Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products (Preservation Techniques, Luncheon Meats, Meat Loaves, Meat Spreads, Canned Meat Products, Maintenance of Eggs, Soups, Gravies, Sauces, Sausage with Machinery, Equipment Details & Factory Layout) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 978-81-7833-030-3
Code ENI158 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1575   1575 US$ 39   39
Pages: 504 Published 2024
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days

Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products

(Preservation Techniques, Luncheon Meats, Meat Loaves, Meat Spreads, Canned Meat Products, Maintenance of Eggs, Soups, Gravies, Sauces, Sausage with Machinery, Equipment Details & Factory Layout)


About the Book

Meat and poultry preservation refers to the process of extending the shelf life of meat and poultry products while maintaining their quality and safety. Preservation methods have been used for centuries to prevent spoilage and make these products available for consumption beyond their natural lifespan. This practice not only ensures that the meat and poultry stay edible for a longer time, but it also helps to reduce waste and increase convenience for consumers. There are various methods of meat and poultry preservation, each with its own unique benefits and requirements. Some common preservation techniques include freezing, drying, smoking, canning, and curing.


The increasing consumption of meat and poultry worldwide is expected to drive this market in the Upcoming years. Poultry, pork, beef, and lamb are some of the types of meat that are widely consumed worldwide. The high popularity of Poultry meat due to its low price compared to red meats is expected to be the primary driver of market growth. The prominent meat product market players are embarking upon the utilization of meat and poultry from the companies that meet standards for animal welfare.


As the demand for preserved meat and poultry products continues to rise, the market outlook for starting a preservation business is incredibly promising. The convenience, reduced food waste, flavor variety, and food safety that preserved products offer make them highly sought after by consumers. This trend is expected to continue growing in the coming years, presenting entrepreneurs with a golden opportunity to capitalize on this market demand.


Some of the major aspects of the book are Principles of Various Preservation Techniques, Preservation of Poultry Meat, Utilisation of Poultry Industry By-Products, Preservation and Maintenance of Eggs, Poultry Products, Luncheon Meats, Meat Loaves and Meat Spreads, Sausage Manufacturing Process, Miscellaneous Canned Meat Products, Standards and Quality Control Measures for Meat and Meat Products, Soups, Gravies, and Sauces (Including Mixes), Meat and Poultry Products Packaging, Cold Chain Management in Meat Storage, Distribution and Retail.


Lucrative and sustainable business prospects abound within the Meat and Poultry Industry. Consequently, embarking on your entrepreneurial journey is a commendable approach to enter this sector. To gain comprehensive insights into the Meat and Poultry Products industry, consider delving into this book. It will provide valuable guidance on establishing your own Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products Business. Given the growing demand for Meat and Poultry Products in today's market, it presents an excellent opportunity for profit generation.



