The Complete Book on Distillation and Refining of Petroleum Products (Lubricants, Waxes and Petrochemicals) ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 8186623973
Code ENI152 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 975   975 US$ 26   26
Pages: 496 Published 2005
Publisher National institute of industrial Research
Usually Ships within 5 days

The most dynamic industry of the century is the petroleum and petrochemicals industry. It has taken the fundamental knowledge of chemistry and chemical engineering and transformed itself from a simple processing industry for fuel and lubricants to an extremely complex chemical process industry which has branched out into synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers and many other fields. Petroleum (crude oil) is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Many useful products can be made from these hydrocarbons. The fractions are separated from one another using a process called fractional distillation. This process is based on the principle that different substances boil at different temperatures. The applications of distillation in petroleum industry are quite varied. The assaying of crude oils and the evaluation many petroleum products depend on distillation. Petroleum products obtained from processes such as distillation often need supplementary purification. Refining is a process of purification of products by means of chemical process. Chemical engineering and petroleum processing have in a very real sense grown up together. Studies on fluid flow, heat transfer, distillation, absorption, and the like were undertaken and applied to wide variety of materials because of need in the petroleum processing field. The largest share of oil products is used as energy carriers: various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Hydrogen and carbon in the form of petroleum coke may also be produced as petroleum products. Petrochemicals have a vast variety of uses. The use of petroleum hydrocarbons to make synthesis gas has made petroleum and natural gas the world main source of ammonia, the source of almost all nitrogen fertilizers. While petroleum product demand in the western world is relatively stagnant, for developing countries, particularly those in Asia, demand is booming. It is all about growing populations and their escalating need for energy.

Some of the fundamental of the book are the nature of petroleum, crude oil processing, distillation in the petroleum industry, refining of lubricating oils, petrolatum, and waxes, residue fluidized catalytic cracking, chemical thermodynamics of petroleum , benefits of biodiesel produced from vegetable oil, petroleum products used as fuel oils, manufacture of asphalt from petroleum, petroleum waxes, chlorinated waxes, synthesis gas etc.

The book presents information and data which will help oil companies, large scale users of commercial petroleum products in efficient storage, handling and utilization of these products. Different formulae, processes for the production of petroleum products are given in this book. This will be very useful book for new entrepreneurs, existing units, technocrats, researchers, institutional libraries etc.

1. Introduction
The Nature of Petroleum
Largest Energy Supplier
Constituents of Petroleum
Aliphatics, or open chain Hydrocarbons
Ring Compounds
Lesser Components

2 Crude Oil Processing 
Ideal Solutions
Real Solutions
Critical Phenomena
Chemical Dissimilarity
Ordinary Distillation
Steam Distillation
Extractive Distillation
Process Equipment
Single Stage
Plate Columns 
Differential Columns
Wetted Wall
Distillation in the Petroleum Industry
Analytical Applications
Single stage Processes
Multistage Processes
Manufacturing Applications
Primary Distillation
Process feed Preparation 
Product Fractionation
Combination Processing.

Refining by Chemical Methods
Sulfuric Acid Treating
Reactions with Hydrocarbons
Paraffinic and Naphthenic Hydrocarbons
Manner and Effects of Treating
Refining by Physical Methods
Fullers Earth (Attapulgite, Floridin, Florida Earth)
Acid activated Bentonite
Silica Gel
Commercial Applications
Separation of Classes of Hydrocarbons
Refining of Lubricating Oils, Petrolatums, and Waxes
Stabilizing Gasolines
Regeneration of Adsorbents
Solvent Refining Processes
Aromatics Recovery
Refining Lubricating Oil Stocks.
Separation of Wax
Propane Deasphalting

4. Cracking 
Catalytic Cracking 
Residue Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (RFCC or RCC)
FCC versus HCU
Thermal Reforming
Catalytic Reforming
Operating Variables

5. Chemical Thermodynamics of Petroleum 
Fundamental Relationships
The Standard Free Energy and Equilibrium
Status of Thermodynamic Data
Applications to Petroleum Processing
General Considerations
Aromatization of Paraffins and Naphthenes
Isomerization of n Butane

6. Gasoline 
Composition, Manufacture, and use of Gasoline
Volatility of Gasoline
Air Fuel Mixtures and Combustion
Phenomena of Knocking
Ethyl Alcohol as an IC Engine Fuel
Alcohols as auto fuels
Issues not in favour of Alcohol
Blending Alcohol and Gasoline

7. Diesel Fuels 
Diesel Combustion
Ignition Quality

8. Bio Diesel 
Disadvantages of Vegetable Oil as Diesel Fuel
Benefits of Biodiesel Produced from Vegetable Oil
Disadvantages of Biodiesel produced from Vegetable Oil
Biodiesel Production from various vegetable oils on 
Different Countries
Country Source of biodiesel
Economics of Biodiesel Project
Tax Incentives in Developed Countries
World Production Level of Biodiesel
Price in USA
Projected Indian Demand Scenario For Biodiesel
Average annual CAGR for High Speed Diesel
Demand for Biodiesel
Potential Indian Demand for Biodiesel
Choice of Jatropha
Cultivation Practices of Jatropha Plant
Soil Condition:
Conditions for growth:
Cultivation practices and yield
Jatropha Oil Content
Eco Friendly Biodiesel
Rich Resources
Vigorous Pursuit
Fulfilling basic criteria 
Feed stock

9. Kerosene, Absorbent, Oils, and Fuels Oils 
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties
Testing Methods
Miscellaneous Uses
Absorbent Oils
Fuel Oils
Combustion of Fuel Oils
Petroleum Products Used as Fuel Oils
Certain Unusual Crude Oils
Crude Oil Residua
Gas Oils, Distillate Fuel Oils.

10. Lubrication and Lubricants 
Friction and Lubrication

11. Waxes 

Carnauba Wax
Paraffin Wax
Montan Wax
Candelilla Wax
Synthetic Waxes
Petroleum Waxes
Chemical Properties and Composition
Crystallization of Wax
Dewaxing of Heavy Oils

12. Petroleum Asphalts
Chemical and Physical Composition
Chemical composition
Mineral Oil
Carbenes and Carboids
Possible Structures of the Nuclei in Resins, and Asphaltenes
Physical Constitution
Physical Properties and Tests
Manufacture of Asphalt from Petroleum
Residual or Straight run Asphalts
Air blown Asphalts
Uses of Asphalts
Road Oils
Asphalt Emulsions
Solid Asphalts.

13. Miscellaneous Petroleum Products and Derived Products 
Miscellaneous Petroleum Products
White Oils
Industrial Naphtha Solvents
Paints, Varnishes and Lacquers
Dry Cleaning
Cutback Asphalt
Petroleum Insecticides
By Products
Petroleum Coke
Sulfuric Acid Sludge
Petroleum Sulfonic Acids
Chemicals Derived from Petroleum
Chemicals Derived from Olefinic Hydrocarbons.
Ethyl Alcohol
Isopropyl Alcohol
Secondary Butyl Alcohol
Tertiary Alcohols
Higher Alcohols
Glycols And Glycerol
Addition of Halogenes
Oxidation Products
Miscellaneous Products
Chemicals Derived from Paraffinic Hydrocarbons
Chlorination Products
Nitration Products
Oxidation Products. 
Chemicals Derived from Aromatic Hydro carbons
Carbon Blacks
Fischer Tropsch Process and Products

14. Propylene
Propylene Trimer and Tetramer
Acrylic Fibers
Other Acrylonitrile Derivatives
Allyl Chloride
Epoxy Resins
Other Epichlorohydrin Derivatives
Allyl A lcohol Derivatives
Diallyl Amine
1,2 Dibromo 3 Chloropropane
Dichloropropanes, Dichloropropenes
1,2,6 Hexane Triol
Propylene Oxide
Propylene Glycol
Dipropylene Glycol
Higher Propylene Glycols
Propylene Carbonate
1,3 Propylene Diamine
Polypropylene Oxide Elastomers
Diacetone Alcohol (DAA)
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK)
Hexylene Glycol
Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol (MIBC)

15. Synthesis Gas 
Mettiane reforming
Naphtha reforming
Fuel oil partial oxidation
Reformer off gas purification by low temperature   fractionation
Topsfe SEA autothermal process using naphtha
Nitrogen Fertilizers
Mixed Fertilizers
Urea formaldehyde resins
Sulfamic acid
Nitric Acid
Ammonium nitrate
Potassium nitrate
Ammonium Phosphates
Ammonium Sulfate
Ammonium Chloride
Carbon Dioxide
Hexamethylene tetramine
Glycolic acid
Textile finishes
Methyl Chloride
Methyl cellulose
Tetramethyl lead
Methyl Glucoside
Methyl Bromide
n Butyraldehyde
Ethyl 1, 3 hexanediol
Butyric acid
Isobutyric acid
Neopentyl glycol
Pantothenic acid
Octoic acid
Propionic acid
n Propanol
Heavy Oxo Chemicals
Chlorinated Isocyanurics
Substituted Urea, Carbamate and Thiocarbamate   Pesticides
Other Phosgene Derivatives
Oxalic Acid
Hydrogenated Fats and Oils
Hydrogen Peroxide
Organic Peroxides
Other hydrogen peroxide derivatives
Furfuryl Alcohol
Fatty Alcohols
Fatty Nitriles and Amines

16. Other Petrochemicals 
Petroleum Waxes
Chlorinated Waxes
n Paraffins
Detergent Raw Materials
Carbon Black
Synthetic p Cresol
Synthetic o Cresol
Tricresyl Phosphate
Petroleum Resins
Naphthenic Acids
Hydrogen Sulfide
Phosphorus Pentasulfide
Thioglycolic Acid
Dimethyl Sulfoxide 


Lubrication and Lubricants

The underlying principles of friction between everyday objets of conventional smoothness seem to have been understood clearly by Leonardo da Vinci (ca. 1500). These principles were formulated by Amontons (1700) as follows:

Friction is proportional to the load normal to the rubbing surfaces.

It is independent of the area of contact.

The third and less significant rule was formulated by Coulomb (1800):

Friction is independent of the velocity of movement. Even the earliest investigators recognized that friction varies with the material and condition of the surfaces in contact; indeed, it is customary to regard the expression

Resistance to tangential motion/Force normal to the surfaces

as an approximate constant for each surface system; it is called the coefficient of friction. A useful distinction is that when motion between the surfaces is started from rest, the constant is known as the static coefficient; when motion is already established, it becomes the kinetic coefficient of friction.

Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life, but most of the manifestations with which we are familiar are between soft, rough surfaces rather than the hard, polished ones occurring in the bearings of power-transmitting devices. Thus the high friction between a leather shoe sole and a stone pavement, which enables us to stand or walk without slipping, is due to the fact that the irregularities in the floor enter the comparatively soft leather surface pressed down on them. The friction here is due to the irregularities or asperities in the surfaces, which interlock. In a system of this nature, it will generally be found that the coefficient of static friction will increase with the time during which the surfaces have been pressed together and that the kinetic coefficient of friction changes with the velocity of motion. In addition, the static and kinetic coefficients are not the same in value. Where smooth hard surfaces are employed, the static coefficient for the surfaces at once reaches a steady value, which is not very different from that of the kinetic coefficient. It is obvious that what is involved is the slow change in shape of the nonrigid surface, supplemented by change in the degree of interlocking of asperities.

The general "laws" stated above were derived from observation on relatively smooth, relatively rigid surfaces of ordinary cleanness, thus presumably unlubricated. Actually, all surfaces prepared and handled without elaborate precautions bear, by touch or by condensation from the atmosphere, greasy films of marked lubricating value. For smooth metal surfaces so contaminated, coefficients of friction of the order of 0.1 to 0.3 have been observed. As cleanliness is improved, the coefficients rise to the point where relative sliding without damage becomes impossible and seizure occurs; this is discussed below.

The first and second laws need little change from the form in which they were derived by the early natural philosophers; the third needs restatement as follows.

Friction is practically independent of speed when this latter is above a certain minimum value, and decreases slightly with increase of speed a much higher values.

Any explanation of the nature of friction should offer reasonable opportunity for deduction of these rules. The two explanations which have been most attractive since the earliest days are based, respectively, on the resistance to sliding motion offered by interlocking roughnesses of the two surfaces and or the cohesive attraction, among molecules of the surfaces, across the interface. It is obvious that for rough surfaces such as wood, stone, or unfinished metal castings, gross asperities will be the determining factors.


It has been pointed out that friction between carefully cleaned surfaces is quite high, tending to seizure, while the greasy surfaces of daily life will show coefficients near 0.1 to 0.3. Two further stages, in the progression from full lubrication to no lubrication, are recognizable; these are fluid film, thick film, or hydrodynamic lubrication, and thin film or boundary lubrication.

The mode of occurrence of thin-film and thick-film lubrication in ordinary practice may be indicated by the statement that the latter is regarded as the ideal which should prevail in all well-designed journal bearing systems when in normal motion; the former is a somewhat undesired condition existing when bearing systems are starting, stopping, undergoing oil starvation, or are under extremely severe conditions of duty. The various regions of friction and lubrication may then be listed as follows:

Dry friction of clean surfaces practically never prevails except under experimental conditions; the frictional resistance is high, and seizure occurs with extreme readiness. Dry friction of ordinary surfaces in daily life is lower than that of clean surfaces. Here also seizure occurs readily; the so-called laws of solid friction have been deduced from phenomena observed with surfaces of ordinary cleanliness.

Thin-film lubrication represents a transition stage between greasy dry friction and thick-film lubrication. It is an unstable condition and depends for its existence on what is apparently chemical reaction or secondary valence combination between the metals and the lubricant. It is most likely to prevail at times of low oil supply. In many bearing systems, lubrication is inadequate when the parts are moving at lower speeds than those for which they have been designed, as in starting or stopping. Under those conditions thin-film lubrication may prevail.

Thick-film lubrication represents a stable region in which the moving surfaces are separated by a complete film of lubricant, so maintained inspite of the pressure which constitutes tho load on the bearing system. The persistence of the oil film depends on the pumping action of the moving parts (supplemented by the supply pressure usually provided in actual machines), and the case with which this desirable condition is attained depends on the correctness of the bearing design and the proper choice of oil, particularly as to viscosity at the effective temperature.

Recognition of the dependence of friction in bearings upon the variables of the complete bearing system probably began with the observation by Petroff in 1883 that an oil of optimum viscosity could be selceted for each particular service. The voluminous studies of journal-bearing lubrication since that date have served to extend the list of controlling conditions until it includes.





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NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

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• Project Costs and Payback Period

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Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR