The Complete Book on Rubber Processing and Compounding Technology (Rubber Vulcanization, Compounding, Rubber Gloves, Condoms, Rubber Band, Latex Mattress, Bushings, Gasket, Sheets, Tubing, Tyre, Hoses, Conveyor Belt, Latex and Foam Rubber, Silicone Rubber, Reclaimed Rubber, Waste Tyre Recycling with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details and Factory Layout) 3rd Revised Edition ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author P.K. Tripathi ISBN 9788178331621
Code ENI358 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 2275   2275 US$ 58   58
Pages: 632 Published 2023
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Rubber processing and compounding refer to the process of transforming natural or synthetic rubber into various usable products, such as tyres, rubber seals, belts, and hoses. The rubber processing industry encompasses various methods of transforming raw rubber into useful products, which include blending, mixing, extrusion, molding, and curing.

Rubber compounding involves the addition of various additives, such as carbon black, antioxidants, curing agents, plasticizers, and other chemicals, to modify the physical and mechanical properties of the rubber. Compounding ingredients and techniques vary according to the end-use application and the desired properties of the final product. Rubber compounds are widely used in various industries, including automotive, construction, electrical, and healthcare. The unique properties of rubber compounds, such as durability, flexibility, and resistance to heat and chemicals, make them ideal for various applications.

The market for rubber processing and compounding is positive, with increasing demand for high-performance and environmentally sustainable rubber products. Key trends driving this growth include a growing demand for electric vehicles, advancements in tyre technology, and increased demand for rubber products in emerging markets.

The market is expected to grow at a steady rate in the coming years, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.3%. This growth can be attributed to the rising demand for high-performance and eco-friendly rubber products. The increasing demand for rubber processing and compounding services in the Asia-Pacific region is one of the primary drivers of the market growth. China and India are the key markets in the region, with high growth potential due to the growing automotive industry and government initiatives promoting the use of eco-friendly materials. Moreover, the increasing demand for tyres, rubber seals, gaskets, and hoses, coupled with advancements in the manufacturing process, is driving the growth of the market. Another trend driving the market is the growing focus on sustainability and reducing the carbon footprint. Many companies are investing in research and development to develop sustainable rubber products. The rubber processing and compounding industry is witnessing rapid growth in recent years. With the increasing demand for rubber products across various industries such as automotive, construction, healthcare, and electronics, the market outlook for this industry looks promising.

The book's main contents are Mixing Technology of Rubber, Techniques of Vulcanization, Rubber Vulcanization, Rubber Compounding, Rubber Gloves Manufacturing, Condoms Manufacturing, Rubber Band Manufacturing, Latex Mattress Manufacturing, Rubber Bushings Production, Rubber Gasket Manufacturing, Rubber Sheets Manufacturing, Rubber Tubing and Its Manufacturing, Tyre Manufacturing, Waste Tyre Recycling Process, Hoses Manufacturing, Conveyor Belt Production, Latex and Foam Rubber, Silicone Rubber, Reclaimed Rubber, Rubber Natural. The Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details, and Photographs with Suppliers Contact Details are also given.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in today’s most demandable rubber processing and compounding industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the rubber processing and compounding industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of rubber. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.

1. Introduction

        1.1.   Rubber Applications   

        1.2.   Types of Rubber           

                   1.2.1. Natural Rubber     

                  1.2.2. Synthetic Rubber   

        1.3.   Production of Synthetic Rubber             

        1.4.   Market of Rubber         

  2.   Mixing Technology of Rubber

        2.1.   Introduction   

        2.2.   Mixing Machinery for Rubber  

                  2.2.1. Two-roll Mills         

                  2.2.2. Internal Batch Mixers           

                  2.2.3. Continuous Mixers

                  2.2.4. Development of the Banbury Mixer   

                  2.2.5. Operating Variables             

        2.3.   Mixing Cycles and Procedures 

                  2.3.1. Unit Operations in Mixing   

                  2.3.2. Single-Pass Versus Multiple-Pass Mixing          

                  2.3.3. Types of Mix Cycle 

                  2.3.4. Analysis of Changes to the Mix Procedure       

        2.4.   Mill Mixing      

                  2.4.1. Acceleration of First-pass Compound               

                  2.4.2. Mill Mixing of Speciality Compounds

                  2.4.3. Acceleration in Line with Internal Mixing       

        2.5.   Quality Control And The Mixing Process              

                  2.5.1. Testing of Raw Materials     

                  2.5.2. Elastomers as Raw Materials              

                  2.5.3. Control of Composition        

                  2.5.4. Tracking the Mix Cycle         

                  2.5.5. Compound Testing

        2.6.   Statistical Process Control For Industrial Mixing             

                  2.6.1. Basic SPC Charting               

                  2.6.2. Rheometer Data and its Meaning      

                  2.6.3. Mixing Control Software      

        2.7.   Additives that Affect Mixing     

                  2.7.1. Peptisers in Natural Rubber

                  2.7.2. Peptisers in SBR    

                  2.7.3. Peptisers in Sulphur-containing Polymers       

                  2.7.4. Additives to Increase Viscosity           

                  2.7.5. Preventing Unwanted Chemical Reactions      

        2.8.   Operation and Maintenance of Mixing Equipment          

                  2.8.1. Inspection of Banbury Mixers            

                  2.8.2. Inspection at the Mezzanine Level    

                  2.8.3. Inspection of the Banbury Platform  

                  2.8.4. Mixer Maintenance and Lubrication

                  2.8.5. Anticipating Required Service           

                  2.8.6. Dust Stop Maintenance        

                  2.8.7. SSA Dust Stops       

                  2.8.8. Banbury Mixer — Hydraulic Dust Stops           

        2.9.   Mixing Procedures for Specific Compounds       

                  2.9.1. EPDM Expansion Joint Cover              

                  2.9.2. Expansion Joint Intermediate Layer 

                  2.9.3. Traffic Counter Treadle Cover            

                  2.9.4. SBR/IR Belt Cover 

                  2.9.5. EPDM Low Voltage Electrical Connector          

                  2.9.6. Peroxide-cured Black-filled EPDM Compounds

                  2.9.7. EPDM Concrete Pipe Gasket                

                  2.9.8. Injection-moulded NBR Gasket          

                  2.9.9. CR/SBR Blend        

                  2.9.10. Low Durometer CR/SBR Blend         

                  2.9.11. Non-black CR for Injection Moulding             

                  2.9.12. Hard Rubber Industrial Wheel         

                  2.9.13. High Durometer NBR Masterbatch 

                  2.9.14. NBR/PVC Cable Jacket       

                  2.9.15. NBR/PVC/SBR Blend         

                  2.9.16. Butyl Masterbatch              

                  2.9.17. Butyl Masterbatch, Heat Interacted

                  2.9.18. Chlorobutyl/NR Blend       

                  2.9.19. CSM CORD Jacket

                  2.9.20. Non-black Millable Urethane            

         2.10. Mixing Wire and Cable Compounds      

                  2.10.1. Some Major Changes          

                  2.10.2. Tempered Water 

                  2.10.3. Power-controlled Mixing   

                  2.10.4. Energy Conservation          

        2.11. Mixing Ethylene-Propylene Diene Rubber        

                  2.11.1. Composition of EPDM Elastomers   

                  2.11.2. Variables in EPM and EPDM Elastomers        

                  2.11.3. How Processing Relates to Structure

                                   and Rheology   

                  2.11.4. Practical Guidelines for Mixing EP Elastomers             

                  2.11.5. Downstream Processing Equipment

                  2.11.6. Summary              

        2.12. Mixing of Tyre Compounds      

                  2.12.1. Rework  

                  2.12.2. Phase Mixing       

                  2.12.3. Natural Rubber Viscosity Reduction              

                  2.12.4. Measurement of Mixing Efficiency  

        2.13.           Mixing Fluoroelastomer (FKM) Compounds           

                  2.13.1. Special Considerations      

                  2.13.2. Raw Materials     

                  2.13.3. Typical Formulations         

                  2.13.4. Internal Mixing   

                  2.13.5. Mill Mixing           

                  2.13.6. Summary              

                  2.13.7. Accounting Methods          

        2.14. Continuous Mixing      

                  2.14.1. Farrel Continuous Mixer   

                  2.14.2. Operating Principles of the FCM      

                  2.14.3. Commercial Applications for the FCM            

                  2.14.4. Farrel Mixing Venting Extruder (MVX)           

        2.15. Evaluating the Performance of Internal Mixers              

                  2.15.1. Designing the Rotor           

                  2.15.2 Analysis of Dispersive Mixing           

  3.   Techniques of Vulcanization

         3.1. Introduction     

                  3.1.1. Pressureless Vulcanization  

        3.2.   Pressurized Vulcanization        

                  3.2.1. Rubber Moulding  

                  3.2.2. Factors of Mouding              

                  3.2.3. Moulding

                  3.2.4. Compression Moulding        

                  3.2.5. Transfer Moulding

                  3.2.6. Injection Moulding

        3.3.   Mould Shrinkage          

        3.4.   Moulding Defects          

        3.5.   Pressurized Liquid Continuous Vulcanization   

        3.6.   High-Velocity Gas Cure

                  3.6.1. Helicure  

        3.7.   Finishing           

        3.8.   Recycling of Vulcanized Rubber Products          

                  3.8.1. Buffed Tread Crumb             

                  3.8.2. Incineration and Pyrolysis of Tyres   

                  3.8.3. Reclaimed Rubber

  4.   Rubber Vulcanization

        4.1.   Vulcanization And Its Effects    

        4.2.   Vulcanization Reaction Stages 

        4.3.   Vulcanization of Thick Rubber Articles

        4.4.   Determination of State of Vulcanization              

                  4.4.1. Physical Property Tests        

                  4.4.2. Free Sulphur Determination

                  4.4.3. Solvent-swell Method            

                  4.4.4. Mooney-Rivlin Equilibrium Modulus

                  4.4.5. Differential Scanning Calorimetry     

                  4.4.6. Determination of Spring Constant     

        4.5.   Vulcanization Systems

                  4.5.1. Sulphur Vulcanization         

        4.6.   Overall Course of Accelerated Sulphur Vulcanization    

                  4.6.1. Peroxide Crosslinking          

                  4.6.2. Resin Vulcanization             

                  4.6.3. Electron Beam Vulcanization             

                  4.6.4. Nitroso Compounds              

                  4.6.5. Metal Oxides           

  5.   Rubber Compounding

        5.1.   Introduction   

                  5.1.1. General Compounding Principles      

        5.2.   Vulcanizate Physical Properties and their Significance

                  5.2.1. Tensile Strength     

                  5.2.2. Tear Resistance     

                  5.2.3. The Crescent Tear Test         

                  5.2.4. The Hardness of Rubber      

                  5.2.5. Set            

                  5.2.6. Abrasion Resistance             

                  5.2.7. Flex Cracking Resistance     

                  5.2.8. Resilience

                  5.2.9. Heat Build-up        

                  5.2.10. Temperature Resistance    

        5.3.   Compound Properties Desired for Different

                     Rubber Compounds  

                  5.3.1. Tyres        

                  5.3.2. Retreading Materials           

                  5.3.3. Conveyor Belting, Transmission Belting and Hose        

                  5.3.4. Footwear

                  5.3.5. Rubber Roller         

                  5.3.6. Medical Applications           

                  5.3.7. ‘O’ rings and Seals 

        5.4.   Compounding Ingredients        

                  5.4.1. Rubber Blends       

                  5.4.2. Master Batches      

                  5.4.3. Choice of Rubber  

                  5.4.4. Fillers       

                  5.4.5. Vulcanizing Agents               

                  5.4.6. Peptizers 

                  5.4.7. Accelerators           

                  5.4.8. Activators               

                  5.4.9. Anti-oxidants         

                  5.4.10. Retarders              

                  5.4.11. Softeners and Plasticizers 

                  5.4.12. Rubber Crumb     

                  5.4.13. Factice  

                  5.4.14. Processing Aids   

                  5.4.15. Special Purpose Additives 

        5.5.   Basic Compound Formulations

                  5.5.1. Unvulcanized compound properties

                  5.5.2. Vulcanized compound properties      

  6.   Rubber Gloves Manufacturing

        6.1    Synthetic rubber gloves             

                  6.1.1. Nitrile gloves         

                  6.1.2. Vinyl gloves            

        6.2.   Use of Rubber Gloves  

                  6.2.1. Medical Use            

                  6.2.2. Food Preparation 

                  6.2.3. Cleaning  

                  6.2.4. Salons & Spas         

                  6.2.5. Automotive Work  

                  6.2.6. Construction          

                  6.2.7. Security & Police Investigations        

                  6.2.8. Laboratories          

                  6.2.9. Gardening & Outdoor Work

                  6.2.10. Child Care             

        6.3.   Can Reuse Rubber Gloves?        

                  6.3.1. Reusable 

                  6.3.2. Disposable              

        6.4.   Glove Manufacturing Process   

                  6.4.1. Latex Collection     

                  6.4.2. Coagulant Dipping

                  6.4.3. Drying     

                  6.4.4. Latex Dipping        

                  6.4.5. Leaching 

                  6.4.6. Beading  

                  6.4.7. Vulcanization        

                  6.4.8. Post Leaching        

                  6.4.9. Slurry Dipping       

                  6.4.10. Stripping              

                  6.4.11. Tumbling              

                  6.4.12. Quality Control    

                  6.4.13. Packing 

  7.   Condoms Manufacturing

        7.1.   History              

        7.2.   Manufacturing process               

                  7.2.1. Collecting the raw materials               

                  7.2.2. Compounding        

                  7.2.3. Storage    

                  7.2.4. Dipping   

                  7.2.5. Tumbling

                  7.2.6. Condom Testing Procedures               

                  7.2.6. Packaging              

                  7.2.7. Packaging for Retail            

                  7.2.8. The finished product            

  8.   Rubber Band Manufacturing

        8.1.   Rubber Band Dimensions and Measuring          

        8.2.   Sizes

        8.3.   Rubber Types Used in Rubber Bands   

        8.4.   Rubber Band Uses        

        8.5.   Applications of Rubber Bands 

        8.6.   The Manufacturing Process      

                  8.6.1. Processing the natural latex

                  8.6.2. Mixing and milling

                  8.6.3. Extrusion

                  8.6.4. Curing     

                  8.6.5. Quality Control      

  9.   Latex Mattress Manufacturing

        9.1.   Types of Latex

        9.2.   Benefits of a Latex Mattress      

        9.3.   Manufacturing Process               

                  9.3.1. Collecting the Raw Material

                  9.3.2. Processing of Liquid Latex 

                  9.3.3. Forming the latex foam       

                  9.3.4. Inspect the Latex Foam Layers for Quality      

                  9.3.5. Finishing the Latex Foam with Fine Details    

                  9.3.6. Covering the Latex Foam with Fabric              

10.  Rubber Bushings Production

        10.1. Rubbers Used in Rubber Bushing Manufacture              

                  10.1.1. Natural Rubber   

                  10.1.2. Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)    

                  10.1.3. Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR)     

                  10.1.4. Silicone Rubber   

                  10.1.5. Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM)     

        10.2. Uses of Rubber Bushings          

                  10.2.1. Automotive Manufacturing              

                  10.2.2. Rubber Bushings in Skateboards    

                  10.2.3. Shock Bushings   

                  10.2.4. Tank Bushing      

                  10.2.5. Bushings in Fans

        10.3. How are Bushings Made?          

        10.4. Extrusion Procedure  

                  10.4.1. Raw Rubber Compound    

                  10.4.2. Feed Hopper        

                  10.4.3. Extruding the Rubber Compound    

                  10.4.4. Hot and Cold Feed Extrusion            

                  10.4.5. Vulcanization Process       

                  10.4.6. In Line Curing and Off Line Curing 

11.  Rubber Gasket Manufacturing

        11.1. Industrial Applications of Rubber Gaskets        

                  11.1.1. Pipe Fittings and Industrial Piping 

                  11.1.2. Plumbing and Water Utility              

                  11.1.3. Automotive          

                  11.1.4. Aerospace            

                  11.1.5. Marine  

                  11.1.6. Tanks, Vessels, and Containers         

                  11.1.7. Manufacturing of Food and Drugs 

        11.2. Manufacturing Process              

                  11.2.1. Die-Cutting           

                  11.2.2. Water Jet Cutting

                  11.2.3. Laser Cutting       

                  11.2.4. Flash Cutting       

                  11.2.5. Injection Molding

                  11.2.6. Extrusion of Rubber Gaskets            

        11.3. Processes of Vulcanization       

                  11.3.1. Steam Curing       

                  11.3.2. Continuous Curing             

                  11.3.3. Hot Splicing         

12.  Rubber Sheets Manufacturing

        12.1. Benefits of Rubber Sheets        

        12.2. Types of Rubber Sheets            

                  12.2.1. Natural Rubber Sheets       

                  12.2.2. Neoprene Rubber Sheets   

                  12.2.3. Nitrile Rubber Sheets         

                  12.2.4. Hydrogenated Nitrile (HNBR)         

                  12.2.5. Rubber Ethylene Propylene (EPDM Rubber Sheets)

                  12.2.6. Silicone Rubber Sheets      

                  12.2.7. Fabric Reinforced Rubber Sheets    

                  12.2.8. Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Sheet         

                  12.2.9. Viton Sheets         

                  12.2.10. Butyl (IIR)          

        12.3. Rubber Sheet Materials            

                  12.3.1. Thermoplastic Polymers    

                  12.3.2. Thermoset Polymers           

                  12.3.3. Rubbers in Rubber Sheets 

                  12.3.4. Compounding Ingredients

        12.4. Manufacturing Process of Rubber Sheets          

                  12.4.1. Molding

                  12.4.2. Extrusion              

                  12.4.3. Latex Dipping      

                  12.4.4. Calendering         

                  12.4.5. Rubber Sheet Joining         

13.  Rubber Tubing and Its Manufacturing

        13.1. Rubber Materials Used in the Production of

                     Rubber Tubing

        13.2. Types of Rubber Materials       

                  13.2.1. Fluoroelastomer Rubber Tubing (FKM or Viton™)      

                  13.2.2. Butyl Rubber Tubing          

                  13.2.3. Hypalon Rubber Tubing (Chloro sulfonated

                                  Polyethylene of CSM)        

                  13.2.4. Natural Rubber Tubing (NR)           

                  13.2.5. Neoprene Rubber Tubing (Polyisoprene)      

                  13.2.6. Nitrile Rubber Tubing       

                  13.2.7. Styrene Butadiene Tubing (SBR)     

                  13.2.8. Silicone Rubber Tubing     

                  13.2.9. Thermoplastic Rubber Tubing (TPE)              

                  13.2.10. Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer

                                    Rubber Tubing (EPDM)

                  13.2.11. Hytrel® Rubber Tubing  

        13.3. Types of Rubber Tubing           

                  13.3.1. Food Grade Rubber Tubing              

                  13.3.2. Medical Grade Rubber Tubing         

                  13.3.3. Conductive Rubber Tubing               

                  13.3.4. Microbore Rubber Tubing

                  13.3.5. Air Rubber Tubing             

                  13.3.6. Chemical Rubber Tubing  

                  13.3.7. Heat Shrink Rubber Tubing              

                  13.3.8. Fabric Reinforced              

                  13.3.9. Non-Reinforced Rubber Tubing      

        13.4. Industries that Use Rubber Tubing     

                  13.4.1. Automotive          

                  13.4.2. Agriculture           

                  13.4.3. Aerospace            

                  13.4.4. Food Processing 

                  13.4.5. Marine  

                  13.4.6. Medical and Pharmaceutical           

        13.5. Manufacturing Process              

        13.6. Mandrel Process

                  13.6.1. Rubber Roll

                  13.6.2. Milling

                  13.6.3. Cutting

                  13.6.4. Mandrel

                  13.6.5. Reinforcement Layer

                  13.6.6. Final Layer

                  13.6.7. Taping

                  13.6.8. Vulcanization

                  13.6.9. Removing from the Mandrel

         13.7. Extrusion Method

                  13.7.1. Feeding

                  13.7.2. Revolving Screw

                  13.7.3. Rubber Tubing Die             

                  13.7.4. Vulcanization

14.  Tyre Manufacturing Process

        14.1. The Parts of a Tyre      

                  14.1.1. Beads    

                  14.1.2. Belt        

                  14.1.3. Ply          

                  14.1.4. Sidewall

                  14.1.5. Sipe and Groove  

                  14.1.6. Shoulder

                  14.1.7. Tread     

        14.2. Raw Materials               

        14.3. Production Process     

                  14.3.1. Body, beads, and tread      

                  14.3.2. Tyre-building machine      

                  14.3.3. Curing   

15.  Waste Tyre Recycling Process

        15.1. Application of Recycling Waste Rubber              

        15.2. Benefits of Tyre Recycling        

                  15.2.1. Creates New Products        

                  15.2.2. Reduces Volume of Tyre on Landfill Space    

                  15.2.3. Helps to Prevent Diseases  

                  15.2.4. Prevents Fires and Pollution             

        15.3. Pyrolysis Process for Waste Rubber Tyre Recycling      

        15.4. Application of Products Derived From Pyrolysis Process

        15.5. Process of Tyre Recycling         

                   15.5.1. Collection of Waste Tyres  

                  15.5.2. Tyre Processing (Shredding)            

                  15.5.3. Steel Liberation   

                  15.5.4. Screening Stage  

                  15.5.5. Cleaning Stage    

                  15.5.6. Packaging and Transporting Stage

16.  Hoses Manufacturing

        16.1. Design of Hoses             

        16.2. Hose Manufacture       

        16.3. Braided/Spiralled Hoses          

17.  Conveyor Belt Production

        17.1. Parts of a Conveyor Belt            

                  17.1.1. Strength member

                  17.1.2. Inter ply rubber   

                  17.1.3. Cover rubber        

                  17.1.4. Breaker 

        17.2. Manufacturing Process              

                  17.2.1. Fabric preparation            

                  17.2.2. Preparation of cover rubber            

                  17.2.3. Slitting of plies    

                  17.2.4. Raw belt making 

                  17.2.5. Vulcanization      

                  17.2.6. Inspection and repair        

                  17.2.7. Finished belt testing           

                  17.2.8. Belt grade             

        17.3. PVC Belting     

        17.4. Steel Cord Belting        

        17.5. Advantages of steel cord belting            

18. Latex and Foam Rubber

        18.1. Introduction  

        18.2. Products From Latex  

                  18.2.1. Selection of Raw Materials

                  18.2.2. Preparation of Raw Materials          

                  18.2.3. Compounding and Design

                  18.2.4. Maturation           

                  18.2.5. Processing and shaping    

                  18.2.6. Dipped Goods      

                  18.2.7. Latex Thread       

                  18.2.8. Vulcanisation      

                  18.2.9. Hot Air Cure         

                  18.2.10. Hot Water Vulcanisation

                  18.2.11. Autoclave Vulcanisation 

                  18.2.12. Radiation Vulcanisation 

                  18.2.13. Ultrasonic Wave Curing  

                  18.2.14. Testing of Rubber Products            

                  18.2.15. Packing and Marketing   

                  18.2.16. Conclusions and Recommendations             

        18.3. Latex Foam     

                  18.3.1. Manufacture of Latex Foam             

                  18.3.2. Dunlop Process    

                  18.3.3. Mechanism of Gelling        

                  18.3.4. Compounding      

                  18.3.5. Foaming and Gelling         

                  18.3.6. Construction of Moulds     

                  18.3.7. Curing   

                  18.3.8. Washing               

                  18.3.9. Drying   

                  18.3.10. Finishing            

        18.4.Common Defects in Foam Making          

                  18.4.1. Shrinkage             

                  18.4.2. Foam Collapse     

                  18.4.3. Setting   

                  18.4.4. Complete Distortion of the Foam     

        18.5. Estimation of Protein Contamination in Latex 

                  18.5.1. Protein estimation protocol             

                  18.5.2. Conlusion             

19.  Silicone Rubber

        19.1 Introduction   

        19.2.Types of Silicone Rubber           

                  19.2.1. Electronics and Electrical Industries              

                  19.2.2. Silicone Rubbers to Mimic Flesh      

        19.3. Synthesis Of Silicone Polymers              

        19.4. Vulcanisation

        19.5. Compounding Ingredients       

                  19.5.1. Silicone Polymers

                  19.5.2. Silicone Rubber Elastomers              

                  19.5.3. Reinforcing Fillers              

                  19.5.4. Semireinforcing or Extending Fillers              

                  19.5.5. Additives              

                  19.5.6. Curing Agents      

        19.6. Compounding

                  19.6.1. Mixing   

        19.7. Fabricating     

                  19.7.1. Freshening           

                  19.7.2. Moulding              

                  19.7.3. Extrusion              

                  19.7.4. Calendering         

                  19.7.5. Dispersion Coating of Fabric           

                  19.7.6. Heavy-duty Hose 

                  19.7.7. Bonding

                  19.7.8. Bonding Unvulcanised Silicone Rubber         

                  19.7.9. Bonding Vulcanised Silicone Rubber             

                  19.7.10. Post-baking       

        19.8. Liquid Silicone Rubber Compounds     

                  19.8.1. Condensation Cure—One-component            

                  19.8.2. Condensation Cure—Two-component           

                  19.8.3. Addition Cure      

        19.9. Relation Between Properties of Crude and

                     Cured Silicone Compounds    

20.  Reclaimed Rubber

        20.1. Introduction  

        20.2. Types of Reclaim          

                  20.2.1. Whole Tyre Reclaim           

                  20.2.2. Minimum Staining Reclaim              

                  20.2.3. Drab and Coloured Reclaims            

                  20.2.4. Butyl Reclaim      

        20.3. Evolution of Reclaiming Processes       

        20.4. Reclaiming Processes

                  20.4.1. Scrap-rubber Preparation

                  20.4.2. Reclaimed Rubber              

                  20.4.3. Digester Process  

                  20.4.4. Reclaimator Process          

                  20.4.5. Pan Process          

                  20.4.6. Engelke Process   

                  20.4.7. Testing and Evaluations of Reclaimed Rubber             

        20.5.Dynamic Devulcanisation          

                  20.5.1. Millroom Operations          

        20.6. The Advantages of Using Reclaimed Rubber    

                  20.6.1. Special Strengths Through Reclaiming          

                  20.6.2. Further Advantages of Reclaiming–Applications        

                  20.6.3. Major Uses of Reclaimed Rubber     

        20.7. Rubberised Asphalt    

                  20.7.1. Applications        

        20.8. Reclamation of Waste Rubber from Latex Based

                     Rubber Industries    

                  20.8.1. Process  

                  20.8.2. Characterisation of Reclaimed Waste

                                   Latex Rubber (WLR)

21.  Rubber Natural

        21.1. Agriculture     

        21.2. Exploitation                                   

        21.3. Latex Composition       

        21.4. Types and Grades        

        21.5. Production     

        21.6. Latex Concentrate       

        21.7. Processing      

        21.8. Chemistry       

        21.9. Physical Properties     

        21.10. Economic Aspects     

        21.11. Applications

22.  Flow Diagram and Factory Layout

23.  Photographs of Plant and Machinery with

           Suppliers Contact Details

·         Waste Tyre Recycling Machine

·         Glove Making Machine

·         Auto Latex Condom Making Machine

·         Rubber Open Mixing Mill

·         Automatic Rubber Sheeting Machine

·         Rubber Bands Cutting Machine

·         Rubber Gasket Cutting Machine

·         Rubber Hose Machine

·         Rubber Tire Crusher Machine

·         Tyre Cutter

·         Rubber Dispersion Kneaders

·         Fully Automatic Rubber Bale Cutter

·         Rubber Calender Machine

·         Tyre Block Cutter

·         Rubber Extruder

·         Tyre Shredder Machine

·         Hydraulic Presses

·         Tyre Building Machine

·         Cold Feeding Extruder

·         Tyre Building Machine

·         Rubber Bushing Making Machine

·         Rubber Vulcaniser

·         Tyre Strip Cutting Machine

·         Mixing Mills

·         Compression Moulding Press

·         Tyre Ring Cutter

·         Rubber Tube Making Machine

·         Tyre Strip Cutter

·         Rubber Refiner Mill

·         Injection Moulding

·         Cyclone Separator

·         Banbury Mixer

·         Tyre Re-Treading Machine

·         Granulator

·         Stripping Column




NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR