics 
Market Conditions and Prices for Commodity Resins 
Charactertics of Major Resin Types 
Characteristics of Major Additive Types 
4. MAJOR END USE MARKETS FOR PLASTICS 
Packaging 
Building and Construction 
Consumer and Institutional Products 
Electrical and Electronics 
Furniture and Furnishings 
Transportation 
Adhesives, Inks, and Coatings 
5. DISPOSITION OF PLASTICS INTO THE SOLID WASTE STREAM
Plastics in Municipal Solid Waste 
Plastics in Building and Construction Wastes 
Plastics in Automobile Salvage Residue 
Plastics in Litter 
5 Plastics in Marine Debris.
26. Impacts of Post-consumer Plastics Waste on the Management of Municipal Solid waste
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS 
Landfilling 
Management Issues 
Incineration 
Management Issues 
Environmental Releases 
Litter 
LANDFILLING 
Management Issues 
Landfill Capacity 
Landfill Integrity 
Other Management Issues 
Environmental Releases 
Leaching of Plastic Polymers 
Leaching of Plastics Additives 
  INCINERATION 
Introduction 
Number, Capacity, and Types of Incinerators 
Combustion Properties of Plastics 
Plastics Combustion and Pollution Control 
Incinerator Management Issues 
Excessive Flame Temperature 
Products of Incomplete Combustion (PICs) 
Formation of Slag 
Formation of Corrosive Gases 
3 Environment Release 
Emissions from MSW Incinerators 
Plastics Contribution to Incinerator Ash 
LITTER   
Background 
Analysis of Relative impacts of Plastic and other Litter 
27. The Potential for Divertable Plastic Waste
1. SCENARIO DEVELOPMENT 
1 Scenario 1 
2 Scenario 2 
3 Scenario 3 
4 Scenario 4 
5 Scenario 5 
2. ESTIMATED QUANTITIES OF DPW 
1. Scenario 1 
2.Scenario 2 
3. Scenario 3 
4. Scenario 4 
5. Scenario 5 
3. SUMMARY 
28. Objectives and Action Items
OBJECTIVES FOR IMPROVING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 
Source Reduction 
ACTION ITEMS: 
ACTION ITEMS: 
OBJECTIVE 1: EVALUATE POTENTIAL FOR MINIMIZING PACKAGING 
ACTION ITEMS: 
OBJECTIVE 2: EDUCATION   AND   OUTREACH   ON SOURCE REDUCTION 
ACTION ITEMS: 
RECYCLING 
ACTION ITEMS: 
Improving Recyclability of the Waste Stream 
Collection/Separation 
Processing 
Marketing 
Public Education 
Landfilling and Incineration 
OBJECTIVE 1: FURTHER EVALUATE ADDITIVES 
ACTION ITEM: 
OBJECTIVE 2: MONITOR PVC USE 
ACTION ITEMS: 
OBJECTIVE 3: IMPROVE DISPOSAL OPTIONS 
ACTION ITEMS: 
OBJECTIVES FOR HANDLING PROBLEMS OUTSIDE THE MSW MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 
Wastewater Treatment Systems/Combined Sewer overflows/Stormwater Drainage Systems 
Wastewater Treatment Systems 
ACTION ITEM: 
Combined Sewer Overflows 
ACTION ITEMS: 
Storm water Discharges 
ACTION ITEMS: 
Other Sources of Marine Debris 
Vessels 
OBJECTIVE 1: IMPLEMENT ANNEX V OF MARPOL 
ACTION ITEMS: 
OBJECTIVE 2: REDUCE IMPACT OF FISHING GEAR 
ACTION ITEM: 
Plastic Manufacturers, Processors, and Transporters 
ACTION ITEMS: 
Garbage Barges 
ACTION ITEM: 
Land- and Sea-Originated Litter 
OBJECTIVE 1: SUPPORT   LITTER   RETRIEVAL   AND CHARACTERIZATION 
ACTION ITEMS: 
OBJECTIVE 2: SUPPORT LITTER PREVENTION 
ACTION ITEMS: 
Degradable Plastics 
ACTION ITEMS: 
29. Recent Legislative and Regulatory Actions
LOCAL AND STATE ACTIONS 
FEDERAL ACTIONS 
IMPLICATIONS FOR PLASTICS RECYCLING 

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Treatment of Infectious Waste

1. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of treating infectious waste is to change its biological character so as to reduce or eliminate its potential for causing disease. Incineration and steam sterilization are the most frequently used infectious waste treatment techniques. However, other processes are effective in treatment infectious waste.

Facilities involved with the treatment of infectious waste should establish standard operating procedures for each treatment process. Standardization of procedures should include establishing acceptable operating limits which take into account all factors that may effect the treatment process.

The following treatment techniques are :

  1. Steam sterilization (autoclaving)
  2. Incineration
  3. Thermal inactivation
  4. Gas/vapour sterilization
  5. Chemical disinfection
  6. Sterilization by irradiation

 

 

 

A convenient approach for determining treatment effectiveness is the use of biological indicators. Biological indicators are standardized products that are routinely used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment process. It is now current practice to use spores of a resistant strain of a particular bacterial species for testing each specific treatment process. The United States Pharmacopeia recommends the use of biological indicators for monitoring treatment processes such as steam sterilization, incineration, and thermal inactivation.

There are other indicators that provide an instantaneous indication usually by a chemically induced colour change of the achievement of a certain temperature. However, these indicators are not suitable for use in monitoring the sterilization process because each treatment technique involves a combination of factors; therefore, no single factor is a valid criterion for indicating the effectiveness of the sterilization process. (For example, in steam treatment, the wastes must be exposed to a certain temperature for at least a minimum period of time in order to achieve sterilization. Therefore, any indicator that indicates only the attainment of a particular temperature is not suitable for monitoring the effectiveness of steam sterilization).

Other indicators which monitor the treatment process may be used. However, it is recommended that the appropriateness and reliability of these indicators be confirmed before they are used to monitor infectious waste treatment.

It is essential that indicators be properly placed within the waste load so that they will indicate accurately the effect of treatment on the entire waste load. Therefore, to assure accurate monitoring, the biological indicators should be distributed throughout the waste load.

Monitoring is essential in development of standard operating procedures for each treatment technique to verify that the treatment process is effective. Monitoring also permits refinement of the operating procedures so that excess processing can be avoided while savings are realized in expenditures of time, energy, and/or materials. Subsequent periodic monitoring serves to demonstrate sterilization, thereby confirming that proper procedures were used and that the equipment was functioning properly.

2. Steam Sterilization

Steam sterilization of infectious waste utilizes saturated steam within a pressure vessel (known as steam sterilizer, autoclave, or retort) at temperatures sufficient to kill infectious agents present in the waste).

There are two general types of steam sterilizers the gravity displacement type, in which the displaced air flows out the drain through a steam-activated exhaust valve, and the pre-vacuum type, in which a vacuum is pulled to remove the air before steam is introduced into the chamber. With both types, as the air is replaced with pressurized steam, the temperature of the treatment chamber increases. This, results in temperature increases within the waste load which under most conditions are sufficient to treat the waste.

Treatment by steam sterilization is time and temperature dependent; therefore, it is essential that the entire waste load is exposed to the necessary temperature for a defined period of time. (Heating of the containers and the waste usually lag behind heating of the chamber.)

In steam sterilization, decontamination of the waste occurs primarily from steam penetration. Heat conduction provides a secondary source of heat transfer. Therefore, for effective and efficient treatment, the degree of steam penetration is the critical factor. For steam to penetrate throughout the waste load, the air must be completely displaced from the treatment chamber. The presence of residual air within the sterilizer chamber can prevent effective sterilization by: reducing the ultimate possible temperature of the steam, regardless of pressure; causing variations in temperature throughout the chamber; prolonging the time needed to attain the maximum temperatures; and inhibiting steam penetration into porous materials. Factors that can cause incomplete displacement of air include: use of heat resistant plastic bags (which may exclude steam or trap air), use of deep containers (which may prevent displacement of air from the bottom), and improper loading (which may prevent free circulation of steam within the chamber).

The principal factors that should be considered when treating infectious waste by steam sterilization are:

  1. type of waste
  2. packaging and containers
  3. volume of the waste load and its configuration in the treatment chamber.

Types of Waste. Infectious waste with low density (such as plastics) is more amenable to steam sterilization. High density wastes such as large body parts, and large quantities of animal bedding and fluids inhibit direct steam penetration and require longer sterilization time. Alternative treatment methods should be considered (e.g., incineration) for these wastes.

Packaging and Containers. A variety of containers are used in steam sterilization including plastic bags, metal pans, bottles, and flasks. One consideration with plastic bags is the type and thickness of the plastic and its suitability for use in steam treatment. As discussed earlier, some plastic bags are marketed as autoclavable (i.e., they are heat resistant and do not melt). These bags are constructed of high density polyethylene or polypropylene plastic and, therefore, do not facilitate steam_penetration to the waste load. Bags made of heat-labile plastic have been found to crumble and melt during steam treatment which allows steam penetration of the waste but destroys the bag as a container. When heat-labile plastic bags are used, they should be placed within another heat stable container which allows steam penetration (e.g., strong paper bag). It is good policy to place plastic bags within a rigid container before steam treatment in order to prevent spillage and drain clogging. To facilitate steam penetration, bags should be opened and bottle caps and stoppers should be loosened immediately before placement in the steam sterilizer.

Volume and Configuration of the Waste Load. The volume of the waste is an important factor in steam sterilization as it can be difficult to attain sterilizing temperatures in large loads. It may be more efficient to autoclave a large quantity of waste in two small loads rather than one large load.

Many infectious wastes that have multiple hazards should not be steam sterilized because of the potential for exposure of equipment operators to toxic, radioactive, or other hazardous chemicals. Infectious wastes that should not be steam sterilized include those that contain anti-neoplastic drugs, toxic chemicals, or chemicals that would be volatilized by steam.

Persons involved in steam sterilizing infectious waste should be educated in proper techniques to minimize personal exposure to the hazards posed by these wastes. These techniques include use of protective equipment, minimization of aerosol formation, and prevention of spillage of waste during autoclave loading.

A recording thermometer should be used to ensure that a sufficiently high temperature is maintained for an adequate period of time during the cycle. Failure to attain or maintain operating temperature may indicate mechanical failure.

All steam sterilizers should be routinely inspected and serviced. Monitoring the steam sterilization process is required to ensure effective treatment. The process should be monitored periodically to check that proper procedures are being followed and that the equipment is functioning properly. Bacillus stearothermophilus is recommended by The United States Pharmacopeia as the biological indicator for monitoring steam sterilization. There are other indicators that may effectively monitor the treatment process; however, because steam sterilization is both time and temperature dependent, any indicator that is used should effectively monitor both these factors.

3. Incineration

Incineration is a process which converts combustible materials into non-combustible residue or ash. The product gases are vented to the atmosphere through the incinerator stack while the treatment residue may be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Incineration provides the advantage of greatly reducing the mass and volume of the waste-often by more than 95 per cent which, in turn, substantially, reduces transport and disposal costs.

Incineration can be a suitable treatment technique for all types of infectious waste. Incineration is especially advantageous with pathological waste and contaminated sharps because it renders body part unrecognizable and sharps unusable. Incinerators that are properly designed, maintained, and operated are effective in killing organisms that are present in infectious waste. However, if the incinerator is not operating properly, viable pathogenic organisms can be released to the environment in stack emissions, residue ash, or wastewater.

The principal factors that should be considered when incinerating infectious waste are:

  1. variation in waste composition
  2. waste feed rate
  3. combustion temperature

Variations in Waste Composition. Waste composition affects combustion conditions due to variations in moisture content and heating value. It is important to adjust loading rate and combustion temperature, as needed, to maintain proper incinerating conditions.

Waste Feed Rate. The rate at which waste is fed into the incinerator also affects the efficacy and efficiency of treatment. It is important to avoid overloading which often results in incomplete combustion and unsatisfactory treatment of infectious waste.

Combustion Temperature. An optimum temperature must be maintained during combustion to ensure proper treatment of infectious waste. The combustion temperature can be maintained, a necessary, by adjustments in the amount of combustion air and fuel. With pathological incinerators, in particular, it is essential that operating temperatures be attained before loading the waste. The amount of air and fuel should be adjusted to maintain the combustion temperature at the necessary level. Adjustments should be made as the composition of the waste changes.

For infectious waste with multiple hazards, special considerations are appropriate. For example, infectious waste that contains or is contaminated with anti-neoplastic drugs should be incinerated only in an incinerator that provides the high temperature and long residence (dwell) time that are necessary for the complete destruction of these compounds.

The plastic content of the waste also should be considered before incineration is selected as a treatment technique. Many incinerators can be damaged by temperature surges caused by combustion of large quantities of plastic (such as contaminated disposables). Another factor to be considered is the chlorine content of polyvinyl chloride and other chlorinated plastics that may be present in the waste. The combustion products of these plastics include hydrochloric acid which is corrosive to the incinerator and may damage the refractory (lining of the chamber) and the stack. Limiting the plastic content of waste loads burned in incinerators will extend the life of these units.

Since infectious waste must be exposed to a sufficiently high temperature for an adequate period of time to ensure destruction of all pathogenic organisms, specific standards should be established to define minimum operating temperatures. For example, the Massachusetts policy for incineration of infectious waste specifies that all new incinerators must operate at a minimum temperature of 1600°F in the secondary combustion chamber and a minimum residence time of one second.

In addition to operating procedures design features can also affect the incineration process or example, mechanical controls can help ensure that infectious waste is exposed to the appropriate combustion temperature. Lock-out devices can be installed to prevent ignition of the primary chamber until the secondary chamber is at operating temperature. Shut-down devices will keep the secondary chamber at operating temperature for a certain period of time after the primary chamber is shut off or until it cools to a certain temperature. Monitors which provide continuous information on combustion temperature, waste feed rate, fuel feed rate, and air feed rate are essential for monitoring the process.

Pathological incinerators have traditionally been used by hospitals to incinerate pathological and other infectious waste. These incinerators have relatively small capacity, and generally are operated intermittently. Some large facilities have considered installation of resource recovery incinerators (i.e., heat recovery from incineration of all wastes - including infectious wastes). However, these incinerators may be subject to regulation under the Federal Clean Air Act, or the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (hazardous waste regulations) if certain hazardous waste are burned. At present, pathological incinerators are not subject to Federal regulations promulgated under either the Clean Air Act or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. However, many States and localities have frequently applied emission standards, in particular, standards for particulate emissions and carbon monoxide, to all incinerators (including pathological) within their jurisdictions.

The absence of regulations that apply to hospital incinerators does not relieve a hospital of responsibility for meeting the criteria for proper incineration of infectious waste. Therefore, even though infectious waste incinerators may not be regulated, hospitals and other facilities treating infectious waste by this method should ensure that the waste is being properly incinerated.

4. Thermal inactivation

Thermal inactivation includes treatment methods that utilize heat transfer to provide conditions that reduce the presence of infectious agents in waste. Generally this method is used for treating larger volumes of infectious wastes (such as industrial applications). Different thermal inactivation techniques are used for treatment of liquid and solid infectious wastes.

1. Thermal Inactivation of Liquid Infectious Waste

Batch-type liquid waste treatment units consist of a vessel of sufficient size to contain the liquid waste generated during a specific operating period (e.g., 24 hours). The system may include a second vessel that provides continuous collection of waste without interruption of activities that generate the waste.

The waste may be pre-heated by heat exchangers, or heat may be applied by a steam jacket that envelopes the vessel. Heating is continued until a pre-determined temperature (usually measured by a thermocouple) is achieved and maintained for a designated period of time (analogous to steam sterilization). Mixing may be appropriate to maximize homogeneity of the waste and temperature during the loading and heat application steps of the treatment cycle.

The temperature and holding time depends on the nature of the pathogens present in the waste. Since this treatment method is used most often in industrial applications, the identity of the pathogens are usually known. Time and temperature requirements can be selected on the basis of the resistance of either the pathogen present in the waste or of a pathogen that is more resistant than those being treated.

After the treatment cycle is complete, the contents of the vessel/tank are discharged. These discharges, which are normally to the sewer, must comply with the local, State, or Federal requirements. Since these requirements usually include temperature restrictions, a second heat exchanger may be necessary to remove excess heat from the effluent.

The continuous treatment process for treating liquid infectious waste is actually a semi-continuous process. The system can provide on demand thermal inactivation without the need for a large vessel or tank. A typical system consists of a small feed tank, an elaborate steam-based heat exchanger, a control and monitoring system, and associated piping.

Liquid waste is introduced into the small feed tank, pumped across the heat exchanger at a constant fixed rate of flow, and then recirculated through the feed tank and the rest of the system until the required temperature has been achieved. Because of the relatively shorter contact time, the treatment temperature may be higher than those in a batch-type system. The treated waste may be cooled by a second heat exchanger before discharge to the sanitary sewer of the facility.

2. Thermal Inactivation of Solid Infectious Waste

Dry heat treatment may be applied to solid infectious waste. In this technique, the waste is heated in an oven which is usually operated by electricity. Dry heat is a less efficient treatment agent than steam and, therefore, higher temperatures or longer treatment cycles are necessary. A typical cycle for dry heat sterilization is treatment at 320° to 338°F for two to four hours.

The extensive time and energy requirements of thermal inactivation preclude common use of this technique for treatment of solid infectious waste.

5. Gas/Vapour Sterilization

Gas/vapour sterilization is an option that may be used for treating certain infectious waste. In this method, the sterilizing agent is a gaseous or vapourized chemical. The two most commonly used chemicals are ethylene oxide and formaldehyde. There is substantial evidence that these chemicals are probable human carcinogens, and caution must be exercised when they are used. Therefore, when the use of gas /vapour sterilization is considered, the relative hazard of the treatment itself should be weighed against the benefits resulting from the treatment.

Ethylene oxide gas is often used to sterilize thermolabile supplies but, because of its toxicity and because other options are available, ethylene oxide is not recommended for treating infectious waste.

Formaldehyde gas is used to sterilize certain disposable items which may be contaminated (e.g., HEPA filters from biological safety cabinets). Formaldehyde sterilization procedures should be performed only by persons trained in the use of formaldehyde as a gaseous sterilant.

With both ethylene oxide and formaldehyde, there is the potential for additional exposure after treatment has been completed. Ethylene oxide is absorbed by porous materials, and formaldehyde frequently forms a residue. Both of these phenomena result in continued release of the gases from the treated waste for substantial periods of time after treatment.

6. Chemical Disinfection

Chemical treatment is most appropriate for liquid wastes, however, it also can be used in treating solid infectious waste.

In order to use chemicals effectively, the following factors should be considered:

  1. type of micro-organism
  2. degree of contamination
  3. amount of proteinaceous material present
  4. type of disinfectant
  5. concentration and quantity of disinfectant
  6. contact time
  7. other relevant factors (e.g., temperature, pH, mixing requirements, biology of micro-organism)

The disposal of chemical treatment waste should be in accordance with State and local requirements.

7. Sterilization by Irradiation

An emerging technology for treating infectious waste involves the use of ionizing radiation. Experience being gained from irradiation of medical supplies, medical components, food, and other consumer products is providing a basis for the development of practical applications for treatment of infectious waste.

The advantages of ionizing radiation sterilization for treatment of infectious waste relative to other available treatment methods include:

  1. nominal electricity requirements
  2. no steam requirements
  3. no residual heat in treated waste
  4. performance of the system.

The principal disadvantages of a radiation sterilization facility are:

  1. high capital cost
  2. requirement for highly trained operating and support personnel
  3. large space requirement
  4. problem of ultimate disposal of the decayed radiation source.

When properly used and monitored, ionizing radiation may provide an effective method of treating infectious waste.

8. Other Treatment Methods

Other methods of treating infectious waste should be demonstrated as effective before being used routinely. Efficacy of the method should be demonstrated by the development of a biological testing program. Monitoring should be conducted on a periodic basis using appropriate indicators.

 

 

ABOUT NPCS

 

NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.

 


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:


• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period


We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.

 

The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?


The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.


Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.

 

Our Approach:


• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.

 

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:

 

 

Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications

 

Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity

 

Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers

 

Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel

 

Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)

 

Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram

 

Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities

 

Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:

 

  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital

 

  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals

                Revenue/Income/Realisation

                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios

                D.S.C.R

                Earnings Per Share (EPS)

               

             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 

                B.E.P

  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR