Profitable Small Scale Industries- Money making Business Ideas for Startup (when you don’t know what industry to start) 2nd Revised Edition ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9789381039922
Code ENI187 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 975   975 US$ 26   26
Pages: 520 Published 2019
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 Days


Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) have been playing an important role in the overall economic development of a country like India, where millions of people are unemployed or underemployed. The economic development of any country primarily depends upon the establishment of industries. MSME sector comprises 95 per cent of the total industrial units in the country.

The hunt for funding has been the bane of an entrepreneur’s existence from times of yore. Many abandon their dream to build, create, and innovate in the face of this difficult struggle without realising that a good business idea will eventually pool in the bounty-full once it has secured a place in the market.

Your idea will bring you your company, your company will bring you the people, and the people will bring you the market. A good idea has no monetary value, just a whole lot of bursting potential. Today, the World's most successful entrepreneurs like Dhiru Bhai Ambani and Karsanbhai Patel – Man behind NIRMA may hold the possibility of building pyramids out of notes, but none of them started at the top of the ladder. Facebook was created out of a Harvard dorm room at minimal cost and Microsoft was formed two years after Gates decided to drop out of college.

For an entrepreneur starting out, it makes good business sense to avoid ideas that require high capital investment in equipment, land, etc. Venturing into the manufacturing business requires to divide time and effort between making business plan, creating the product, and selling. It is best to venture into product areas that requires small to medium investment, which can be returned within   few years. If one want to start off on his own, this book provides some manufacturing business ideas with small and medium investment.

The major contents of the book are India Government Loan Schemes for Small Scale Businesses, Government Support for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in India, Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, Packaging and Labeling, Products Packaging, Marketing, Onion Dehydration, Garlic Dehydration, Onion Pickle, Onion Chutney, Garlic Oil, Onion Powder, Ginger Oil, Ginger Powder, Ginger Paste, Tomato Pulp, Tomato Paste, Tomato Ketchup, Tomato Powder, Disposable Blood Bags, Disposable Masks, Disposable Surgical Catheters, Disposable Plastic Syringes, Plastic Cups, Disposable Banana Leaf Plate, Facial Tissue & Baby Wet Wipes, Urea Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive, Toothpaste Production, Gypsum Board, Surgical Absorbent Cotton, Glass Fibre, Complex Fertilizers, Activated Carbon from Wood, Biscuits, Candy, Chocolates, Milk Powder, Instant Noodles, Khakhra, Soft Drinks, Spices and Sample Plant Layouts.


 If you ever had an idea that you want to turn into a profitable business endeavor, this book will be a mile stone for you.


          Remember Dhirubhai Ambani said, “Ideas are no one’s monopoly Think big, think fast, think ahead.”


1. Introduction                                                                 

         Characteristics of Small-Scale Industries

         Objectives of Small Scale Industries

         Advantages of Small Scale Industries

         Growth of Small Scale Industries

         Steps to Starting a Business

         1. Identify Your Business Opportunity

         2. Build a Business Plan

         3. Find Start-up Money

         4. Name Your Business

         5. Choose a Business Structure

         6. Get Your Business License and Permits

         7. Set Up & Determine Your Business Location

         8. Get Business Insurance

         9. Create an Accounting System

         Registration of Small Scale Industries

         Two Types of Registration are done in all States

         Procedure for Registration

         How to Apply


         Step 1: Provisional Small Scale Industry (SSI) Registration

         Benefits of Provisional SSI Registration

         Step 2: Start the Business

         Step 3: Apply for Permanent SSI Registration

   2.   India Government Loan Schemes for

         Small  Scale Businesses                                      

         List of Government Loan Schemes for Small Business in India

         1. The Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme for Micro and Small Enterprises

         2. Credit Link Capital Subsidy Scheme for Technology Upgradation

         3. Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)

         4. National Small Industries Corporation Limited (NSIC)

         5. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)

         6. Market Development Assistance Scheme for MSMEs

         7. Technology and Quality Upgradation Support to MSMEs

         8. Mini Tools Room and Training Centre Scheme

         9.  MUDRA Loan

   3.   Government Support for Innovation

         and Entrepreneurship in India                         

   4.   Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana                          

         Product / Offerings of MUDRA

         Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY)

         Micro Credit Scheme

         Refinance Scheme for Banks

         Women Enterprise Programme

         Securitization of Loan Portfolio

         Purpose of MUDRA Loan

         Transport Vehicle

         Community, Social & Personal Service Activities

         Food Products Sector

         Textile Products Sector / Activity

         Business Loans for Traders and Shopkeepers

         Equipment Finance Scheme for Micro Units

         Activities Allied to Agriculture

         Eligibility – Who are Eligible to Avail Loan Under Mudra Scheme?

         Interest Rates of Mudra Bank Loan – Interest Rate

         How to Apply for Mudra Loan – Process of Receiving Currency Loans

         Step 1: Gathering Information and Choosing the Right Bank

         Step 2: Preparing Documents and Submitting Applications

         Checklist for Mudra Loan (Documents Required)

         How to Apply for Bank Mudra Loan

         Whom to Contact for Assistance?

   5.   Packaging and Labeling                                       

         Functions of Packaging

   6.   Products Packaging                                             


         Definition of Food Packaging

         Functions of Packaging Material

         Packaging Materials for Tomato and its Products

         Packaging of Tomato

         Flexible Packaging

         Forms of Flexible Packaging

         Manufacturing Techniques

         Plastics in Food Packaging

         Use of Plastics in Food Packaging

         Types of Plastics Used in Food Packaging

         Types of Plastic Used in Packaging


         Polypropylene (PP)

         Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE)

         Polyethylene Naphthalene Dicarboxylate (PEN)

         Flexographic Printing

         Digital Printing

         Printing and Labelling of Rigid Plastic Containers

         In-mould Labelling


         Dry Offset Printing

         Silk Screen Printing

         Heat Transfer Printing

         Glass and Glass Container Manufacture


         Container Forming

         Design Parameters of Glass Containers

         Surface Treatments

         Hot End Treatment

         Cold End Treatment

         Low-Cost Production Tooling

         Container Inspection and Quality


         Precautions during Packing

   7.   Marketing                                                                 

         Functions of Marketing

         Promotional Techniques

         The Product Concept

         Some Characteristics of Market Segmentation

         Organization for New-Product Development

         Developing New Products

         Planned Obsolescence

         Product Line Relationships

         Product Features

         The Sales Process

   8.   Onion Dehydration                                                

         Dehydrated Onion

         Onion Varieties Suitable for Dehydration

         Uses of Dehydrated Onions

         Dehydration Practices for Onion

         Solar Drying

         Convective Air Drying

         Fluidized Bed Drying

         Microwave Drying

         Infra Red Drying

         Vacuum Drying

         Freeze Drying

         Osmotic Dehydration

         Onion Dehydration Process

         Processing Steps

         Power Production and Energy Requirements

   9.   Garlic Dehydration                                               


         Methods of Drying

         1. Hot Air Drying

         2. Solar and Open Sun Drying

         Experimental Setup


         Raw Material and Sample Preparation


         Drying Process Flow Chart of Dehydrated Garlic

         Equipment/Apparatus Used

         Measurement of Variables

         Air Temperature and Relative Humidity

         Air Velocity

         Solar Radiation

         Initial Moisture Content (IMC)

         Moisture Content during Drying Experiment

         Equilibrium Moisture Content (E.M.C.)

         Moisture Ratio (M.R.)

         Drying Rate (D.R.)

         Average Drying Rate (A.D.R.)

         Quality Evaluation of Dehydrated Garlic

         Rehydration Ratio, Coefficient of Rehydration

         Comparison between Solar and Open Sun Drying

         Freeze Drying

         Fluidized Bed Drying

         Dehydration Process

         Dehydration Process Flow Diagram

         Safety Precautions & Other Cares in Garlic Dehydration

10.   Onion Pickle                                                             


         Raw Material

         Onion Pickle Manufacturing Process

         Onion Pickle Process Flow Diagram

11.   Onion Chutney                                                         


         Manufacturing Process of Onion Chutney

         Process Flow of Onion Chutney

12.   Garlic Oil                                                                  


         Garlic Oil manufacturing Methods

         Manufacturing Process

         Removal of Undesired Material

         Washing of Bulbs


         Crushing of Bulbs

         A Steam Distillation

         a. Hydrodistillation

         b. Direct Steam Distillation

         Advantages of Direct Steam Distillation

         Disadvantage of Direct Steam Distillation

         Inspection and Analyzing

         Packing and Dispatching

         Heart Diseases

         Cholesterol Levels

         Process Flow Diagram


         Bodily Aches and Pains

         Skin Problems & Other Infections

         Other Ailments

13.   Onion Powder                                                           


         Varieties of Onion Powder

         Chemical Specification

         Nutritional Information

         Uses of Onion Powder

         Meat Rubs

         Bloody Maty Drinks

         Spice Mixes


         Manufacturing Process of Onion Powder

         Process Flow Diagram

         Health Benefits of Onion Powder

         Low in Fat and Calories




         Low in Sodium

14.   Ginger Oil                                                                  



         Chemical Composition

         Uses and Application

         Packing and Marking

         Manufacturing Process

         Preparation of Raw Material




         Loading or Charging

         Bleaching of Ginger

         Practice of Distillation

         Steam Distillation

         End of Distillation

         Treatment of the Volatile Oil

         Treatment of the Distillation Water

         Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram

         Rectification of Essential Oils

         Problems Relating to Steam Distillation

         Environment Pollution and Effluent Treatment

15.   Ginger Powder                                                        



         Uses of Ginger Powder

         Manufacturing Process of Ginger Powder

         Process Flow Sheet

16.   Ginger Paste                                                            

         Properties of Ginger Paste

         Uses of Ginger Paste

         Chemical & Physical Specification of Ginger

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

17.   Tomato Pulp                                                             


         Manufacturing Process of Tomato Pulp


         Washing and Trimming



         Hot Process

         Process Flow Diagram

18.   Tomato Paste                                                           


         Raw Material Requirements

         Manufacturing Process of Tomato Paste

         Process Flow Diagram

19.   Tomato Ketchup                                                     


         Uses of Tomato Ketchup

         Ingredients Required

         Process Description

         Process Flow Diagram

20.   Tomato Powder                                                       


         Uses & Applications

         Procedure for Making Tomato Powder

         Primary Method

         Secondary Method

         Process Flow Diagram

21.   DISPOSABLE BLOOD BAGS                                         


         Flexible PVC Blood Bags

         Uses of Blood Bags

         Properties of Disposable Blood Bags

         Raw Material

         Quality of the Raw Materials

         1. Translucency so can Check it Full, and See Layers in Centrifuged Bags

         2. Flexibility (Low Bending Stiffness) so can Process by Squeezing the Bag

         3. Heat Resistance, so can Steam Sterilize Prior to Use

         4. Materials Property-Melting Temperature

         5. Must Not Burst in the Centrifuge, or Tear on Handling

         6. Permeable to Oxygen, but not too Permeable to Water

         7. Moderate Cost

         8. Processing and Welding

         9. PVC Plasticized Blood Bag sizes: 350 ml & 450 ml

         Manufacturing Process

         Flow Sheet Diagram

         Bag Making

         Tube Making

         Blood Bag Forming Machine

         Suppliers of Plant & Machinery

         Raw Materials Addresses

22.   DISPOSABLE MASKS                                                   


         Uses & Applications


         Manufacturing Process of Disposable Surgical Masks


         Flow Diagram for Disposable Surgical Mask

         Machinery Images for Masks

         Mask Making Machine

         Surgical Mask Sewing Machine

         Mask Blank Machine

         Plant & Machinery Suppliers

23.   Disposable Surgical Catheters                       


         Uses & Applications

         Common Features of Central Venous Catheter (CVC)

         Manufacturing Process of Catheters

         Process Flow Diagram of Catheter

         Catheter Production Equipments

         Plant & Machinery Suppliers

         Suppliers of Raw Materials

24.   Disposable Plastic Syringes                              



         Necessity of Disposable Syringes

         Parts of a Disposable Syringe



         Raw Material Used for Manufacturing Disposable Syringes

         Polyolefin - (Polyethylene and Polypropylene)




         Natural Rubber

         Synthetic Polymeric Material

         Silicone Oil

         Leakage Test



         Outer Container

         Marking of Outer Containers

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Description

         1st Stage of Process

         2nd Stage of Production

         3rd Stage of Process

         4th Stage of Production

         Process Flow Diagram

         Assembling Operation and Packing

         Machinery Images

         Single Barrel Moulds

         Syringe Plunger Moulds

         Injection Moulding Machine

         Disposable Syringe Packaging Machine

         Storage of Sterilized Articles

         Test for Detection of Aerobic and Anaerobic Organism


         Medium for Anaerobic Organism

         Medium for Aerobic Organism

         A. Benzathine Penicillin, Benzyl Penicillin

         B. Other Antibiotic

         C. Test for Detection of Fungi Medium

         Suppliers of Raw Material

25.   Plastic Cups                                                             


         Plastic Cups

         Manufacturing Method






         Machine Type

         Application of Thermoforming Technique

         Raw Material


         Polypropylene Characteristics

         Compatibility of Polypropylene with Common Products

         Properties of Poly Propylene

         Specific Gravity

         Mechanical Properties


         Chemical Resistance

         Specification of Thermoforming Machines






         Printing on Polypropylene

         Printing on Cups, Glasses and Plates

         Roto Gravure Printing

         For Multicolor Printing

         Flow Diagram for Disposable Plastic Cups

         Plant and Machinery Details

         Thermoforming Machine


         Thermoformable Extrusion Line

         Mono & Multilayer Thermoformable Sheet Lines


         Plastic Cup thermoforming Machine


         Hydraulic Automatic Cup Making Machine


         Functions and Characteristics

         Complete Line: Extrusion + Cup Making Machine

         Plastic Sheet Extruder

         A. Main Parameters

         B. Configuration and Specification

         1. Main Extruder: one

         2.  Non-stop Fast Screen Changer With Double-sieve: one set

         3.  Die-Head

         Calendar Roll Stack: one

         4.  Thermostat System: Two sets (Only use for making PS sheet)

         5. Air Cooling Stand: one

         6. Trimming Unit: one

         7. Haul Off Unit: one

         8.  Single-shaft Winder (One set)

         9.  Electronic Control Cabinet: one set

         10.  Waste sheet re-winder: one set

         Main Technical Data


         Key Electric Components

         Assistant Machines

         Automatic Cup Stacking Machine


         Main Technical Parameter

         Screw Air Compressor

         Industrial Chiller (Air Cooled)

         Model Specification

         Thermoforming/Vacuum Forming Sheet Extrusion Line

         PP/PS Specification

         Multi-Laye Cp-Extrusion Sheet Line

         Technical Specification


         HIPS / ABS / PC / PMMA / PS Extrusion Sheet Line

         Technical Specification

         Suppliers of Plant & Machinery

         Raw Material Suppliers

26.   Disposable Banana Leaf Plate                            



         Properties of Banana Leaf Plates

         Use and Application of Banana Leaf Plates


         Area of Usage

         Raw Material

         Banana Tree/Leaves

         Manufacturing Process of Banana Leaf Plates

         Process Steps


         Flow Diagram

         Machinery Description

         Leaf Plate Making Machine





         Leaf Plate Making Machine

         Machinery Details

         Suppliers of Plant and Machinery

         Suppliers of Raw Material

27.   Facial Tissue & Baby Wet Wipes                         


         What is a Tissue Paper?




         Hygienic Tissue Paper

         Facial Tissues

         Paper Towels

         Wrapping Tissue

         Toilet Tissue

         Table Napkins

         Facial Tissue


         Manufacturing Process for Facial Tissues


         Pulping and Retting



         Reeling and Cutting

         Uses of Facial Tissue



         Wet Wipes




         Baby Wipes

         Cleansing Pads

         Industrial Wipes

         Pain Relief

         Personal Hygiene

         Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram for Facial Tissue & Wet Wipes

         Pet Care


         Facial Tissue and Wet Wipes Machine Details

         Facial Tissue Machine


         Professional Facial Tissue Machine


         Wallet Pocket Facial Tissue Machine


         Full-Automatic Box-drawing Facial Tissue Machine


         Function and Features

         Technical Data

         The Name of Spare Part of the Machine

         Specification of Raw Material

         Industrial Facial Tissue Making Machine

         Supplier of Plant and Machinery

         Suppliers of Raw Material

28.   Urea Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive                

         Uses of Urea Formaldehyde Resin

         Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Resin

         Raw Material

         Process Description

         Process Flow Diagram for Urea Resin Adhesive Plant

         Machinery Required Equipment

29.   Toothpaste Production                                      

         Toothpaste Composition and Ingredient Functionality

         Typical Toothpaste Ingredients

         Process Description

         Storing and Filling the Finished Toothpaste

         Process Flow Diagram

         Machinery Required

30.   Gypsum Board                                                          

         Characteristics of Gypsum Board


         Raw Material

         Gypsum Board Constituents

         Process Description



         Flow Diagram

         Machinery Required

         Gypsum Drying Section

         Gypsum Calcining Section

         Forming and Drying Section

         Utility Section

31.   Surgical Absorbent Cotton                               

         Properties of Absorbent Cotton

         Raw Material

         Process Description Based on Before Carding Method

         (1) Opening and Cleaning

         (2) Filling

         (3) Bleaching

         (4) Hydro-extracting

         (5) Opening, Drying and Reserving

         (6) Carding

         (7) Winding, Cutting and Packing

         Process Flow Sheet for Absorbent Cotton Making

         Machinery Required

32.   Glass Fibre                                                               

         Types of Glass Fibre



         Raw Materials

         Process Description

         Process Flow Diagram

         Schematic Diagram of Direct Melt Process for Continuous Filaments

         Schematic Diagram of Marble Melt Process for Continuous Filaments

         Machinery Required

33.   Complex Fertilizers                                             

         Complex Fertilizer for Vegetables



         Complex Fertilizer for Beans



         Briquette Complex Fertilizer for Forest


         Complex Fertilizer for Field Crops



         Complex Fertilizer for Horticulture



         Complex Fertilizer Manufacturing Description of NP & NPK





         Polishing Screens

         Cyclone Separators

         Scrubbing Section

         Process Flow Diagram

         Equipments in Flow Chart

34.   Activated Carbon from Wood                            

         Uses of Activated Carbon

         Typical Properties of Activated Carbon

         Raw Materials

         Manufacturing Process

         Processing Steps

         Flow Diagram

         Machinery Required

35.   Biscuits                                                                      

         Uses & Applications

         Basic Raw Material for Biscuits

         Manufacturing Process

         Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram

36.   Candy                                                                          

         Uses of Candy

         Raw Material for Candy


         Corn Syrup/Glucose Syrup


         Properties of High-Boiled Candy

         Candy Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

37.   Chocolates                                                              


         Composition of Fermented Cocoa Beans

         Raw Material

         Sweet Dark Chocolate

         Semi-Sweet or Bittersweet Dark Chocolate

         Milk Chocolate

         White Chocolate

         Nutritional Information of Milk Chocolate


         Dark Chocolate 

         Milk Chocolate

         Manufacturing Process

         1. Roasting and Winnowing the Cocoa             

         2. Grinding the Cocoa Nibs

         3. Blending Cocoa liquor and molding Chocolate

         Milk Chocolate

         White Chocolate

         Plain Dark Chocolate

         Process Flow Diagram

38.   Milk Powder                                                             

         Uses of Milk Powder

         Composition of Milk-Powder

         Property of Milk Powder

         Milk Powder Production Process




         Spray Drying

         Packaging and Storage

         Process Flow Diagram

39.   Instant Noodles                                                     

         Nutrition Value of Instant Noodles

         Manufacturing Process



         Cutting/Slitting and Waving

         Steaming and Molding



         Process Flow Diagram

40.   Khakhra                                                                     

         Uses and applications

         Nutrition Facts of Khakhra

         Manufacturing Process of Khakhra

         Process Flow Diagram 

41.   Soft Drinks                                                              

         Ready-to-drink Products

         Concentrated Soft Drinks


         Manufacturing Process



         Process Flow Diagram

42.   Spices                                                                         

         Uses & Applications

         General Manufacturing Procedure

         Process Flow Diagram

43.    Sample Plant Layouts



Dehydration, is removal of water from a substance or

system or chemical compound, or removal of the

elements of water, in correct proportion, from a chemical

compound or the compounds. The elements of water may be

removed from a single molecule or from more than molecule,

as in the dehydration of alcohol, one which may yield ethlone

by loss of the elements of water from each molecule or ethyl

ether by loss of the elements of water from two molecules,

which then join to form a new compound.

In the food processing field, dehydration is sometimes

described as the removal of 85% or more of water from a food

substance, by exposure to thermal energy by various means.

Thermal dehydration reduces volume of the product,

increases shelf-life, and lowers transportation cost. There is

no clearly defined line of demarcation between drying and

dehydrating, and latter sometimes being considered as a

supplement of drying. Usually, the direct use of solar energy,

as in the drying of raisin, lay etc. is not lumped with

dehydrating. The term dehydration also is not generally

applied to situations where there is a loss of water as the

result of evaporation.

Dried onion is now available in market in the powdered

or kibled form. The composition of the fresh and dried forms

is given. The kibbled form has moisture content of about 10%

microscopically onion powders shows abundant parent

chymatous cells.

Dehydrated Onion

Processed and value added products are gaining

importance in the worldwide markets. According to Singh

onion has 6% share in the overall production of vegetables

in India and about 93% of the total export of fresh vegetables

from India. Onion is mainly exported in the form of

dehydrated onion, canned onion and onion pickle. Free water

is removed from the vegetables during the drying process so

that microorganisms do not survive and reproduce.

Simultaneously, the solids such as sugar and organic acids

are concentrated thereby exerting osmotic pressure to further

inhibit the microorganisms. Drying process involves the

application of heat to vaporize water and removal of moist

air from the dryer.

Dehydrated onions are considered as a potential product

in world trade and India is the second largest producer of

dehydrated onions in the world. There is a large demand of

dehydrated onion in the European countries only.

Onions are generally dried from an initial moisture

content of about 86% (wb) to 7% (wb) or less for efficient

storage and processing. Dehydrated onions in the form of

flakes or powder are in extensive demand in several parts of

the world, for example UK, Japan, Russia, Germany,

Netherlands and Spain.

Fluidized Bed Drying

Several researchers have studied fluidized bed drying of

onion for making onion flakes, slices and powder. Problems

such as scorching or the agglomeration of onion slices during

tray, tunnel or conveyor belt drying were resolved during

fluidized bed dehydration techniques, in which contact

between onion pieces was kept to a minimum.

Mazza and LeMaguer dehydrated the yellow globe type

onions with 1.5 mm slice thickness at drying air temperatures

of 40, 50 and 65°C with air flow rates of 5.5, 8.1 and 10.3

m3/min in a vibro fluidizer and discussed the possible

diffusion mechanism. They showed that percent retention of

flavour such as 1-propanethiol, methyl propyl disulphide, dipropyl

disulphide and 1-propanol was almost linearly related

to moisture content. The final retention of volatiles increased

with increase in dehydration temperature. High temperature

led to a more rapid formation of the dry layer and lowered

the diffusion of the flavour compound at the evaporating



The energy requirements for the operation of a dryer will

vary due to differences in outside temperature, dryer loading,

and requirement for the final moisture content of the product.

A single-line Proctor dryer handling 4500 kg of raw product

per hour (680 - 820 kg finished) will require about 530 GJ/

day, or for an average season of 150 to 180 days, 80 to 95 TJ

using approximately 35 MJ/kg of dry products. This is

estimated to cost 11 cents per kg of finished product.

The energy is provided by natural gas or geothermal fluid;

air is passed directly through the gas flame or geothermal

heat exchanger in stages A and B, and over steam coils in

stages C and D. The steam coils are necessary to prevent

turning of the onions in the last two stages.



Pickling is the process by which fresh fruits and vegetables

are preserved and with the addition of salt, chilly and

spices, a tasty preparation known as “Pickles” is made. Pickles

are also good appetizers and digestive agents. There are

several varieties of pickles and they are consumed throughout

the year by people from all walks of life. Pickling onions is

deceptively simple and devilishly fast. Whether you’ve got a

bunch of onions and want to preserve them for a later date

or simply want to dress up an otherwise ordinary dish, they

are incredibly versatile. With a little bit of acid, sugar, and

spices, the lowly onion is about to go interstellar.

Pickling is preserving a food with acid and salt. The key

to safe pickling is making sure that the acid is high enough

to kill any microorganism that can lead to spoilage and illness.

All pickle products must be heat processed to destroy

yeast, mold, and bacteria that cause spoilage and to inactivate

enzymes that might affect color, flavor, or texture of the

product. Heat processing also ensures a good, airtight seal.

There are two types of pickles:

• Brined (fermented) pickles require several weeks of

“curing” at room temperature. During this period,

colors and flavors change. Acid is produced as lactic

acid bacteria grow.

• Quick (unfermented) pickles are made in 1 or 2 days

Raw Material

There are six basic types of ingredients used for pickle

making. The ingredients include acids, flavorings, colorants,

preservatives, and stabilizers that make up the liquid, or

liquor, in which the pickle is sold. Many of the ingredients

are only available at certain times of the year, so steps have

to be taken to use fresh materials.

Acetic acid (vinegar) is the primary ingredient used in

pickle manufacturing. After water, it makes up the bulk of

the pickle liquor and contributes significantly to the flavor

of the pickle giving it a sour taste. Additionally, it also has a

preservative effect and is nontoxic. Vinegar is derived from

naturally occurring sugars or starches through a two-step

fermentation process. Starch is converted to sugar, which is

then yeast fermented to form alcohol. The alcohol is exposed

to an acetobacteria, which converts it to vinegar. Vinegar can

be obtained from many sources and each one has a slightly

different taste.



Chutney is a family of condiments associated with South

Asian cuisine made from a highly variable mixture of

spices, vegetables, or fruit.

As with other condiments such as relish or mustard,

chutneys are based on a wide range of recipes and

pr                     eparation methods, they vary widely by geography, they can

range from a wet to dry—or coarse to fine—and they can be

combined with a wide variety of foods or used for dipping.

Chutneys are made from a combination of fruit and

vegetables with vinegar, sugar, spices and salt. They are an

excellent way of using up a glut of fruit and vegetables,

particularly as the flavour improves with storage. They should

be left to mature in a cool, dark place for approximately one

month before consumption. Chutney and relishes seem to be more highly spiced when

first made, and will mellow on storage.

Spices commonly used in chutneys include fenugreek,

coriander, cumin and asafoetida (hing). Other prominent

ingredients and combinations include cilantro, capsicum,

mint (coriander and mint chutneys are often called hari

chutney, wherehariis Hindi for “green”), Tamarind or Imli,

Sooth (or saunth, made with dates and ginger), Coconut,

Onion, Prune, Tomato, Red chili, Green chili, mango

Lime(made from whole, unripe limes), garlic, coconut, peanut,

Dahi, Green tomato, Dhaniya pudina (cilantro and mint),

Peanut (shengdana chutney in Marathi), Ginger, Yogurt, red

chili powder, Tomato onion chutney, Cilantro mint coconut

chutney and apricot.



Onion is one of major bulb crop grown in India which

presently attracting attention of all persons due to rise

in prices. The price is directly related to supply-Demand of

the commodity. An Indian farmer normally pays more

attention to grow those crops which are fetched very good

market prices during last season. To get the very good prices

during present season, many farmers switch to grow Onion

crop due to which supply in the market increases many fold

and market glut fetches very low prices to farmers commodity

such as onions. To stabilize the prices of fruits and vegetables

and reduce the post harvest losses, drying of onion in form

flakes and onion powder is adopted.


Onion powder is made by dehydrating onions and

grinding them down to a fine powder. It is a common

seasoning. Onion powder replaces the taste of onions when

used in recipes but it is not as pungent as fresh onion. Onion

powder is a very common component of spice mix. The powder

can be combined with other herbs and spices to create rubs,

spice mixes, drinks and dressings. Applications include pasta,

pizza, and grilled chicken. Onion salt is simply salt plus onion

powder. (Pre-made products usually include an anti-caking

agent.). It is a common component of seasoned salt. Onion

powder, a spice made from ground dehydrated onions is used

for seasoning in cooking. Many cooks of the world prefer onion

powder to fresh onions because it is easier to handle, savestime and

 require no chopping or special treatment. Prepared from finely ground dehydrated onions,

they contain very strong smell and last for a longer duration, if properly

packaged and stored. Since bulb onions contain much of the

flavor and distinctive aroma of the onion, they are widely used

for preparing onion powder. Onion powder is a perfect

condiment for taco mix, chili, barbeque rubs, salad dressings,

dips, marinades, and as an addition to hamburgers.

Rectification of Essential Oils

Rectification with water vapours is the older of the two

methods. Report employed for this purpose is usually

spherical made of copper, heavily lined with tin, and heated

with a steam. To prevent coloring of the oil by contact with

metal, the gooseneck and condenser should be made of pure

tin or of heavily tinned copper. Condenser and oil separator

should be installed at such a height that if it seems desirable,

the distillation water could return automatically into the

retort during distillation.

Water is poured into the retort to a level of about 4 or 5

line above must be retained through the distillation. Flatbottomed

steam jackets are therefore preferable for the

rectification of Volatile oils. A steam coil provided with many

small holes and inserted close to the bottom of the retort,

serves for the direct heating with live steam and also for

steaming out (clearing) the still often completion of the

operation steaming out is usually preceded by a washing with

hot water, soap or alkali solution or with volatile solvents the

speed of rectification is influenced by several factors. If the

distillation waters should return automatically into the retort,

the speed might be limited by excess pressure developing with

in retort, insect, this might altogether prevent the distillation

water from returning automatically into the retort.

If the distillates should be absolutely colorless,

rectification must be carried out very slowly, otherwise, very

fine droplets, often invisible in the vapors are carried into the

condenser and oil separator and color the distillate.


The Ginger, whole shall be the rhifume of zingiber officinale

Rose inpieces irreguler in stape and site not less than 20

m.m. is length or in small cut pieces, pale brower in colour

and fibrous with peel not entirely removed, washed and dried

in the sun. The material mag be garbled by removing pieces

that are too ligher and it may also be lime bleached. The dried

shitomes may also be gronned into powder.

Pure lime shall be used in case of bleaching ginger. The

material shall be size sum added colours.

The ginger, whole may be groded before packaging. There

shall be six grades of ginger whole. The designation of the

grade and their requirements are.

1. Garblod, non bleached Calicut.

2. Ungarbled non bleached Calicut: pale brown in colour

fibrous with feel not entirely removed.

3. Garbled non bleached cochin: in pieces irregular inshape

and size, pale brown in colour fibrous with peal not

entirely removed.

4. Garbled bleached cochin: In pieces irregular in shape and

size, colour fibrous with peel not entirely removed, lime

bleached, light pieces removed by garbling.

5. Ungarbled bleached cochin: In pieces irregular in shape

and fibrous with peel not entirely removed, lime bleached.


Ginger is one of the most important vegetables, which is

produced by cultivation process. It is one of the agrobase

products, which has good commercial value as well as

industrial value. It is basically used mostly in all of the houses

as spices. In India there are few states in which it is largely

produced. Mostly ginger producing states are Meghalaya &

Himachal Pradesh.

Ginger can be preserved by food preservation process. It

is processed by making paste and sterilised to keep it for long

time. For making ginger paste, there is basic plant

machineries required, are grader, screening paste making

machine, steriliser, automatic filling, weight and packing

machine etc. It is necessary to store ginger for 6 months for

running the plant throughout the year otherwise it is

necessary to select other food processing items, so that plant

can be run throughout the year. There is good quality control

laboratory necessary for making good products for increasing

the self -life of product. There is good printed packaging

material, require for attracting customer. There is pollution,

produced from the plant, it can be solved by proper

precautions. There is fair market growth, new entrepreneur

may be successful by his hard work ship and by his marketing

intelligency. There is no necessity of importing of raw material

as well as plant and machineries. Technology of ginger paste

making also available in India.

Properties of Ginger Paste

1. It has bright yellowish colour.

2. It should have good agreeable ginger flavour.

3. It should be neutral in nature.

4. It should be free from microorganism.

5. It should have pasty in nature.

6. It should be store minimum for 6 months

7. It should contents around T.S.S. 60-70%



Tomatoes are the most popular vegetable in the home

garden. Tomatoes are widely grown in all parts of the

world. They are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and

colors—including red, yellow, orange, and pink. Sizes vary

from the bite-sized cherry tomatoes to the giant beefsteak

varieties. Tomatoes may be round, oblate (fruit are flattened

at the top and bottom), or pear-shaped. Tomatoes are low in

calories and a good source of vitamin C and antioxidants.

With their rich flavor and mild acidity, tomatoes have worked

their way into thousands of recipes.

Tomato, like other vegetables/fruits is a perishable

commodity and has a shorter shelf life in normal temperature.

Therefore, problems are faced in the supply chain due ton

on-existence of a cold chain system in the country which

results in losses of product and drastic price variations.

Tomato Paste provides a way out with extremely positive

outcome both commercially and financially. Indeed, tomato

consumption by the food processing industry revolves around

the availability of user friendly intermediate products like

tomato paste, puree, ketchup and sauces.

Tomato paste is a thick paste that is made by cooking

tomatoes for several hours to reduce moisture, straining them

to remove the seeds and skin and cooking them again to

reduce them to a thick, rich concentrate. Tomato paste is a

concentrated tomato juice or pulp without seeds and skin

containing not less than 25% tomato solid. It is used as an

ingredient in various types of sauces, canned fish, processed

beanes, and related products.

Products, such as tomato paste have potential demand

with local fruit/vegetable processors as well as the retail

market. Establishment of tomato processing facilities in the

country can contribute in reducing the dependence of local

industry on imported tomato paste. Tomato paste and puree

are commonly consumed commodities in every household.

It is liked by one and all because of its sweet sour taste.

The concentration comes to 33% total solids content when

total solids comes at 33% concentration then it is pass

through PHE at 121°C for 10 seconds and store it in the

holding tank. Form the holding tank it is filled in the bottles/

cans aseptically and capped the bottles. Then labeled on the

bottles. Bottles are checked and then packed it the corrugated

boxes. Store in the store room and market the products. Yield

of tomato concentrate will be 75% on the base of tomatoes




Tomato powder is made from tomatoes which can be used

to add tomato flavoring to various dishes. This product

is made by turning fresh tomatoes into a slurry and spray

drying the slurry. With spray drying, hot gas is forced through

a liquid mixture, creating a fine powder of uniform

consistency. The consistency of the powder can be adjusted

by making small adjustments to the spray nozzle as

necessary. The result is a highly concentrated powder which

usually has a dull red color which is sometimes enhanced

with coloring because people expect it to be bright red.

Tomato powder is as a base for tomato paste. The powder

keeps longer than most tomato paste, and allows people to

mix up exactly as much as they need for a fresh, clear flavor.

Tomato paste is used in a variety of sauces and soups,

especially in Italian cuisine. Tomato powder can also be used

to make tomato soups, or to fortify broths and pasta sauces

if they have a weak tomato flavor and a stronger one is


Many dishes can also benefit from a small sprinkle of

tomato powder to make their flavors pop a bit more. Especially

in the winter when it can be difficult to obtain fresh fruits

and vegetables, people may enjoy the summery flavor of fresh

tomatoes when it’s added to various dishes




Blood bag is a disposable bio-medical device used for

collection, storage, transportation and transfusion of

human blood and blood components. The system consists of

a single or multiple bags connected with tubing, needle,

needle cover, clamp etc. The Blood Bags are made of plasticmaterial,

which are compatible with blood.

components in a more sterile manner and safer transfusion

of components. This has led to increasingly wider use of blood

component therapy than whole blood use, thus enabling more

effective use of the scarce donor blood that is available.

Though, the incidences of reported toxic problems

resulting from plasticizer migration during transfusions are

rare. Plasticizer migration from PVC medical devices has been

an area of concern for the last few decades due to the large

consumption of the polymer in its plasticized form.

As the unplasticized PVC is generally hard and brittle,

addition of DEHP (low molecular weight additive, also known

as di-octyl phthalate is a non toxic chemical with high versatility

and low cost), facilitates processing operations such as sheet

and tube extrusion and injection moulding.

Still, these compounds possess high mobility and are

known to migrate from the plastics into the surrounding

medium or environment such as food or blood. National

Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, USA organized

several international symposia on phthalate acid esters which

reviewed many aspects of these substances including their

metabolism, toxicity and methods for their detection in the

environment and biological materials. Currently DEHP

continues to be the plasticizer of choice.

Uses of Blood Bags

1. Blood Bags have successfully replaced the use of glass

bottles for

• Collection storage,

• Transportation

• Transfusion of blood and blood components.

2. Since bottles require exhaustive cleaning, rinsing and

autoclaving procedures and there are chances of

breakage at any stage, Disposable PVC blood bags

have become the choice of the present era.

3. Further, use of disposable bags eliminates the

possibility of any contamination.

Quality of the Raw Materials

1. Translucency so can Check it Full, and See Layers in

Centrifuged Bags

Materials property - translucency: Plastics, which are

electrical insulators, can be transparent (if a single phase

glass) or translucent (if 2-phase semi-crystalline with light

scattering). Thin films scatter less light than thick mouldings,

so appear more transparent.

There must be no added pigments. Thermoplastics do not

need pigments, but rubbers often need mineral fillers (carbon

black, etc) for strength. Silicone rubber can be transparent.

2. Flexibility (Low Bending Stiffness) so can Process by

Squeezing the Bag

It should only require a small force to bend the bag wall.

3. Heat Resistance, so can Steam Sterilize Prior to Use

The most common sterilization method is by steam (in

an autoclave at 10 bar pressure) at 121°C. The alternative is

the more expensive radiation sterilization.


Baby wet wipes, facial wet tissues and toilet paper are

basically hygienic personnel care product. These are

basically made by using tissue papers. Basic raw materials

used tissue papers, liquid soap and glycerin. Basic plant and

machineries required, rollers strand with slittering machine.

Rolls are slitted according to size and dimension and then

liquid detergent and other solvents are spread over the tissue

paper to make wetting and then it make rolled form and pack

it in the close pack with one side opening lid. Packing

materials are made by using polymer resin and labeled by

printed-paper. In the manufacturing process there is very

negligible amount pollution obtained, which can be easily

controlled. It has very good market demand.

What is a Tissue Paper?

Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or,

light crêpe paper. Tissue can be made both from virgin and

recycled paper pulp. Very exacting properties are generally

required; for, though it is very light, it must be opaque, free

of blemishes, pin holes, light spots and so on; and whether

of the readily combustible variety or not, it must burn free of

all objectionable odors.

The paper as heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate

or other similar filters primarily with the object of improving

its combustion characteristics. The extent of loading may be

judged from the fact that most grades of tissues show upto

30% of ash, equivalent to 35% to 40% added. The tissue may

also be light sized with rosin and alum, at times, although

not very frequently. Mostly tissue is made in weights ranging

from 8 to 25 grams per square meter, though the average

weights are, unloaded laid or wove 12-14 gms; and loaded,

laid or wove 16-18 gms.


Hygienic Tissue Paper

Hygienic tissue paper is commonly used for facial tissue

(paper handkerchiefs), napkins, bathroom tissue and

household towels. Paper has been used for hygiene purposes

for centuries, but tissue paper as we know it today was not

produced in USA before the mid-1940s. In Western Europe large

scale industrial production started in the beginning of 1960s.

Paper Towels

Paper towels are the second largest application for tissue paper in

 the consumer sector. This type of paper has usually

a basis weight of 20 to 24 g/m2. Normally such paper towels

are two-ply. This kind of tissue can be made from

100% chemical pulp to 100% recycled fiber or a combination

of the two. Normally, some long fiber chemical pulp is

included to improve strength.



A wet wipe, also known as a wet towel, or a moist

towelette, is a small moistened piece of paper or cloth that

often comes folded and individually wrapped for convenience.

Wet wipes are used for cleaning purposes, like personal

hygiene or household cleaning.


Wet wipes are produced as air-laid paper where the fibers

are carried and formed to the structure of paper by air. They

are moistened with water or other liquids like isopropyl

alcohol depending on the applications. The paper might be

treated with softeners, lotions or added perfume to get the

right properties or “feeling”. The finished wet wipes are folded

and put in pocket size package or a box dispenser.


Baby Wipes

• Baby wipes are wet wipes used to cleanse the sensitive

skin of infants. These are saturated with solutions

anywhere from gentle cleansing ingredients to alcohol

based ‘cleaners’. Baby wipes are typically sold in

plastic tubs that keep the cloths moist and allow for

easy dispensing.

• Wet wipes have become a standard part of diaper

changing kits. They can be bought in several different

pack counts (ranging up to 80 or more sheets per

pack), and come with dispensing mechanisms.

• Many green-minded parents, or those looking to save

extra money, are using washable baby wipes. These

are typically small squares of material (cotton, bamboo

or fleece) that can be pre-soaked ready to use, or wet

as required. Because they don’t contain chemicals or

artificial fragrances like most disposable wipes, they

are very kind and gentle on the skin. They are often

reported to be more effective at removing solids from

the skin because of their textured nature.




Urea-formaldehyde resin, is a class of synthetic resins

obtained by chemical combination of urea (a solid crystal

obtained from ammonia) and formaldehyde (a highly reactive

gas obtained from methane). Urea-formaldehyde resins are

used mostly as adhesives for the bonding of plywood,

particleboard, and other structured wood products.

In industrial production, urea resins are made by the

condensation of formaldehyde and urea in an aqueous

solution, using ammonia as an alkaline catalyst. The

condensation reaction gives a colourless, syrupy solution that

can be spray-dried to a powder for later use in coatings or

adhesives; it can also be mixed with cellulose filler to produce

powders for molding into solid objects. Under the influence

of heat and pressure, the resin, at this point made up largely

of low-molecular-weight intermediate polymers or pre

polymers, is cured to its final state, which consists of a threedimensional

network of interlinked polymers.


Uses of Urea Formaldehyde Resin

Urea formaldehyde is the very common chemical and is

mostly used because of its chemical properties. Examples are

textiles, paper, foundry sand molds, wrinkle resistant fabrics,

cotton blends, rayon, corduroy, etc. also used to glue wood

together. Urea formaldehyde is mostly used when producing

electrical appliances casing also desk lamps.

It is widely chosen as an adhesive because of its property

of high reactivity, wonderful performance and low price.


Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Resin

• It has a very high tensile strength.

• Urea formaldehyde has the property of flexural


• Has the property of heat distortion temperature.

• Has the capacity of low water absorption.

• It has the property of mould shrinkage.

• Has a property of high surface hardness.

• It can be elongated at break

• It is volume resistance in nature.



Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used, with a

toothbrush, to clean and maintain the aesthetics and

health of teeth. Toothpaste serves as an abrasive that aids

in removing the dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists

in suppressing halitosis, and delivers active ingredients such

as fluoride or xylitol to help prevent tooth and gum disease.

Most of the cleaning is achieved by the mechanical action of

a toothbrush, and not by the toothpaste. Salt and sodium

bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be

substituted for commercial toothpaste.

Toothpastes are complex mixtures of abrasives

and surfactants; antiquaries agents, such as fluoride;

tartar control ingredients, such as tetra sodium

pyrophosphate and methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride

copolymer; pH buffers; humectants (to prevent dry-out and

increase the pleasant mouth feel); and binders, to provide

consistency and shape. Binders keep the solid phase properly

suspended in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the

liquid phase out of the toothpaste. They also provide body to

the dentifrice, especially after extrusion from the tube onto

the toothbrush.


The abrasives found in toothpaste function as polishing

agents aiding the physical brushing during application.

Abrasives also participate secondarily in the building of

toothpaste rheology. Commonly used toothpaste abrasives

include silica, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphates.

Polyols such as sorbitol, xylitol, and glycerin improve

consistency and serve as humectants that prevent moisture

loss from toothpaste formulations. Sorbitol and xylitol have

the additional function of acting as secondary or in some

cases primary sweeteners.

The surfactant, typically sodium lauryl sulfate, acts as a

foaming agent, although many toothpastes include sodium

lauroyl sarcosinate and cocamido propyl betaine. The foaming

action facilitates the removal of debris from the oral cavity.



Gypsum board, also known as “drywall” or “plaster board,”

consists of a core of gypsum surrounded with a paper

covering. Several varieties of gypsum board products are

available; each is comprised of a specially formulated gypsum

plaster mix and facing paper specifically developed for the

intended application. These gypsum board products include

regular gypsum wallboard, moisture-resistant gypsum board,

and type-X fire resistant gypsum board.

Gypsum board is made of gypsum, which consists of the

core of the board and the both sides of the gypsum core are

covered and adhered with paper, and is widely used as a

construction material. It is widely used as construction

materials mainly for interior finishing like partition, walls,

ceiling and acoustic boards. Major raw materials are gypsum

and hard board papers. The plant can be categorizes as smallscale



Characteristics of Gypsum Board

The Characteristics of gypsum board as building material

are briefly summarized as:

Good processing properties and easy application, light as

for a heat insulation and fire resistance material, no practical

deformation and warp as the lath of the wall. And because

of these excellent properties, gypsum board is regarded as

one of the indispensable materials among the interior

finishing materials.



Gypsum board is commonly used for the construction of

the inside wall, the ceiling, and the partitions. The application

technique can be broadly classified into two categories,

namely the dry method, in which the gypsum board is

finished with wall-papers or is painted, or the printed gypsum

board is directly applied, and the wet method in which the

surface of the gypsum board is plastered. Hence the choice

of the suitable type of gypsum board and the application

method thereof are to be considered according to the


The paper covering the both sides of gypsum core of the

gypsum board is normally consisted of 3 to 8 layers of fibrous

tissue. The most important properties required for the paper

are the adhesion characteristic with gypsum, the strength

and the resistance against the undulant tendency caused by

the repeated drying and humidification.



The Glass derived from the latin word “Glesum” means

transparent, lustrous substance. “A uniform amorphous

solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous

molten material cools very rapidly. Glasses exhibit a glass

transition temperature, below which they are true solids and

above which they flow as a very viscous liquid. Glass is a state

of matter not a substance. Glass is a hard, brittle, and usually

transparent material. Glass is often referred to as a

supercooled liquid in that it has no crystallisation or melting


A Glass fibre or Fibre glass can be defined as “A material

consisting of extremely fine filaments of glass that are

combined in yarn and woven into fabrics, used in masses as

a thermal and acoustical insulator, or embedded in various

resins to make boat hulls, fishing rods, and the like.”

Fiberglass materials are popular for their attributes of

high strength compared to relatively light weight. Fiberglass

really is made of glass, similar to windows or the drinking

glasses. The glass is heated until it is molten, then it is forced

through superfine holes, creating glass filaments that are very

thin – so thin they are better measured in microns.


Polymer matrix composites containing glass fibers are

used to make external body panels, bumper beams, pultruded

body panels and airducts, engine components, etc. Parts

made are much lighter thanmetallic ones, making the

automobile more fuel efficient.

Aerospace Market: Glass fiber reinforced composites are

used to make aircraft parts such as wings, helicopter rotor

blades, engine ducts etc. glass fiber has a relatively low elastic

modulus. Hence it is more common touse glass fiber

reinforced polymer composites in the interior of an airplane

rather than in primary structural parts.

• The radar transparency characteristics of glass has

given it some key uses in the radar evading stealth


Marine Market: Sailing boats and hulls and decks of

commercial fishing boats and military mine hunters are

frequently made of glass fiber reinforced polymers. Glass fiber

reinforced polyester is commonly used in making boats of all


Civil Construction: Typical applications include the use

of glass fibers in polymeric resins for paneling, bathtubs and

shower stalls, doors, windows etc. glassfibers are also used

as reinforcement in a variety of house hold itemssuch as

paper, tapes, lampshades etc. Some special alkali resistant

glass fibers have been developed for reinforcement of cement

and concrete. Commonly steel bars are used for such




Complex fertilizers (also known as compound fertlizers)

are made from mixing two or more of macro-nutrient type

fertlizers. They may also be further blended with elements

that provide some of the less-common plant nutrients (known

as secondary or trace nutrients, such as sulfur, calcium and

magnesium). Compound fertilizer can be packaged and

distributed in liquid or granular form.

A numbering system is used to define the percentages of

the three essential plant nutrients. For example, a 20-20-10

fertilizer would contain 20 percent nitrogen, 20 percent

phosphorus and 10 percent potassium.

Complex fertilizer process plants around the world use

the raw materials with approximate purity of Phosphoric acid

of conc. 46% and 26%, Sulphuric acid of 93%, Ammonia

99.5% maximum, Urea prills, Muriate of Potash, Fillers.

NPK fertilizer plants are used for production of complex

with different concentrations and types, such as inorganic

fertilizers and biological fertilizers. These fertilizers can be

obtained in the form of uniform granules from 1 mm to 4 mm

size. These granules are white, cream, brown, gray or black

in color. Moreover, the production line can be optimized

manufacture different grades such as; and 8 :20: 14: 5, 10 :

15 : 10 : 4, 10 : 24 : 17 : 6, 12 : 16 : 22: 6.5, and 14 : 22 : 15 :

6 etc.

Complex Fertilizer for Vegetables


• Being a base fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus,

potassium and other organic matters are properly


• Improves the taste, quality and appearance of


• Other organic matters contained in the complex

fertilizer have a strong sustaining power and prevents

chemical fertilizer components from being washed

away. They also help invigorate activities of soil

microorganisms disintegrating not readily utilized

nutrients in the soil, thus helping vegetables grow. The

organic matters also have a big capacity to hold

moisture and minimize damages by the dry spell. They

are helpful to vegetables that have to survive during

the winter (onion, garlic, oil vegetables and barley)

since they contribute to raising the soil temperature.


Scrubbing Section

There are 3 scrubbing units (that include the 3 scrubbing


• The first unit is composed of Granulator fumes prescrubber

for the gases coming from the granulator

mainly containing ammonia & dust. It is a vertical

section/ cyclonic type scrubber. The washing liquid

is normally constituted by phosphoric acid (20-40%

P2O5) and some sulphuric acid. In this high pressure

sprays are used for gaseous fluoride and ammonia


• The second unit (second scrubbing step)

is composed of granulator scrubber, Dryer scrubber,

Cooler & Dedusting scrubber. The first one for the

gases coming from the granulator pre-scrubber, the

second one for gases coming from the dryer-cyclones.

• The third one of gases coming from the cooler cyclones

and dedusting cyclones, mainly containing dust. All

the three scrubbers are of similar towers, venture/

cyclonic type, but logically with different dimensions,

and in this more diluted acids are used.



NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
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Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.