1.    Principles of Various Preservation Techniques

        1.1        Chilling/Refrigeration

        1.2        Freezing

        1.3        Curing

                     1.3.1       Sodium Nitrates and Nitrite

        1.4        Smoking

        1.5        Thermal Processing

        1.6        Canning

                     1.6.1       Preparation of Meat and Gravy

                     1.6.2       Precooking

                     1.6.3       Filling

                     1.6.4       Exhausting

                     1.6.5       Seaming

                     1.6.6       Retorting or Thermal Processing

                     1.6.7       Cooling

                     1.6.8       Storage

        1.7        Dehydration

        1.8        Irradiation

2.    How to Start a Meat and Poultry Products Business

        2.1        Research and Market Analysis

        2.2        Business Planning

        2.3        Legalities

        2.4        Location

        2.5        Supplier and Equipment

        2.6        Quality Control

        2.7        Branding and Marketing

        2.8        Pricing

        2.9        Employee Training

        2.10     Customer Service

        2.11     Diversification

        2.12     Environmental Considerations

3.    Preservation of Poultry Meat

        3.1        Chilling

        3.2        Freezing

        3.3        Curing

        3.4        Smoking

        3.5        Dehydration

        3.6        Canning

        3.7        Radiation Preservation

4.    Utilisation of Poultry Industry By-Products

        4.1        Feathers

        4.2        Blood

        4.3        Offal

        4.4        Mixed Poultry By-products Meal

        4.5        Hatchery Waste

        4.6        Poultry Manure

5.    Preservation and Maintenance of Eggs

        5.1        Egg Cleaning

        5.2        Oil Treatment

        5.3        Cold Storage

        5.4        Thermo-Stabilisation

        5.5        Immersion in Liquids

6.    Poultry Products

        6.1        Freezing Whole, Parts, Rolls, and Meat of Poultry

        6.2        Freezing Roasting Chickens and Turkeys

                     6.2.1       Chickens

                     6.2.2       Turkeys

        6.3        Freezing Poultry Rolls (Raw, Cooked, Cured and

                     6.3.1       Raw Poultry Rolls

                     6.3.2       Cooked Poultry Rolls

                     6.3.3       Cured, Smoked Poultry Rolls

        6.4        Freezing Cut-up Poultry

        6.5        Frozen Deboned Chicken Meat

        6.6        Freeze Drying Chicken

        6.7        Freezing Stuffed Turkeys

        6.8        Boning Whole Turkeys

        6.9        Freezing Whole Boned Turkey Rolls

        6.10     Turkey Fillets

        6.11     How to Utilize Poultry Skin and Meat Bits in Pot Pies

        6.12     Freezing Cornish Game Hens

        6.13     Freezing Ducks

        6.14     Freezing Geese

        6.15     Canned Chicken Products

                     6.15.1     Canned Whole Chicken

                     6.15.2     Ingredients for Plain Broth

                     6.15.3     Procedure

                             For Plain Broth

                             For Broth with Gelatin Added

                     6.15.4     Fill Cans

                     6.15.5     Suggested Process

                     6.15.6     Chill

        6.16     Canned Chicken or Turkey Meat

                     6.16.1     Suggested Process

        6.17     Canned Chicken Fricasse

                     6.17.1     Prepare Chicken

                     6.17.2     Prepare Gravy

                     6.17.3     Fill Cans and Close

                     6.17.4     Suggested Process

        6.18     Canned Chicken Stew

                     6.18.1     Prepare Vegetables

                     6.18.2     Prepare 90 Gal. of Gravy

                     6.18.3     Fill and Close Cans

                     6.18.4     Suggested Process

        6.19     Canned Chicken and Dumplings

                     6.19.1     Prepare Chicken

                     6.19.2     Prepare Dumplings

                     6.19.3     Prepare Gravy

                     6.19.4     Suggested Process

        6.20     Canned Turkey and Dumplings

                     6.20.1     Canned Ham and Dumplings

        6.21     Canned Chicken and Noodle Dinner

                     6.21.1     Suggested Process

        6.22     Canned Chicken Noodle Dinner

                     6.22.1     Procedure

                     6.22.2     Suggested Process

        6.23     Canned Chicken, Mushrooms and Noodles

                     6.23.1     Procedure

                     6.23.2     Suggested Process

        6.24     Canned Chicken, Mushroom and Macaroni

                     6.24.1     Procedure

                     6.24.2     Suggested Process

        6.25     Canned Giblet and Noodle Dinner

                     6.25.1     Prepare Giblets

                     6.25.2     Prepare Noodles

                     6.25.3     Prepare Stock

                     6.25.4     Fill Jars and Close

                     6.25.5     Suggested Process

        6.26     Canned Chicken a La King (Finest Quality)

                     6.26.1     Prepare a la King Ingredients

                     6.26.2     Prepare Sauce

                     6.26.3     Assemble Ingredients and Pack

                     6.26.4     Suggested Process

                     6.26.5     Variations

        6.27     Canned Chicken a La King (Good Quality)

                     6.27.1     Prepare a la King Ingredients

                     6.27.2     Prepare Sauce

                     6.27.3     Assemble Ingredients and Pack

                     6.27.4     Suggested Process

        6.28     Canned Chicken Chow Mein

                     6.28.1     Prepare Chicken Dice

                     6.28.2     Prepare Vegetables

                     6.28.3     Prepare Sauce

                     6.28.4     Fill into Cans

                     6.28.5     Suggested Process

        6.29     Canned Curried Chicken

                     6.29.1     Prepare Chicken Meat

                     6.29.2     Prepare Gravy

                     6.29.3     Suggested Process

        6.30     Canned Chicken in Barbecue Sauce

                     6.30.1     Procedure

                     6.30.2     Suggested Process

        6.31     Canned Hungrian-Style Chicken Paprika

                     6.31.1     Prepare Chicken

                     6.31.2     Prepare Gravy

                     6.31.3     Fill and Close Cans

                     6.31.4     Suggested Process

        6.32     Canned Chicken Liver Pate

                     6.32.1     Procedure

        6.33     Canned Potted Chicken (Sandwich Spread)

                     6.33.1     Procedure

                     6.33.2     Uses for Broth

        6.34     Canned Savory Chicken or Turkey Spread

                     6.34.1     Procedure

                     6.34.2     Suggested Process

        6.35     Canned Giblet Spread

                     6.35.1     Procedure

                     6.35.2     Suggested Process

        6.36     Frozen Chicken Products

                     6.36.1     Frozen Baked Dressing

                     6.36.2     Procedure

                     6.36.3     Frozen Giblet Dressing

        6.37     Frozen Chicken Pot Pie Filing

                     6.37.1     Procedure

                     6.37.2     To Use Frozen Product

        6.38     Frozen Chicken or Turkey Pot Pies

                     6.38.1     Procedure

                                    6.38.1      Make Emulsions

                                    6.38.1      Make Gravy and Assemble

        6.39     Frozen Chicken or Turkey Croquettes

                     6.39.1     Procedure

        6.40     Frozen Chicken or Turkey Patties

                     6.40.1     Procedure

        6.41     Frozen Breaded Chicken Sticks

                     6.41.1     Prepare Chicken Sticks

                     6.41.2     For Batter Coating

                     6.41.3     For Breading

        6.42     Package and Freeze

        6.43     Frozen Chicken a La King

                     6.43.1     Prepare Sauce

        6.44     Frozen Chicken a La King

                     6.44.1     Procedure

        6.45     Frozen Creamed Chicken Patty Filling

                     6.45.1     Procedure

        6.46     Frozen Chicken in Port Wine

                     6.46.1     Procedure

        6.47     Frozen Chicken Curry

                     6.47.1     Procedure

        6.48     Frozen Chicken Tahiti

                     6.48.1     Procedure

        6.49     Frozen Chicken Paprika

                     6.49.1     Procedure

        6.50     Frozen Chicken Cacciatore

                     6.50.1     Procedure

        6.51     Frozen Cornish Game Hen with Peaches

                     6.51.1     Procedure

        6.52     Frozen French-Fried Chicken

        6.53     Boil-in-Bag Frozen Smoked Chicken in Barbecue Sauce

                     6.53.1     Prepare Chicken and Smoke

                     6.53.2     Prepare Sauce

                     6.53.3     Pack and Freeze

        6.54     Bag-in-Box Frozen Smoked Chicken in Barbecue Sauce

                     6.54.1     Prepare Chicken and Smoke

                     6.54.2     Prepare Sauce

                     6.54.3     Package and Freeze

        6.55     Frozen Chicken Burgers

        6.56     Frozen Turkey Burgers

        6.57     Frozen Chicken Giblet Con Carne with Beans

                     6.57.1     Prepare Meats

                     6.57.2     Prepare Beans

                     6.57.3     Assemble Ingredients

        6.58     Turkey Products

                     6.58.1     Frozen Turkey Rolls (Emulsion Type)

                     6.58.2     Procedure for Making Rolls

        6.59     Canned Turkey Noodle Dinner in Jars

                     6.59.1     Procedure

        6.60     Canned Turkey a La King

                     6.60.1     Prepare a la King Ingredients

                     6.60.2     Prepare Sauce

                     6.60.3     Suggested Process

                     6.60.4     Label Requirement

        6.61     Frozen Comminuted Turkey “Steaks”

                     6.61.1     Procedure

                             To Make Skin Emulsion

                             Assemble Ingredients

                             Stuff, Cook, and Chill

                             Slice, Coat, and Freeze

        6.62     Smoked Turkey

                     6.62.1     Procedure

        6.63     Turkey Loaf

                     6.63.1     Procedure

        6.64     Turkey Loaf

                     6.64.1     Procedure

        6.65     Turkey Loaf in Chubs

                     6.65.1     Procedure

                             To Make Skin Emulsion

                             Assemble Ingredients

                             Stuff, Cook, and Chill

        6.66     Turkey Loaves in 6-Lb Oblong Cans

                     6.66.1     Stuffing, Cooking, Chilling for Oblong Cans

        6.67     Turkey Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein

                     6.67.1     Procedure

        6.68     Frozen Turkey Sticks

                     6.68.1     Stuffing, Cooking, Preparing Sticks

        6.69     Turkey Liverwurst (Pate) in Chubs

                     6.69.1     Procedure

        6.70     Turkey Spread in Chubs

                     6.70.1     Procedure

        6.71     Turkey Bologna

                     6.71.1     Procedure

                             Stuff and Smoke

        6.72     Canned Turkey Chili Con Carne

                     6.72.1     Procedure

                     6.72.2     Suggested Process

        6.73     Canned Turkey Chili Con Carne with Beans

                     6.73.1     Procedure

                     6.73.2     Suggested Process

                     6.73.3     Chill

        6.74     Miscellaneous Poultry Products

                     6.74.1     Cooked Boneless Poultry Rolls and Roasts

                     6.74.2     Procedure

        6.75     Breaded Poultry Patties with 15% Meat Replacement

                     6.75.1     Procedure

        6.76     Chicken Loaf with Textured Vegetable Protein

                     6.76.1     Procedure

        6.77     Jellied Chicken Loaf

                     6.77.1     Procedure

        6.78     Chicken Sandwich Spread

                     6.78.1     Procedure

        6.79     Chicken-Flavoured Sandwich Spread with Textured Vegetable Protein Dice

                     6.79.1     Procedure

        6.80     Chicken Salad with Textured Vegetable Protein

                     6.80.1     Procedure

                             Variations.—Tuna Salad

                             Turkey Salad

        6.81     Chicken Pie with Textured Vegetable Protein

                     6.81.1     Procedure

        6.82     A La King using Textured Vegetable Protein Dice with Chicken-Like Flavour

                     6.82.1     Procedure

        6.83     Chicken a La King with Textured Soy Protein

                     6.83.1     Procedure

        6.84     Chicken Liver Pate in Chubs

                     6.84.1     Procedure

        6.85     Base Mix for Chicken Croquettes

                     6.85.1     Procedure

                             Directions for Sample Evaluation

        6.86     Dry Mix Chicken Stew with Vegetables

                     6.86.1     Procedure

        6.87     Chicken Chop Suey with Textured Soy Protein

                     6.87.1     Procedure

        6.88     Chow Mein with Chicken-Flavoured Textured
Vegetable Protein Dice

                     6.88.1     Procedure

        6.89     Smoked Chicken

                     6.89.1     Procedure

        6.90     Poultry Sausage

        6.91     Chicken Frankfurters

                     6.91.1     Procedure

7.    Advice for Poultry Entrepreneurs: How to Promote
Your Product?

        7.1        Research and Analysis

        7.2        Decision Making

        7.3        Implementation of Your Decision

        7.4        Marketing Tips for Maximize Profit

                     7.4.1       Marketing Tips 1- Bypass the Middlemen

                     7.4.2       Get Your Business and Customer Online

                     7.4.3       Become A Supplier to Restaurants and Hotels

                     7.4.4       Employ A Number of Marketers

                     7.4.5       Offer Attractive Packages and Home Delivery Services

8.    Plant Layout Description-Poultry Processing

        8.1        Receiving Area

        8.2        Stunning and Slaughtering

        8.3        Scalding and Plucking

        8.4        Evisceration and Inspection

        8.5        Further Processing

        8.6        Cooking and Freezing

        8.7        Packaging

        8.8        Cold Storage

        8.9        Dispatch Area

        8.10     Waste Management Area

        8.11     Ancillary Areas

        8.12     Safety and Hygiene

9.    Luncheon Meats, Meat Loaves and Meat Spreads

        9.1        Introduction

        9.2        New FDA Ban on Premixed Commercial Seasoning Containing Sodium Nitrite

        9.3        General Instruction for Processing Canned Items
Under Steam or Under the Combination of Steam and Water Pressure

