Dehydration, is removal of water from a substance or
system or chemical compound, or removal of the
elements of water, in correct proportion, from a chemical
compound or the compounds. The elements of water may be
removed from a single molecule or from more than molecule,
as in the dehydration of alcohol, one which may yield ethlone
by loss of the elements of water from each molecule or ethyl
ether by loss of the elements of water from two molecules,
which then join to form a new compound.
In the food processing field, dehydration is sometimes
described as the removal of 85% or more of water from a food
substance, by exposure to thermal energy by various means.
Thermal dehydration reduces volume of the product,
increases shelf-life, and lowers transportation cost. There is
no clearly defined line of demarcation between drying and
dehydrating, and latter sometimes being considered as a
supplement of drying. Usually, the direct use of solar energy,
as in the drying of raisin, lay etc. is not lumped with
dehydrating. The term dehydration also is not generally
applied to situations where there is a loss of water as the
result of evaporation.
Dried onion is now available in market in the powdered
or kibled form. The composition of the fresh and dried forms
is given. The kibbled form has moisture content of about 10%
microscopically onion powders shows abundant parent
Processed and value added products are gaining
importance in the worldwide markets. According to Singh
onion has 6% share in the overall production of vegetables
in India and about 93% of the total export of fresh vegetables
from India. Onion is mainly exported in the form of
dehydrated onion, canned onion and onion pickle. Free water
is removed from the vegetables during the drying process so
that microorganisms do not survive and reproduce.
Simultaneously, the solids such as sugar and organic acids
are concentrated thereby exerting osmotic pressure to further
inhibit the microorganisms. Drying process involves the
application of heat to vaporize water and removal of moist
air from the dryer.
Dehydrated onions are considered as a potential product
in world trade and India is the second largest producer of
dehydrated onions in the world. There is a large demand of
dehydrated onion in the European countries only.
Onions are generally dried from an initial moisture
content of about 86% (wb) to 7% (wb) or less for efficient
storage and processing. Dehydrated onions in the form of
flakes or powder are in extensive demand in several parts of
the world, for example UK, Japan, Russia, Germany,
Netherlands and Spain.
Fluidized Bed Drying
Several researchers have studied fluidized bed drying of
onion for making onion flakes, slices and powder. Problems
such as scorching or the agglomeration of onion slices during
tray, tunnel or conveyor belt drying were resolved during
fluidized bed dehydration techniques, in which contact
between onion pieces was kept to a minimum.
Mazza and LeMaguer dehydrated the yellow globe type
onions with 1.5 mm slice thickness at drying air temperatures
of 40, 50 and 65°C with air flow rates of 5.5, 8.1 and 10.3
m3/min in a vibro fluidizer and discussed the possible
diffusion mechanism. They showed that percent retention of
flavour such as 1-propanethiol, methyl propyl disulphide, dipropyl
disulphide and 1-propanol was almost linearly related
to moisture content. The final retention of volatiles increased
with increase in dehydration temperature. High temperature
led to a more rapid formation of the dry layer and lowered
the diffusion of the flavour compound at the evaporating
POWER PRODUCTION AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
The energy requirements for the operation of a dryer will
vary due to differences in outside temperature, dryer loading,
and requirement for the final moisture content of the product.
A single-line Proctor dryer handling 4500 kg of raw product
per hour (680 - 820 kg finished) will require about 530 GJ/
day, or for an average season of 150 to 180 days, 80 to 95 TJ
using approximately 35 MJ/kg of dry products. This is
estimated to cost 11 cents per kg of finished product.
The energy is provided by natural gas or geothermal fluid;
air is passed directly through the gas flame or geothermal
heat exchanger in stages A and B, and over steam coils in
stages C and D. The steam coils are necessary to prevent
turning of the onions in the last two stages.
Pickling is the process by which fresh fruits and vegetables
are preserved and with the addition of salt, chilly and
spices, a tasty preparation known as “Pickles” is made. Pickles
are also good appetizers and digestive agents. There are
several varieties of pickles and they are consumed throughout
the year by people from all walks of life. Pickling onions is
deceptively simple and devilishly fast. Whether you’ve got a
bunch of onions and want to preserve them for a later date
or simply want to dress up an otherwise ordinary dish, they
are incredibly versatile. With a little bit of acid, sugar, and
spices, the lowly onion is about to go interstellar.
Pickling is preserving a food with acid and salt. The key
to safe pickling is making sure that the acid is high enough
to kill any microorganism that can lead to spoilage and illness.
All pickle products must be heat processed to destroy
yeast, mold, and bacteria that cause spoilage and to inactivate
enzymes that might affect color, flavor, or texture of the
product. Heat processing also ensures a good, airtight seal.
There are two types of pickles:
• Brined (fermented) pickles require several weeks of
“curing” at room temperature. During this period,
colors and flavors change. Acid is produced as lactic
acid bacteria grow.
• Quick (unfermented) pickles are made in 1 or 2 days
There are six basic types of ingredients used for pickle
making. The ingredients include acids, flavorings, colorants,
preservatives, and stabilizers that make up the liquid, or
liquor, in which the pickle is sold. Many of the ingredients
are only available at certain times of the year, so steps have
to be taken to use fresh materials.
Acetic acid (vinegar) is the primary ingredient used in
pickle manufacturing. After water, it makes up the bulk of
the pickle liquor and contributes significantly to the flavor
of the pickle giving it a sour taste. Additionally, it also has a
preservative effect and is nontoxic. Vinegar is derived from
naturally occurring sugars or starches through a two-step
fermentation process. Starch is converted to sugar, which is
then yeast fermented to form alcohol. The alcohol is exposed
to an acetobacteria, which converts it to vinegar. Vinegar can
be obtained from many sources and each one has a slightly
Chutney is a family of condiments associated with South
Asian cuisine made from a highly variable mixture of
spices, vegetables, or fruit.
As with other condiments such as relish or mustard,
chutneys are based on a wide range of recipes and
pr eparation methods, they vary widely by geography, they can
range from a wet to dry—or coarse to fine—and they can be
combined with a wide variety of foods or used for dipping.
Chutneys are made from a combination of fruit and
vegetables with vinegar, sugar, spices and salt. They are an
excellent way of using up a glut of fruit and vegetables,
particularly as the flavour improves with storage. They should
be left to mature in a cool, dark place for approximately one
month before consumption. Chutney and relishes seem to be more highly spiced when
first made, and will mellow on storage.
Spices commonly used in chutneys include fenugreek,
coriander, cumin and asafoetida (hing). Other prominent
ingredients and combinations include cilantro, capsicum,
mint (coriander and mint chutneys are often called hari
chutney, wherehariis Hindi for “green”), Tamarind or Imli,
Sooth (or saunth, made with dates and ginger), Coconut,
Onion, Prune, Tomato, Red chili, Green chili, mango
Lime(made from whole, unripe limes), garlic, coconut, peanut,
Dahi, Green tomato, Dhaniya pudina (cilantro and mint),
Peanut (shengdana chutney in Marathi), Ginger, Yogurt, red
chili powder, Tomato onion chutney, Cilantro mint coconut
chutney and apricot.
Onion is one of major bulb crop grown in India which
presently attracting attention of all persons due to rise
in prices. The price is directly related to supply-Demand of
the commodity. An Indian farmer normally pays more
attention to grow those crops which are fetched very good
market prices during last season. To get the very good prices
during present season, many farmers switch to grow Onion
crop due to which supply in the market increases many fold
and market glut fetches very low prices to farmers commodity
such as onions. To stabilize the prices of fruits and vegetables
and reduce the post harvest losses, drying of onion in form
flakes and onion powder is adopted.
Onion powder is made by dehydrating onions and
grinding them down to a fine powder. It is a common
seasoning. Onion powder replaces the taste of onions when
used in recipes but it is not as pungent as fresh onion. Onion
powder is a very common component of spice mix. The powder
can be combined with other herbs and spices to create rubs,
spice mixes, drinks and dressings. Applications include pasta,
pizza, and grilled chicken. Onion salt is simply salt plus onion
powder. (Pre-made products usually include an anti-caking
agent.). It is a common component of seasoned salt. Onion
powder, a spice made from ground dehydrated onions is used
for seasoning in cooking. Many cooks of the world prefer onion
powder to fresh onions because it is easier to handle, savestime and
require no chopping or special treatment. Prepared from finely ground dehydrated onions,
they contain very strong smell and last for a longer duration, if properly
packaged and stored. Since bulb onions contain much of the
flavor and distinctive aroma of the onion, they are widely used
for preparing onion powder. Onion powder is a perfect
condiment for taco mix, chili, barbeque rubs, salad dressings,
dips, marinades, and as an addition to hamburgers.
Rectification of Essential Oils
Rectification with water vapours is the older of the two
methods. Report employed for this purpose is usually
spherical made of copper, heavily lined with tin, and heated
with a steam. To prevent coloring of the oil by contact with
metal, the gooseneck and condenser should be made of pure
tin or of heavily tinned copper. Condenser and oil separator
should be installed at such a height that if it seems desirable,
the distillation water could return automatically into the
retort during distillation.
Water is poured into the retort to a level of about 4 or 5
line above must be retained through the distillation. Flatbottomed
steam jackets are therefore preferable for the
rectification of Volatile oils. A steam coil provided with many
small holes and inserted close to the bottom of the retort,
serves for the direct heating with live steam and also for
steaming out (clearing) the still often completion of the
operation steaming out is usually preceded by a washing with
hot water, soap or alkali solution or with volatile solvents the
speed of rectification is influenced by several factors. If the
distillation waters should return automatically into the retort,
the speed might be limited by excess pressure developing with
in retort, insect, this might altogether prevent the distillation
water from returning automatically into the retort.
If the distillates should be absolutely colorless,
rectification must be carried out very slowly, otherwise, very
fine droplets, often invisible in the vapors are carried into the
condenser and oil separator and color the distillate.
The Ginger, whole shall be the rhifume of zingiber officinale
Rose inpieces irreguler in stape and site not less than 20
m.m. is length or in small cut pieces, pale brower in colour
and fibrous with peel not entirely removed, washed and dried
in the sun. The material mag be garbled by removing pieces
that are too ligher and it may also be lime bleached. The dried
shitomes may also be gronned into powder.
Pure lime shall be used in case of bleaching ginger. The
material shall be size sum added colours.
The ginger, whole may be groded before packaging. There
shall be six grades of ginger whole. The designation of the
grade and their requirements are.
1. Garblod, non bleached Calicut.
2. Ungarbled non bleached Calicut: pale brown in colour
fibrous with feel not entirely removed.
3. Garbled non bleached cochin: in pieces irregular inshape
and size, pale brown in colour fibrous with peal not
4. Garbled bleached cochin: In pieces irregular in shape and
size, colour fibrous with peel not entirely removed, lime
bleached, light pieces removed by garbling.
5. Ungarbled bleached cochin: In pieces irregular in shape
and fibrous with peel not entirely removed, lime bleached.
Ginger is one of the most important vegetables, which is
produced by cultivation process. It is one of the agrobase
products, which has good commercial value as well as
industrial value. It is basically used mostly in all of the houses
as spices. In India there are few states in which it is largely
produced. Mostly ginger producing states are Meghalaya &
Ginger can be preserved by food preservation process. It
is processed by making paste and sterilised to keep it for long
time. For making ginger paste, there is basic plant
machineries required, are grader, screening paste making
machine, steriliser, automatic filling, weight and packing
machine etc. It is necessary to store ginger for 6 months for
running the plant throughout the year otherwise it is
necessary to select other food processing items, so that plant
can be run throughout the year. There is good quality control
laboratory necessary for making good products for increasing
the self -life of product. There is good printed packaging
material, require for attracting customer. There is pollution,
produced from the plant, it can be solved by proper
precautions. There is fair market growth, new entrepreneur
may be successful by his hard work ship and by his marketing
intelligency. There is no necessity of importing of raw material
as well as plant and machineries. Technology of ginger paste
making also available in India.
Properties of Ginger Paste
1. It has bright yellowish colour.
2. It should have good agreeable ginger flavour.
3. It should be neutral in nature.
4. It should be free from microorganism.
5. It should have pasty in nature.
6. It should be store minimum for 6 months
7. It should contents around T.S.S. 60-70%
Tomatoes are the most popular vegetable in the home
garden. Tomatoes are widely grown in all parts of the
world. They are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and
colors—including red, yellow, orange, and pink. Sizes vary
from the bite-sized cherry tomatoes to the giant beefsteak
varieties. Tomatoes may be round, oblate (fruit are flattened
at the top and bottom), or pear-shaped. Tomatoes are low in
calories and a good source of vitamin C and antioxidants.
With their rich flavor and mild acidity, tomatoes have worked
their way into thousands of recipes.
Tomato, like other vegetables/fruits is a perishable
commodity and has a shorter shelf life in normal temperature.
Therefore, problems are faced in the supply chain due ton
on-existence of a cold chain system in the country which
results in losses of product and drastic price variations.
Tomato Paste provides a way out with extremely positive
outcome both commercially and financially. Indeed, tomato
consumption by the food processing industry revolves around
the availability of user friendly intermediate products like
tomato paste, puree, ketchup and sauces.
Tomato paste is a thick paste that is made by cooking
tomatoes for several hours to reduce moisture, straining them
to remove the seeds and skin and cooking them again to
reduce them to a thick, rich concentrate. Tomato paste is a
concentrated tomato juice or pulp without seeds and skin
containing not less than 25% tomato solid. It is used as an
ingredient in various types of sauces, canned fish, processed
beanes, and related products.
Products, such as tomato paste have potential demand
with local fruit/vegetable processors as well as the retail
market. Establishment of tomato processing facilities in the
country can contribute in reducing the dependence of local
industry on imported tomato paste. Tomato paste and puree
are commonly consumed commodities in every household.
It is liked by one and all because of its sweet sour taste.
The concentration comes to 33% total solids content when
total solids comes at 33% concentration then it is pass
through PHE at 121°C for 10 seconds and store it in the
holding tank. Form the holding tank it is filled in the bottles/
cans aseptically and capped the bottles. Then labeled on the
bottles. Bottles are checked and then packed it the corrugated
boxes. Store in the store room and market the products. Yield
of tomato concentrate will be 75% on the base of tomatoes
Tomato powder is made from tomatoes which can be used
to add tomato flavoring to various dishes. This product
is made by turning fresh tomatoes into a slurry and spray
drying the slurry. With spray drying, hot gas is forced through
a liquid mixture, creating a fine powder of uniform
consistency. The consistency of the powder can be adjusted
by making small adjustments to the spray nozzle as
necessary. The result is a highly concentrated powder which
usually has a dull red color which is sometimes enhanced
with coloring because people expect it to be bright red.
Tomato powder is as a base for tomato paste. The powder
keeps longer than most tomato paste, and allows people to
mix up exactly as much as they need for a fresh, clear flavor.
Tomato paste is used in a variety of sauces and soups,
especially in Italian cuisine. Tomato powder can also be used
to make tomato soups, or to fortify broths and pasta sauces
if they have a weak tomato flavor and a stronger one is
Many dishes can also benefit from a small sprinkle of
tomato powder to make their flavors pop a bit more. Especially
in the winter when it can be difficult to obtain fresh fruits
and vegetables, people may enjoy the summery flavor of fresh
tomatoes when it’s added to various dishes
DISPOSABLE BLOOD BAGS
Blood bag is a disposable bio-medical device used for
collection, storage, transportation and transfusion of
human blood and blood components. The system consists of
a single or multiple bags connected with tubing, needle,
needle cover, clamp etc. The Blood Bags are made of plasticmaterial,
which are compatible with blood.
components in a more sterile manner and safer transfusion
of components. This has led to increasingly wider use of blood
component therapy than whole blood use, thus enabling more
effective use of the scarce donor blood that is available.
Though, the incidences of reported toxic problems
resulting from plasticizer migration during transfusions are
rare. Plasticizer migration from PVC medical devices has been
an area of concern for the last few decades due to the large
consumption of the polymer in its plasticized form.
As the unplasticized PVC is generally hard and brittle,
addition of DEHP (low molecular weight additive, also known
as di-octyl phthalate is a non toxic chemical with high versatility
and low cost), facilitates processing operations such as sheet
and tube extrusion and injection moulding.
Still, these compounds possess high mobility and are
known to migrate from the plastics into the surrounding
medium or environment such as food or blood. National
Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, USA organized
several international symposia on phthalate acid esters which
reviewed many aspects of these substances including their
metabolism, toxicity and methods for their detection in the
environment and biological materials. Currently DEHP
continues to be the plasticizer of choice.
Uses of Blood Bags
1. Blood Bags have successfully replaced the use of glass
• Collection storage,
• Transfusion of blood and blood components.
2. Since bottles require exhaustive cleaning, rinsing and
autoclaving procedures and there are chances of
breakage at any stage, Disposable PVC blood bags
have become the choice of the present era.
3. Further, use of disposable bags eliminates the
possibility of any contamination.
Quality of the Raw Materials
1. Translucency so can Check it Full, and See Layers in
Materials property - translucency: Plastics, which are
electrical insulators, can be transparent (if a single phase
glass) or translucent (if 2-phase semi-crystalline with light
scattering). Thin films scatter less light than thick mouldings,
so appear more transparent.
There must be no added pigments. Thermoplastics do not
need pigments, but rubbers often need mineral fillers (carbon
black, etc) for strength. Silicone rubber can be transparent.
2. Flexibility (Low Bending Stiffness) so can Process by
Squeezing the Bag
It should only require a small force to bend the bag wall.
3. Heat Resistance, so can Steam Sterilize Prior to Use
The most common sterilization method is by steam (in
an autoclave at 10 bar pressure) at 121°C. The alternative is
the more expensive radiation sterilization.
FACIAL TISSUE & BABY WET WIPES
Baby wet wipes, facial wet tissues and toilet paper are
basically hygienic personnel care product. These are
basically made by using tissue papers. Basic raw materials
used tissue papers, liquid soap and glycerin. Basic plant and
machineries required, rollers strand with slittering machine.
Rolls are slitted according to size and dimension and then
liquid detergent and other solvents are spread over the tissue
paper to make wetting and then it make rolled form and pack
it in the close pack with one side opening lid. Packing
materials are made by using polymer resin and labeled by
printed-paper. In the manufacturing process there is very
negligible amount pollution obtained, which can be easily
controlled. It has very good market demand.
What is a Tissue Paper?
Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or,
light crêpe paper. Tissue can be made both from virgin and
recycled paper pulp. Very exacting properties are generally
required; for, though it is very light, it must be opaque, free
of blemishes, pin holes, light spots and so on; and whether
of the readily combustible variety or not, it must burn free of
all objectionable odors.
The paper as heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate
or other similar filters primarily with the object of improving
its combustion characteristics. The extent of loading may be
judged from the fact that most grades of tissues show upto
30% of ash, equivalent to 35% to 40% added. The tissue may
also be light sized with rosin and alum, at times, although
not very frequently. Mostly tissue is made in weights ranging
from 8 to 25 grams per square meter, though the average
weights are, unloaded laid or wove 12-14 gms; and loaded,
laid or wove 16-18 gms.
Hygienic Tissue Paper
Hygienic tissue paper is commonly used for facial tissue
(paper handkerchiefs), napkins, bathroom tissue and
household towels. Paper has been used for hygiene purposes
for centuries, but tissue paper as we know it today was not
produced in USA before the mid-1940s. In Western Europe large
scale industrial production started in the beginning of 1960s.
Paper towels are the second largest application for tissue paper in
the consumer sector. This type of paper has usually
a basis weight of 20 to 24 g/m2. Normally such paper towels
are two-ply. This kind of tissue can be made from
100% chemical pulp to 100% recycled fiber or a combination
of the two. Normally, some long fiber chemical pulp is
included to improve strength.
A wet wipe, also known as a wet towel, or a moist
towelette, is a small moistened piece of paper or cloth that
often comes folded and individually wrapped for convenience.
Wet wipes are used for cleaning purposes, like personal
hygiene or household cleaning.
Wet wipes are produced as air-laid paper where the fibers
are carried and formed to the structure of paper by air. They
are moistened with water or other liquids like isopropyl
alcohol depending on the applications. The paper might be
treated with softeners, lotions or added perfume to get the
right properties or “feeling”. The finished wet wipes are folded
and put in pocket size package or a box dispenser.
• Baby wipes are wet wipes used to cleanse the sensitive
skin of infants. These are saturated with solutions
anywhere from gentle cleansing ingredients to alcohol
based ‘cleaners’. Baby wipes are typically sold in
plastic tubs that keep the cloths moist and allow for
• Wet wipes have become a standard part of diaper
changing kits. They can be bought in several different
pack counts (ranging up to 80 or more sheets per
pack), and come with dispensing mechanisms.
• Many green-minded parents, or those looking to save
extra money, are using washable baby wipes. These
are typically small squares of material (cotton, bamboo
or fleece) that can be pre-soaked ready to use, or wet
as required. Because they don’t contain chemicals or
artificial fragrances like most disposable wipes, they
are very kind and gentle on the skin. They are often
reported to be more effective at removing solids from
the skin because of their textured nature.
UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN ADHESIVE
Urea-formaldehyde resin, is a class of synthetic resins
obtained by chemical combination of urea (a solid crystal
obtained from ammonia) and formaldehyde (a highly reactive
gas obtained from methane). Urea-formaldehyde resins are
used mostly as adhesives for the bonding of plywood,
particleboard, and other structured wood products.
In industrial production, urea resins are made by the
condensation of formaldehyde and urea in an aqueous
solution, using ammonia as an alkaline catalyst. The
condensation reaction gives a colourless, syrupy solution that
can be spray-dried to a powder for later use in coatings or
adhesives; it can also be mixed with cellulose filler to produce
powders for molding into solid objects. Under the influence
of heat and pressure, the resin, at this point made up largely
of low-molecular-weight intermediate polymers or pre
polymers, is cured to its final state, which consists of a threedimensional
network of interlinked polymers.
Uses of Urea Formaldehyde Resin
Urea formaldehyde is the very common chemical and is
mostly used because of its chemical properties. Examples are
textiles, paper, foundry sand molds, wrinkle resistant fabrics,
cotton blends, rayon, corduroy, etc. also used to glue wood
together. Urea formaldehyde is mostly used when producing
electrical appliances casing also desk lamps.
It is widely chosen as an adhesive because of its property
of high reactivity, wonderful performance and low price.
Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Resin
• It has a very high tensile strength.
• Urea formaldehyde has the property of flexural
• Has the property of heat distortion temperature.
• Has the capacity of low water absorption.
• It has the property of mould shrinkage.
• Has a property of high surface hardness.
• It can be elongated at break
• It is volume resistance in nature.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used, with a
toothbrush, to clean and maintain the aesthetics and
health of teeth. Toothpaste serves as an abrasive that aids
in removing the dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists
in suppressing halitosis, and delivers active ingredients such
as fluoride or xylitol to help prevent tooth and gum disease.
Most of the cleaning is achieved by the mechanical action of
a toothbrush, and not by the toothpaste. Salt and sodium
bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be
substituted for commercial toothpaste.
Toothpastes are complex mixtures of abrasives
and surfactants; antiquaries agents, such as fluoride;
tartar control ingredients, such as tetra sodium
pyrophosphate and methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride
copolymer; pH buffers; humectants (to prevent dry-out and
increase the pleasant mouth feel); and binders, to provide
consistency and shape. Binders keep the solid phase properly
suspended in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the
liquid phase out of the toothpaste. They also provide body to
the dentifrice, especially after extrusion from the tube onto
The abrasives found in toothpaste function as polishing
agents aiding the physical brushing during application.
Abrasives also participate secondarily in the building of
toothpaste rheology. Commonly used toothpaste abrasives
include silica, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphates.
Polyols such as sorbitol, xylitol, and glycerin improve
consistency and serve as humectants that prevent moisture
loss from toothpaste formulations. Sorbitol and xylitol have
the additional function of acting as secondary or in some
cases primary sweeteners.
The surfactant, typically sodium lauryl sulfate, acts as a
foaming agent, although many toothpastes include sodium
lauroyl sarcosinate and cocamido propyl betaine. The foaming
action facilitates the removal of debris from the oral cavity.
Gypsum board, also known as “drywall” or “plaster board,”
consists of a core of gypsum surrounded with a paper
covering. Several varieties of gypsum board products are
available; each is comprised of a specially formulated gypsum
plaster mix and facing paper specifically developed for the
intended application. These gypsum board products include
regular gypsum wallboard, moisture-resistant gypsum board,
and type-X fire resistant gypsum board.
Gypsum board is made of gypsum, which consists of the
core of the board and the both sides of the gypsum core are
covered and adhered with paper, and is widely used as a
construction material. It is widely used as construction
materials mainly for interior finishing like partition, walls,
ceiling and acoustic boards. Major raw materials are gypsum
and hard board papers. The plant can be categorizes as smallscale
Characteristics of Gypsum Board
The Characteristics of gypsum board as building material
are briefly summarized as:
Good processing properties and easy application, light as
for a heat insulation and fire resistance material, no practical
deformation and warp as the lath of the wall. And because
of these excellent properties, gypsum board is regarded as
one of the indispensable materials among the interior
Gypsum board is commonly used for the construction of
the inside wall, the ceiling, and the partitions. The application
technique can be broadly classified into two categories,
namely the dry method, in which the gypsum board is
finished with wall-papers or is painted, or the printed gypsum
board is directly applied, and the wet method in which the
surface of the gypsum board is plastered. Hence the choice
of the suitable type of gypsum board and the application
method thereof are to be considered according to the
The paper covering the both sides of gypsum core of the
gypsum board is normally consisted of 3 to 8 layers of fibrous
tissue. The most important properties required for the paper
are the adhesion characteristic with gypsum, the strength
and the resistance against the undulant tendency caused by
the repeated drying and humidification.
The Glass derived from the latin word “Glesum” means
transparent, lustrous substance. “A uniform amorphous
solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous
molten material cools very rapidly. Glasses exhibit a glass
transition temperature, below which they are true solids and
above which they flow as a very viscous liquid. Glass is a state
of matter not a substance. Glass is a hard, brittle, and usually
transparent material. Glass is often referred to as a
supercooled liquid in that it has no crystallisation or melting
A Glass fibre or Fibre glass can be defined as “A material
consisting of extremely fine filaments of glass that are
combined in yarn and woven into fabrics, used in masses as
a thermal and acoustical insulator, or embedded in various
resins to make boat hulls, fishing rods, and the like.”
Fiberglass materials are popular for their attributes of
high strength compared to relatively light weight. Fiberglass
really is made of glass, similar to windows or the drinking
glasses. The glass is heated until it is molten, then it is forced
through superfine holes, creating glass filaments that are very
thin – so thin they are better measured in microns.
Polymer matrix composites containing glass fibers are
used to make external body panels, bumper beams, pultruded
body panels and airducts, engine components, etc. Parts
made are much lighter thanmetallic ones, making the
automobile more fuel efficient.
Aerospace Market: Glass fiber reinforced composites are
used to make aircraft parts such as wings, helicopter rotor
blades, engine ducts etc. glass fiber has a relatively low elastic
modulus. Hence it is more common touse glass fiber
reinforced polymer composites in the interior of an airplane
rather than in primary structural parts.
• The radar transparency characteristics of glass has
given it some key uses in the radar evading stealth
Marine Market: Sailing boats and hulls and decks of
commercial fishing boats and military mine hunters are
frequently made of glass fiber reinforced polymers. Glass fiber
reinforced polyester is commonly used in making boats of all
Civil Construction: Typical applications include the use
of glass fibers in polymeric resins for paneling, bathtubs and
shower stalls, doors, windows etc. glassfibers are also used
as reinforcement in a variety of house hold itemssuch as
paper, tapes, lampshades etc. Some special alkali resistant
glass fibers have been developed for reinforcement of cement
and concrete. Commonly steel bars are used for such
Complex fertilizers (also known as compound fertlizers)
are made from mixing two or more of macro-nutrient type
fertlizers. They may also be further blended with elements
that provide some of the less-common plant nutrients (known
as secondary or trace nutrients, such as sulfur, calcium and
magnesium). Compound fertilizer can be packaged and
distributed in liquid or granular form.
A numbering system is used to define the percentages of
the three essential plant nutrients. For example, a 20-20-10
fertilizer would contain 20 percent nitrogen, 20 percent
phosphorus and 10 percent potassium.
Complex fertilizer process plants around the world use
the raw materials with approximate purity of Phosphoric acid
of conc. 46% and 26%, Sulphuric acid of 93%, Ammonia
99.5% maximum, Urea prills, Muriate of Potash, Fillers.
NPK fertilizer plants are used for production of complex
with different concentrations and types, such as inorganic
fertilizers and biological fertilizers. These fertilizers can be
obtained in the form of uniform granules from 1 mm to 4 mm
size. These granules are white, cream, brown, gray or black
in color. Moreover, the production line can be optimized
manufacture different grades such as; and 8 :20: 14: 5, 10 :
15 : 10 : 4, 10 : 24 : 17 : 6, 12 : 16 : 22: 6.5, and 14 : 22 : 15 :
Complex Fertilizer for Vegetables
• Being a base fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium and other organic matters are properly
• Improves the taste, quality and appearance of
• Other organic matters contained in the complex
fertilizer have a strong sustaining power and prevents
chemical fertilizer components from being washed
away. They also help invigorate activities of soil
microorganisms disintegrating not readily utilized
nutrients in the soil, thus helping vegetables grow. The
organic matters also have a big capacity to hold
moisture and minimize damages by the dry spell. They
are helpful to vegetables that have to survive during
the winter (onion, garlic, oil vegetables and barley)
since they contribute to raising the soil temperature.
There are 3 scrubbing units (that include the 3 scrubbing
• The first unit is composed of Granulator fumes prescrubber
for the gases coming from the granulator
mainly containing ammonia & dust. It is a vertical
section/ cyclonic type scrubber. The washing liquid
is normally constituted by phosphoric acid (20-40%
P2O5) and some sulphuric acid. In this high pressure
sprays are used for gaseous fluoride and ammonia
• The second unit (second scrubbing step)
is composed of granulator scrubber, Dryer scrubber,
Cooler & Dedusting scrubber. The first one for the
gases coming from the granulator pre-scrubber, the
second one for gases coming from the dryer-cyclones.
• The third one of gases coming from the cooler cyclones
and dedusting cyclones, mainly containing dust. All
the three scrubbers are of similar towers, venture/
cyclonic type, but logically with different dimensions,
and in this more diluted acids are used.