        9.4        Processing Steps

                     9.4.1       Exceptions to the Above Rules

        9.5        Canned Luncheon Meats

                     9.5.1       Finest Quality Spiced Pork Luncheon Meat

                               Procedure for All Can Sizes

                               Procedure for 12-Oz Oblong Cans

                               Procedure for 3- and 6-Lb Oblong Cans

        9.6        Commercial Quality Spiced Pork Luncheon Meat in
3- and 6-LB Cans

                     9.6.1       Procedure

                               Can Filling and Closing

                               Suggested Process

        9.7        Chopped Ham in 12-OZ Oblong Cans

                     9.7.1       Procedure

                               Can Filling and Closing

        9.8        Finest Quality Pork or Pork-Beef Luncheon Meat

                     9.8.1       Procedure for All-Pork Product

                               Grinding Method

                     9.8.2       Grinding-Chopping Method

                               Remix and Stuff

                               Cook and Chill

                     9.8.3       Procedure for Pork-Beef Product

        9.9        Spiced Beef Luncheon Meat In 12 Ozoblong Cans (Commercially Sterile)

                     9.9.1       Procedure

                               Suggested Process


        9.10     New England Pressed Ham in 3- or 6-LB Oblong Cans (Perishable)

                     9.10.1     Procedure

                             Remix and Stuff

                             Cook and Chill

        9.11     New England Pressed Ham using Non-Fat Dry Milk

                     9.11.1     Procedure

        9.12     Commercial Grade Minced Ham in 3- or 6-LB Oblong
Cans (Perishable)

                     9.12.1     Procedure

                             Remix and Stuff

                             Suggested Process

        9.13     Minced Ham using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.13.1     Procedure

        9.14     Cured Beef Tongues in Glass Jars

                     9.14.1     Preparation of Beef Tongues

                     9.14.2     Cure

                     9.14.3     Cook

                     9.14.4     Skin and Trim

                     9.14.5     Fill Jars

                     9.14.6     Process

                     9.14.7     Suggested Process

        9.15     Pickled Pig’s Feet or Pork Hocks in Vinegar

                     9.15.1     Filling

                             Vinegar Solution to Fill Jars

                             Fill Jars to Capacity

        9.16     Meat Loaves

                     9.16.1     Use of Gelatin and Non-fat Dry Milk in Meat

        9.17     Pickle and Pimiento Loaf

                     9.17.1     Procedure


                             Grind, Chop, and Mix

                             Stuff and Cook


        9.18     Pickle and Pimiento Loaf Using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.18.1     Procedure

        9.19     Baked Veal Loaf

                     9.19.1     Procedure


                             Grind, Chop, and Mix

                             Pan and Bake

        9.20     Veal, Pork, and Liver Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.20.1     Procedure

        9.21     Canned Veal Loaf in 12-OZ Oblong Cans (Commercially Sterile)

                     9.21.1     Procedure

                     9.21.2     Pack and Process

        9.22     Luxury Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.22.1     Procedure

        9.23     Utility Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.23.1     Procedure

        9.24     Meat and Cheese Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.24.1     Procedure

        9.25     Macaroni, Meat, and Cheese Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.25.1     Procedure

                             To Bake

                             To Cook

        9.26     Baked Pepper Loaf

                     9.26.1     Procedure

                             Grind, Chop, and Mix

                             Cure and Remix

                             Pan and Bake

        9.27     Baked Dutch Loaf

                     9.27.1     Procedure

                             Grind, Chop, and Mix

                             Pan and Bake


        9.28     Dutch Loaf Using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.28.1     Procedure

        9.29     Liver Loaf (Perishable)

                     9.29.1     Preparation of Product

                             Grind and Chop

                     9.29.2     Packing and Processing

                             Suggested Process

        9.30     Liver Loaf

                     9.30.1     Procedure

                             Grind and Chop





        9.31     Liver Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.31.1     Procedure

                     9.31.2     Coating for Meat Loaves

        9.32     Deluxe Liver Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.32.1     Procedure

        9.33     Head-cheese (Brawn)

                     9.33.1     If Pork Skins are Used

                     9.33.2     If Gelatin is Used

                     9.33.3     Procedure


                             Cubing and Grinding






        9.34     Head Cheese using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.34.1     Procedure

        9.35     Head-Cheese Spices

        9.36     Souse or Aspic Loaf

                     9.36.1     How to Prepare Gelatin

                     9.36.2     Stuffing

        9.37     Head-Cheese (Brawn) in 12-OZ Cans (Commercially Sterile)

                     9.37.1     Procedure

                     9.37.2     Suggested Process

        9.38     Imitation Chicken Loaf in 12-Oz, or 3- Or 6-LB Oblong

                     9.38.1     Procedure

                             Grind and Mix

                     9.38.2     Suggested Process

                     9.38.3     Chilling 12-Oz Cans

                     9.38.4     Chilling 3- and 6-Lb Cans

        9.39     Imitation Chicken Loaf in Hoy Molds or 4 × 4 × 24 Inch Oblong Molds

                     9.39.1     Procedure

                             Grind and Mix

                             Stuff and Cook

                             Chill and Package

        9.40     Imitation Chicken in Aspic in 3- or 6-LB Oblong Cans

                     9.40.1     Procedure

                             Pack and Process

                     9.40.2     Suggested Process

        9.41     Jellied Imitation Chicken Loaf

                     9.41.1     Procedure

                             Grind and Mix

                             Stuff and Cook

                             Chill and Package

        9.42     Roast Beef Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.42.1     Procedure

        9.43     Jellied Roast Beef Loaf

                     9.43.1     Procedure

        9.44     Jellied Corned Beef Loaf

                     9.44.1     To Cook and Cure the Beef

        9.45     Corned Beef Loaf using Non-Fat Dry Milk

                     9.45.1     Procedure

        9.46     Jellied Barbecued Beef Loaf

                     9.46.1     Procedure

                             Stuff, Chill, and Package

        9.47     Barbecue-Style Pork Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk

                     9.47.1     Procedure

        9.48     Canned Spreads

                     9.48.1     Deviled Ham Spread (Finest Quality)

                     9.48.2     Selection and Curing of Hams

                     9.48.3     Cook Hams

                     9.48.4     Grind and Mix

                     9.48.5     Re-Heat and Fill Cans

                     9.48.6     Suggested Process

        9.49     Deviled Ham Spread (Commercial Grade)

                     9.49.1     Preparation of Meat

                     9.49.2     Grind and Mix

                     9.49.3     Re-Heat and Fill Cans

                     9.49.4     Suggested Process

        9.50     Ham and Tongue Spread

                     9.50.1     Cure and Cook Tongues

                     9.50.2     Grind and Chop

                     9.50.3     Re-heat and Fill Cans

        9.51     Canned Potted Meat (Buffet Spread)

                     9.51.1     Prepare Meats and By-Products

                     9.51.2     Grind and Chop

                     9.51.3     Re-Heat and Fill Cans

                     9.51.4     Suggested Process

        9.52     Canned Liver Spread

                     9.52.1     Prepare Meat and By-Products

                             Pretreat Tripe

                             Soak and Leach Livers

                             Snouts, Jowls, and Pork Trimmings

                     9.52.2     Grind and Chop

                     9.52.3     Reheat and Fill Cans

                     9.52.4     Suggested Process

        9.53     Canned Mock Chicken Spread

                     9.53.1     Prepare Meat and By-Products

                             Pretreat Tripe

                             Snouts and Pork

                     9.53.2     Grind and Chop

                     9.53.3     Reheat and Fill Cans

                     9.53.4     Suggested Process

        9.54     Mettwurst Sausage Spread

                     9.54.1     Procedure





                             Ripen (Green Room)


                     9.54.2     Fast Curing Method

        9.55     Teewurst Sausage Spread

                     9.55.1     Procedure

        9.56     Teewurst Sausage Spread (Fast Method)

        9.57     Canned Corned Beef Products

                     9.57.1     Canned Corned Beef

                     9.57.2     Suggested Process

        9.58     Canned Corned Beef Hash

                     9.58.1     Procedure

                     9.58.2     Suggested Process

        9.59     Corned Beef Hash using Braised Meat

                     9.59.1     Procedure

                     9.59.2     Suggested Process

        9.60     Corned Beef Hash using South American Canned
Corned Beef

                     9.60.1     Procedure

                     9.60.2     Suggested Process

        9.61     Deviled Corned Beef (Hot Pack)

                     9.61.1     Procedure

                             Deviling Procedure

                     9.61.2     Suggested Process

        9.62     Creamed Corned Beef (Hot Pack)

                     9.62.1     Procedure

                     9.62.2     Suggested Process

10.  How to Launch a Profitable Meat business in India

        10.1     Create a Perfect Business Plan

        10.2     Manage Finances

        10.3     How Can I Contact the Clients?

        10.4     Space Required to Begin Meat Processing

        10.5     Registration and Licence

        10.6     List of Raw Materials for Meat Processing

        10.7     Processing of Meat

        10.8     List of the Machinery Needed for Meat Plant

        10.9     Transportation

        10.10   Packaging

        10.11   Conclusion

11.  Sausage Manufacturing Process

        11.1     Types of Sausage

        11.2     Sausage Production Processing

                     11.2.1     Selecting Ingredients

                     11.2.2     Grinding Meat Ingredients

                     11.2.3     Blending the Meat and Non-Meat Ingredients

                     11.2.4     Stuffing and Filling

                     11.2.5     Smoking

                     11.2.6     Packaging and Storage

12.  Plant Layout Description-Sausage Manufacturing

        12.1     Reception and Storage Area

        12.2     Meat Preparation Area

        12.3     Meat Grinding Area

        12.4     Mixing Area

        12.5     Emulsification Area

        12.6     Stuffing Area

        12.7     Linking and Hanging Area

        12.8     Cooking/Smoking Area

        12.9     Cooling Area

        12.10   Packaging Area

        12.11   Storage and Dispatch Area

        12.12   Quality Control Lab

        12.13   Waste Management Area

        12.14   Utility and Support Areas

13.  Miscellaneous Canned Meat Products

        13.1     General Instruction to be Observed for Processing
Canned Items under Steam or under the Combination
of Steam and Water Pressure

                     13.1.1     General Instructions

                     13.1.2     Retort Procedure During Cooking and Chilling

                             Exceptions to the Above Rules

        13.2     Brown Gravy (Retort Type)

                     13.2.1     Procedure

        13.3     Brown Gravy

                     13.3.1     Procedure

                     13.3.2     Suggested Process

                     13.3.3     Suggested Uses

        13.4     Brown Gravy with Sliced Beef (Semi-cold Pack)

                     13.4.1     Prepare Beef Slices

                     13.4.2     Prepare Gravy

                     13.4.3     Suggested Process

        13.5     Bee and Gravy (Cold Pack) (70% Beef, 30% Gravy)

                     13.5.1     Procedure

                     13.5.2     Suggested Process

        13.6     Beef and Gravy (Cold Pack)

                     13.6.1     Procedure

                     13.6.2     Suggested Process

        13.7     Sliced Beef in Gravy (for 100-Gallon Batch)

                     13.7.1     Procedure

        13.8     Swiss Steak in Gravy

                     13.8.1     Prepare Meat

                     13.8.2     Prepare Gravy

                     13.8.3     Fill and Close

                     13.8.4     Suggested Process

        13.9     Beef Stew Canned with Pre-cooked Gravy or Cold

                     13.9.1     Pre-Cooked Gravy Procedure

                             Pack and Process

                     13.9.2     Cold Gravy Procedure

                             To Make Cold Gravy

                             Mix and Process

                     13.9.3     Suggested Process for Either Type of Gravy

        13.10   Beef Stew with Dehydrated Potatoes

                     13.10.1   Procedure

        13.11   Southern-Style Brunswick Stew (Hot Pack)

                     13.11.1   Procedure

                     13.11.2   Suggested Process

        13.12   Beef Stroganoff (Hot-Pack)

                     13.12.1   Prepare Meat

                     13.12.2   Prepare Gravy

                     13.12.3   Pack

                     13.12.4   Suggested Process

        13.13   Georgia Hash (Hot Pack)

                     13.13.1   Procedure

                     13.13.2   Suggested Process

        13.14   Georgia Hash (Cold Pack)

                     13.14.1   Procedure

                     13.14.2   Process

        13.15   Hungarian-Style Beef and Vegetable Dinner
(Cold Pack)

                     13.15.1   Procedure

                     13.15.2   Suggested Process

                     13.15.3   For Pork and Vegetable Dinner

        13.16   Hungarian-Style Goulash (Hot Pack)

                     13.16.1   Prepare Meat

                     13.16.2   Prepare Gravy

                     13.16.3   Fill and Close

                     13.16.4   Suggested Process

        13.17   Hungarian Beef Goulash (Cold Pack)

                     13.17.1   Procedure

                     13.17.2   Suggested Process

        13.18   Pork and Rice Creole Dinner

                     13.18.1   Procedure

                     13.18.2   Suggested Process

        13.19   Lima Beans with Ham (Hot Pack)

                     13.19.1   Prepare Hams

                     13.19.2   Prepare Lima Beans

                     13.19.3   Make Gravy

                     13.19.4   Fill and Close

                     13.19.5   Suggested Process

        13.20   Creamed Chipped Beef

                     13.20.1   Process

        13.21   Creamed Chipped Beef (Hot Pack)

                     13.21.1   Procedure

                     13.21.2   Suggested Process

        13.22   Stuffed Green Peppers in Tomato Sauce

                     13.22.1   Prepare Filling

                     13.22.2   Prepare Sauce

                     13.22.3   Assemble, Fill Cans, and Close

                     13.22.4   Suggested Process

        13.23   Chop Suey with Vegetable and Beef or Pork

                     13.23.1   Procedure

                     13.23.2   Suggested Process

        13.24   Smoked Ham with Raisin Sauce

                     13.24.1   Procedure

                     13.24.2   Suggested Process

        13.25   Canned Ham Saled Spread

                     13.25.1   To Prepare Meat

                     13.25.2   To Prepare Dressing

                     13.25.3   Combine, Fill, and Process

        13.26   Meat Balls in Tomato Sauce (Institutional Pack in
no. 10 Tins)

                     13.26.1   Prepare Meat Balls

                     13.26.2   Prepare Sauce

                     13.26.3   Fill, Close, and Process

                     13.26.4   Suggested Process

                     13.26.5   Chill

        13.27   Meat Balls in Brown Gravy (Institutional Pack in
no. 10 Tins)

                     13.27.1   Prepare Meat Balls

                     13.27.2   Prepare Gravy

                     13.27.3   Fill, Close, Process, and Chill

        13.28   Meat Balls in Spaghetti Sauce

                     13.28.1   Prepare Meat Balls

                     13.28.2   Prepare Sauce

                     13.28.3   Fill, Close, Process

                     13.28.4   Suggested Process

        13.29   Spaghetti and Meat Balls in Tomato Sauce with Cheese

                     13.29.1   Prepare Meat Balls

                     13.29.2   Prepare Sauce

                     13.29.3   Prepare Spaghetti

                     13.29.4   Assemble and Pack

                     13.29.5   Suggested Process

        13.30   Spaghetti Meat Sauce (Hot Pack)

                     13.30.1   Procedure

                     13.30.2   Suggested Process

        13.31   Cocktail Meat Balls (Dry Pack)

                     13.31.1   Prepare Mixture

                     13.31.2   Fry or Broil

                           To Fry

                           To Broil

                     13.31.3   Drain, Pack, and Fill

                     13.31.4   Suggested Process

                     13.31.5   Chill

        13.32   Beef and Macaroni in Cheese Sauce (Hot Pack)

                     13.32.1   Prepare Meat

                     13.32.2   Prepare Cheese Sauce

                     13.32.3   Prepare Macaroni

                     13.32.4   Pack

                     13.32.5   Suggested Process

        13.33   Beef and Noodle Dinner

                     13.33.1   Prepare Meat

                     13.33.2   Prepare Egg Noodles

                     13.33.3   Prepare Gravy

                     13.33.4   Pack

                     13.33.5   Suggested Process

        13.34   Pork and Beans in Tomato Sauce (Hot Pack)

                     13.34.1   Prepare Pork and Beans

                     13.34.2   Prepare Sauce

                     13.34.3   Fill Cans

                     13.34.4   Suggested Process

        13.35   Ranch-Style Beans with Meat Balls

                     13.35.1   Prepare Beans

                     13.35.2   Prepare Meat Balls

                     13.35.3   Prepare Sauce

                     13.35.4   Pack and Process

                     13.35.5   Suggested Process

        13.36   Chili with Beans with Textured Soy Flour

                     13.36.1   Procedure

        13.37   Chili Con Carne with or without Beans

                     13.37.1   Procedure

                           Processing and Cooling

        13.38   Plain Chili Con Carne (Hot Pack)

                     13.38.1   Procedure

                     13.38.2   Suggested Process

        13.39   Chili Con Carne with Beans (Hot Pack)

                     13.39.1   Procedure

                     13.39.2   Suggested Process

        13.40   Chili Con Carne with Beans (Cold Pack)

                     13.40.1   Procedure

                     13.40.2   Suggested Process

        13.41   Chili Mak (Cold Pack)

                     13.41.1   Procedure

                     13.41.2   Suggested Process

        13.42   Hot Dog Chili Sauce with Meat (Hot Pack)

                     13.42.1   Procedure

                     13.42.2   Suggested Process

        13.43   Pizza Filler with Beef (Hot Pack)

                     13.43.1   Procedure

                     13.43.2   Suggested Process

        13.44   Sloppy Joe with Textured Soy Flour

                     13.44.1   Procedure

        13.45   Sloppy Joe (Cold Pack)

                     13.45.1   Procedure

                     13.45.2   Suggested Process

        13.46   Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)

                     13.46.1   Cook Meat

                     13.46.2   Make Sauce

                     13.46.3   Fill

                     13.46.4   Suggested Process

        13.47   Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Semicold Pack)

                     13.47.1   Procedure

                     13.47.2   Suggested Process

        13.48   Sliced Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)

                     13.48.1   Prepare Meat

                     13.48.2   Prepare Sauce

                     13.48.3   Fill Cans

                     13.48.4   Suggested Process

        13.49   Sliced Pork in Barbecue Sauce

                     13.49.1   To Prepare Meat

                     13.49.2   To Prepare Sauce

                     13.49.3   To Process

        13.50   Barbecued Beef in Sauce (Hot Pack)

                     13.50.1   Barbecue the Beef

                     13.50.2   Prepare Sauce

                     13.50.3   Fill Cans and Close

                     13.50.4   Suggested Process

        13.51   Barbecue Party Dip

                     13.51.1   Procedure

                     13.51.2   Suggested Process

        13.52   Corn Meal Mush with Bacon

                     13.52.1   Procedure

                     13.52.2   Suggested Process

        13.53   Philadelphia Scrapple

                     13.53.1   Procedure

                     13.53.2   Suggested Process

        13.54   Mince Meat Pie Filling

                     13.54.1   Procedure

                     13.54.2   Fill and Process

        13.55   Rum Flavouring for Mince Meat

        13.56   Brandy Flavoring for Mince Meat

        13.57   English-Style Pork Kidneys in Lemon Sauce

                     13.57.1   Procedure

                     13.57.2   Suggested Process

        13.58   Canned Rabbit Meat

                     13.58.1   To Can the Meat

                     13.58.2   To Can Pieces

                     13.58.3   Process

        13.59   Canned Frog Legs

        13.60   Canned Ham and Eggs

                     13.60.1   Procedure

                     13.60.2   Suggested Process

        13.61   Canned Brains with Gravy

                     13.61.1   Procedure

        13.62   Canned Beef Tripe

                     13.62.1   Selection of Tripe

                     13.62.2   Treatment Prior to Canning

                     13.62.3   Fill Cans

                     13.62.4   Suggested Process

14.  Standards and Quality Control Measures for Meat
and Meat Products

        14.1     Total Viable Counts

        14.2     Coliforms

        14.3     Enterococci

        14.4     Other Indicators

        14.5     Standards in Meat Industry

        14.6     Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System

        14.7     ISO-9000 Standards

15.  Plant Layout Description-Meat Processing

        15.1     Reception Area

        15.2     Slaughter Area

        15.3     Primary Processing Area

        15.4     Secondary Processing Area

        15.5     Further Processing Area

        15.6     Packaging Area

        15.7     Cold Storage

        15.8     Dispatch and Loading Area

        15.9     By-Product Processing Area

        15.10   Waste Treatment Area

        15.11   Quality Control and Laboratory

        15.12   Ancillary Areas

16.  Soups, Gravies, and Sauces (Including Mixes)

        16.1     Making Stocks, Extract, and Mixes

        16.2     Beef Soup Stock

                     16.2.1     Beef Stock with Vegetables Added

        16.3     Chicken Soup Stock

        16.4     Beef Extract

        16.5     Manufacture of Dry Soups and Gravy Mixes

                     16.5.1     General Tips

                     16.5.2     Small-Scale Production

                     16.5.3     Large-Scale Production

        16.6     Soups

        16.7     Canned Beef Consomme

                     16.7.1     Procedure

                     16.7.2     Fill

                     16.7.3     Suggested Process

        16.8     Canned Jellied Beef Consomme

                     16.8.1     Suggested Process

        16.9     Spanish Bean Soup (Single Strength)

                     16.9.1     Procedure

                     16.9.2     Suggested Process

        16.10   Frozen Gazpacho

                     16.10.1   Procedure

        16.11   Canned Chicken Broth

                     16.11.1   Procedure

                     16.11.2   Suggested Process

        16.12   Chicken-Flavoured Soup with Textured Vegetable

                     16.12.1   Procedure

        16.13   Canned Chicken Gumbo Soup

                     16.13.1   Procedure

                     16.13.2   Suggested Process

        16.14   Condensed Beef Bouillon or Broth

                     16.14.1   Procedure

                     16.14.2   Suggested Process

        16.15   Condensed Beef Bouillon or Broth with Rice

                     16.15.1   Suggested Process

        16.16   Canned Condensed Chicken Broth

                     16.16.1   Procedure

                     16.16.2   Suggested Process

        16.17   Canned Condensed Chicken and Noodle Soup

                     16.17.1   Suggested Process

        16.18   Canned Condensed Chicken Broth with Rice

                     16.18.1   Suggested Process

        16.19   Condensed Beef and Noodle Soup

                     16.19.1   Prepare Beef and Noodles

                     16.19.2   Prepare Base

                     16.19.3   Fill

                     16.19.4   Suggested Process

        16.20   Canned Condensed Beef Soup with Vegetables and

                     16.20.1   Prepare Base

        16.21   Prepare Vegetables and Meat

                     16.21.1   Fill

                     16.21.2   Suggested Process

        16.22   Condensed Cream of Chicken Soup

                     16.22.1   Procedure

                     16.22.2   Suggested Process

        16.23   Canned Condensed Cream of Chicken Soup

                     16.23.1   Procedure

                     16.23.2   Suggested Process

        16.24   Canned Condensed Chicken Vegetable Soup

                     16.24.1   Prepare Meat and Vegetables

                     16.24.2   Prepare Soup

                     16.24.3   Fill

                     16.24.4   Suggested Process

        16.25   Condensed Old-Fashioned Vegetable Soup

                     16.25.1   Prepare Vegetable-Macaroni Mixture

                     16.25.2   Prepare Soup Base

                     16.25.3   Fill

                     16.25.4   Suggested Process

        16.26   Canned Condensed Pea Soup

                     16.26.1   Procedure

                     16.26.2   Suggested Process

        16.27   Canned Condensed Lentil Soup

                     16.27.1   Suggested Process

        16.28   Canned Condensed Cream of Celery Soup

                     16.28.1   Procedure

                     16.28.2   Suggested Process

        16.29   Canned Condensed Cream of Asparagus Soup

                     16.29.1   Suggested Process

        16.30   Canned Condensed Cream of Spinach Soup

                     16.30.1   Procedure

                     16.30.2   Suggested Process

        16.31   Canned Condensed Onion Soup

                     16.31.1   Procedure

                     16.31.2   Suggested Process

        16.32   Canned Condensed Mulligatawny Soup

                     16.32.1   Procedure

                     16.32.2   Suggested Process

        16.33   Canned Condensed Oxtail Soup

                     16.33.1   Procedure

                     16.33.2   Suggested Process

        16.34   Canned Condensed Mock Turtle Soup

                     16.34.1   Procedure

                     16.34.2   Suggested Process

        16.35   Green Turtle Soup

                     16.35.1   Procedure

                     16.35.2   Suggested Process

        16.36   Snapping Turtle Soup

                     16.36.1   Procedure

                     16.36.2   Suggested Process

        16.37   Beef-Flavour Soup and Gravy Base Mix

                     16.37.1   Procedure

                     16.37.2   To Use

        16.38   Beef-Type Broth Mix (Low Sodium)

                     16.38.1   Procedure

                     16.38.2   To Use

        16.39   Beef Broth Base Mix (Paste from)

                     16.39.1   Procedure

                     16.39.2   Recommended Use

        16.40   Beef Soup Mix

                     16.40.1   Procedure

                     16.40.2   To Reconstitute

        16.41   Jellied Beef Consomme Base Mix

                     16.41.1   Procedure

                     16.41.2   Recommended Use

        16.42   Beef Noodle Soup Base Mix

                     16.42.1   Procedure

                     16.42.2   To Use

        16.43   Beef Noodle Soup Mix

                     16.43.1   Procedure

                     16.43.2   To Use

        16.44   Chicken-Type Broth Mix (Low Sodium)

                     16.44.1   Procedure

                     16.44.2   To Use

        16.45   Clear Chicken Soup Base Mix

                     16.45.1   Procedure

                     16.45.2   Recommended Use

        16.46   Jellied Chicken Soup Base Mix

                     16.46.1   Recommended Use

        16.47   Soup Dehydrated, Chicken (Type II with Noodles)

        16.48   Chicken Noodle Soup Mix

                     16.48.1   Procedure

                     16.48.2   To Rehydrate

        16.49   Cream of Chicken Soup Base Mix

                     16.49.1   Procedure

                     16.49.2   To Use

        16.50   Cream of Chicken Soup Mix

                     16.50.1   Procedure

                     16.50.2   To Rehydrate

        16.51   Chicken Noodle Soup Mix (Dry Style)

                     16.51.1   Procedure

                     16.51.2   To Rehydrate

        16.52   Chicken Noodle Soup Mix (Paste Style)

                     16.52.1   Procedure

                     16.52.2   To Rehydrate

        16.53   Chicken-Flavoured Soup Base Mix

                     16.53.1   Procedure

        16.54   Cream of Mushroom Soup Mix

                     16.54.1   Procedure

                     16.54.2   To Use

        16.55   Instant Onion Soup Mix

                     16.55.1   Procedure

                     16.55.2   To Use

        16.56   Oxtail Soup Mix

                     16.56.1   Procedure

                     16.56.2   To Reconstitute

        16.57   Mulligatawny Soup Mix

                     16.57.1   Procedure

                     16.57.2   To Reconstitute

        16.58   Mock Turtle Soup Mix

                     16.58.1   Procedure

                     16.58.2   To Reconstitute

        16.59   Beet Soup Mix (Borscht)

                     16.59.1   Procedure

                     16.59.2   Recommended Use

        16.60   Gravy for Frozen Pot Pies

                     16.60.1   Chicken Pies

                     16.60.2   For Turkey Pies

                     16.60.3   For Tuna Pies

        16.61   Frozen Extender for Roast Chicken or Turkey Gravy

                     16.61.1   Procedure

                     16.61.2   To Use

        16.62   Frozen Giblet Gravy

                     16.62.1   Prepare Giblets

                     16.62.2   Prepare Gravy

                     16.62.3   To Use

        16.63   Dry Mix Soup and Gravy Base Beef

        16.64   Au Jus Gravy Mix

                     16.64.1   Procedure

                     16.64.2   To Use

        16.65   Gravy Mix for Keep Pot Roast

                     16.65.1   Procedure

                     16.65.2   To Use

        16.66   Brown Gravy Mix

                     16.66.1   Procedure

                     16.66.2   To Use

        16.67   Brown Gravy Mix (Dry)

                     16.67.1   Procedure

                     16.67.2   To Use

        16.68   Chicken Gravy Mix (Dry)

                     16.68.1   Procedure

                     16.68.2   To Use

        16.69   Chicken-Flavoured Gravy Mix (Cook-up Type)

                     16.69.1   Procedure

                     16.69.2   To Prepare Gravy

        16.70   Chicken-Flavored Gravy Mix

                     16.70.1   Procedure

                     16.70.2   To Use

        16.71   Turkey-Flavored Instant Gravy Mix

                     16.71.1   Procedure

                     16.71.2   To Use

        16.72   Mushroom Gravy Mix

                     16.72.1   Procedure

                     16.72.2   To Use

        16.73   Ham-Style Gravy Mix

                     16.73.1   Procedure

                     16.73.2   To Use

        16.74   Sauces

        16.75   Bordelaise Sauce for Freezing

                     16.75.1   Procedure

        16.76   Bottled Meat Sauce

                     16.76.1   Procedure

        16.77   Frozen Sauce a La Barbara with Ham-Like Textured Vegetable Protein Dice

                     16.77.1   Procedure

        16.78   Marinara Sauce Base Mix

                     16.78.1   Procedure

                     16.78.2   To Use

        16.79   Barbecue Sauce

                     16.79.1   Procedure

        16.80   Barbecue Sauce Mix

                     16.80.1   Procedure

        16.81   Barbecue Sauce Mix

                     16.81.1   Procedure

                     16.81.2   To Use

        16.82   Oil Spice for Barbecue Sauce

        16.83   Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)

                     16.83.1   Cook Meat

                     16.83.2   Make Sauce

                     16.83.3   Fill

                     16.83.4   Suggested Process

        16.84   Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Semicold Pack)

                     16.84.1   Procedure

                     16.84.2   Suggested Process

        16.85   Barbecue Sauce Prepared with Peanut Flour

                     16.85.1   Procedure

        16.86   Barbecue Sauce

                     16.86.1   Processing Pointers

        16.87   Canned Sweet Barbecue Sauce (Can be Used with
Relish and/or Chutney)

                     16.87.1   Procedure

        16.88   Canned Barbecue Sauce

                     16.88.1   Procedure

17.  Meat and Poultry Products Packaging

        17.1     Importance of Meat Packaging

        17.2     Packaging of Fresh Meat

                     17.2.1     Packaging Requirements

                     17.2.2     Packaging Materials and Techniques

        17.3     Packaging of Frozen Meat

                     17.3.1     Packaging Requirements

                     17.3.2     Packaging Materials

        17.4     Packaging of Cured Meat

                     17.4.1     Packaging Requirements

                     17.4.2     Packaging Materials

        17.5     Packaging of Thermo-Processed / Cooked Meat

        17.6     Packaging of Dehydrated Meat

        17.7     Packaging of Meat Products

                     17.7.1     Packaging Materials

        17.8     Packaging of Poultry

                     17.8.1     Packaging Materials

        17.9     Modern Trends in Meat and Poultry Packaging

                     17.9.1     Retortable Flexible Pouch

                     17.9.2     Roast-in-Bags

                     17.9.3     Microwave Packages

                     17.9.4     Cryovac Packages

18.  Cold Chain Management in Meat Storage, Distribution and Retail

        18.1     Meat Spoilage

        18.2     Meat Supply Cold Chain Management

                     18.2.1     Cold Chain in Slaughterhouse

                             Air Chilling

                             Immersion Chilling

                             Spray Chilling

                             Vacuum Chilling

                     18.2.2     Cold Chain in Meat Distribution

                     18.2.3     Cold Chain in Meat Retail

        18.3     Available Options in Meat Supply Cold Chain Management

                     18.3.1     Chilled and Frozen Storage Combinations

                     18.3.2     Superchilling

                     18.3.3     Ionizing Radiation

                     18.3.4     Biopreservation

                     18.3.5     High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP)

                     18.3.6     Active Packaging

                             Antimicrobial Active Packaging

                             Antioxidant Active Packaging

                             Carbon-Dioxide Emitting/Generating

                     18.3.7     Wireless Sensors

19.  BIS Standards

20.  ISO Standards

21.  Factory Layout and Process Flow Chart & Diagram

22.  Photographs of Plant and Machinery with Suppliers Contact Details

      Meat Dicer

      Meat Mixer and Grinder

      Brine Injector-Tenderiser

      Frozen Meat Block Cutter

      Table Band Saw

      Meat Ball Forming Machine

      Blast Chiller Refrigerator

      Vacuum Meat Tumbler

      Meat Mincer

      Vacuum Meat Bowl Cutter for Sausage or Can Food

      Meat Tenderizer

      Vacuum Filler

      Sausage Peeler

      Meat Mixer

      Sausage Cooking Vat

      Double Chamber Vacuum Packaging Machine

      Semi-Automatic Tray Sealer

      Smoke Chamber

      Sausage Clipping Machine

      Automatic Thermoforming Packing Machine

      Sausage Stuffer / Filler

      Automatic Digital Meat Flattening Machine

      Air Chiller

      Can Seamer


Preservation and Maintenance of Eggs

A freshly laid egg can be assumed to have a highest quality. Since egg is full of essential nutrients, deteriorative changes soon start taking place which may pose a danger to the excellent sensory attributes of this nourishing and satisfying food item. Cleanliness and soundness of shell is the first step to assure the quality of egg to the consumers. The shell quality deficiencies mostly relate to the production practices adopted at the farm. Proper handling of eggs can delay the decline in the quality. Following precautions should be taken during handling of eggs:

  1. Eggs should be collected 3 to 4 times per day. This will result in less dirty eggs and fewer breakages.
  2. After collection, eggs should be shifted to holding room maintained at a temperature of about 15°C and 70 to 80% RH atleast for 12 hours.
  3. Eggs should be properly packed in filler flats with broad end up. Bulk packing should be done in fibre board cartons.
  4. Eggs should be rapidly moved through the marketing channel so as to reduce the period between production and consumption.

All preservation methods for shell eggs have been designed to retard one or more of the following physico-chemical alterations which lower the quality of egg as it ages:

  1. As the surface of egg dries, the keratin cuticle shrinks and size of shell pores increases rendering it easier for gases and micro-organisms to pass in and out of the shell.
  2. As the warm egg cools down, the egg contents also contract, resulting in the formation of air cell.
  3. The breakdown of carbonic acid causing loss of carbon dioxide from the albumen is rapid during the first few hours after an egg is laid. The alkaline pH acts on the mucin fibres to disturb the thick gel of albumen making it thin or watery.
  4. As the egg ages, water migrates from the albumen to the yolk which may overstretch, weaken or even rupture the vitelline membrane.

Following preservation methods are employed to maintain the quality of shell eggs:


Earlier, it was a general practice to dry-clean dirty egg shells by abrasive mounting on a mechanical wheel. This practice has now become obsolete because it weakens the shell. These days washing in warm water containing a detergent sanitizer is an effective way of cleaning the eggs with dirty shells. A temperature difference of 10-15°C between eggs and wash water is ideal, otherwise there may be problem of crack shells. Besides, eggs should not be immersed in warm water for more than 3-4 minutes. After washing, the eggs should be dried promptly. Wash water should be changed after washing every five to six baskets of eggs. It should be emphasised that only dirty eggs are subjected to washing. It not only reduces the microbial load on the egg shell surface but also improves the appearance and consumer appeal.


Oil coating spray of eggs has become very popular for short term storage of this commodity. Coating oil forms a thin film on the surface of the shell sealing the pores. It should be done as early as possible, preferably within first few hours after laying of eggs because loss of CO2 is more during this period and evaporation of moisture is also more during the first few days. Egg coating oil should be colourless, odourless and conform to food grade. Coating is done by dipping the eggs in the groundnut oil whereas for oil spray, the eggs are arranged in the filler flats with their broad end up. If the eggs need washing, oil coating should be done after washing. It is important to drain out excess oil before packaging. The temperature of oil should be in range of 15 to 30°C for ideal results. Oil treatment safeguards the quality of albumen for atleast 7 days because it effectively seals the shell pores.


This method of preservation is suitable for long term storage of clean eggs in the main laying season and abundant availability. The temperature of cold store is maintained at 0°C (32°F) and relative humidity between 80 to 85 per cent. An anteroom with intermediate temperature is generally provided to check condensation of water vapour on the eggs during removal. Use of new egg packing trays are advised for cold storage. Like all other animal products, eggs also pick up strong odour, so the same cold store cannot be used for storing onion, garlic or any other commodity with strong odour. The quality of shell eggs can be maintained for about 6 months in a cold storage. Oil coating of eggs prior to cold storage can further enhance their keeping quality. Such eggs could keep well at 14oC and 90% RH for a period ot 8 months.


This preservation method involves stabilisation of albumen quality by holding the eggs in an oil bath maintained at 55°C for 15 minutes or 58oC for 10 minutes. This process brings about coagulation of thin albumen just below the shell membranes, thereby blocking the passage of air and moisture. In addition, oil coating of shell pores also takes place. Thus keeping quality of eggs is maintained for sometimes and thinning of egg white is retarded. Alternatively, eggs are immersed in hot water at 71°C for 2 to 3 seconds. In this flash heat treatment, bacteria present on the surface of the shell are destroyed and a thin film of albumen just below the shell membrane is coagulated sealing the egg shell from inside.


Under rural conditions, lime-water or water-glass immersion are most useful. In lime-water treatment, a litre of boiling water is added to 1 kg of quick lime and allowed to cool. Now 5 litres of water and 250 g of table salt are added to it. The solution is strained through a fine cloth when the mixture settles down. Eggs are dipped in the clear fluid overnight and then dried at room temperature. In this process, an additional thin film of calcium carbonate is deposited on the egg shell and seals the pores. Such eggs can be stored for a month at ambient temperature. In water-glass treatment, one part of sodium silicate is mixed in 10 parts of water and eggs are dipped overnight. In this process, a thin precipitate of silica is deposited on the egg shell and partially seals the pores.

It is clear from the above discussion that eggs should be collected frequently, held initially at low temperature and then a suitable preservation method be employed to maintain its keeping quality for anticipated consumer acceptance.





NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR