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Soaps, Detergents and Disinfectants Technology Handbook- 2nd Revised Edition ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9789381039939
Code ENI198 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1495   1495 US$ 150   150
Pages: 464 Published 2019
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Soaps, Detergents and Disinfectants Technology Handbook- 2nd Revised Edition

 (Washing Soap,  Laundry Soap, Handmade Soap, Detergent Soap, Liquid Soap , Hand Wash, Liquid Detergent, Detergent Powder , Bar, Phenyl, Floor Cleaner, Toilet Cleaner, Mosquito Coils, Naphthalene Balls, Air Freshener, Hand Sanitizer and Aerosols Insecticide)


      Soaps are cleaning agents that are usually made by reacting alkali (e.g., sodium hydroxide) with naturally occurring fat or fatty acids. A soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain (composed of carbons and hydrogens) with a carboxylic acid group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metalion, usually a sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and is soluble in nonpolar substances (such as fats and oils), and the ionic end (the salt of a carboxylic acid) is soluble in water. Soap is made by combining tallow (or other hard animal fat) or vegetable or fish oil with an alkaline solution. The two most important alkalis in use are caustic soda and caustic potash.

A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants. Because of their chemical makeup, the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to perform well under a variety of conditions. Such surfactants are less sensitive than soap to the hardness minerals in water and most will not form a film.

Disinfectants are chemical agents applied to non-living objects in order to destroy bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold or mildews living on the objects. Disinfectants are chemical substances used to destroy viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi, as opposed to an antiseptic which can prevent the growth and reproduction of various microorganisms, but does not destroy them. The ideal disinfectant would offer complete sterilization, without harming other forms of life, be inexpensive, and non-corrosive.

The global soap and detergent market is expected to reach USD 207.56 billion by 2025. The industrial soaps & detergents are extensively used by the commercial laundries, hotels, restaurants, and healthcare providers. Increasing demand from healthcare and food industries will continue to drive the market. Aerosol and liquid products are the common disinfectants used in hospitals, although growing number of healthcare facilities are implementing ultraviolet disinfection systems as further measure. Increasing demand for disinfectants from water treatment and healthcare industries is fuelling growth of the global disinfectants market.

      The major contents of the book are Liquid Soaps and Hand Wash, Liquid Soap and Detergents, Washing Soap: Laundry Soap Formulation, Antiseptic and Germicidal Liquid Soap, Manufacturing Process And Formulations Of Various Soaps, Handmade Soap, Detergent Soap, Liquid Detergent, Detergent Powder, Application and Formulae Of Detergents, Detergent Bar, Detergents Of Various Types, Formulating Liquid Detergents, Phenyl, Floor Cleaner, Toilet Cleaner, Mosquito Coils, Naphthalene Balls, Air Freshener (Odonil Type), Liquid Hand Wash and Soaps, Hand Sanitizer, Aerosols–Water and Oil Based Insecticide (Flies, Mosquitoes Insect and Cockroach Killer Spray), Ecomark Criteria for Soaps & Detergents, Plant Layout, Process Flow Chart and Diagram, Raw Material Suppliers List and Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details.

This book will be a mile stone for its readers who are new to this sector, will also find useful for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area.


1. Introduction                                                                 

   2.   Liquid Soaps and Hand wash                               

         Method of Manufacture

         Raw Material Required

   3.   Liquid Soap and Detergents                               

         Product Introduction

         Method of Manufacture

         Liquid Detergents

         Weight Equivalents of Ddbsa

         Molecular Weights

         Special Procedures for Compounding

   4.   Washing Soap : Laundry Soap

         Manufacture of Laundry Neat Soap from Oil, Blend

         Harding of RBD

         Acid Wash for RBHT

         Salt Wash for Neem Oil


         Neem Soap Manufacture

         Manufacture of Laundry Soap

         Step 1: Mixing of Sodium Silicate, China Clay and Salt

         Step 2: Cratcher Mixing Operation

         Step 3: Spray Drying

         Step 4: Cutting

         Step 5: Stamping

         Step 6: Wrapping

         Step 7: Packing


         Process and Raw Material

         Product Profile

         Washing Soaps

         Brand Name


   5.   Antiseptic and Germicidal Liquid Soap           

         Hexachlorophene Soaps

         Control of Clarity


         Bottling and Packaging

   6.   Manufacturing Process and
Formulations of Various Soaps                       

         (A) Washing Soaps

         1.  Washing Soap with Soap Stone (by Cold Process)


         2.  Washing Soap with Soda Silicate (by Cold Process)


         3. Washing Soap


         4.  Sunlight Type Washing Soap


         5.  Sunlight Type Washing Soap (Other Formula)


         6.  Washing Soap Made of Groundnut Oil Residue


         7.  Washing Soap (from Linseed Oil)


         8.  Washing Soap (made of Cottonseed Oil)


         Nerol Shop

         Process of Manufacturing

         9. Other Selected Formulas of Washing Soaps


         (B) Nerol Washing Soap

         Process of Manufacturing

         (C) Toilet Soaps

         Selected Formulas for Toilet Soaps

         For Toilet Soap Perfumes

         (D) Carbolic Soaps


         2. Lifeboy Type Soap


         3. Transport Soap (Pears Tips)


         Transparent Soap (Another Formula)


         (E) Shaving Soaps



         (F) Special Soaps

         1. Borax Soap (For Pimples)


         2. Borax Soft Soap


         3. Soft Soap (Other Formula)


         4. Rug Cleaning Soap


         5. Dry-Cleaning Soap (Liquid)


         6. Soap used in the Bleaching of Jute


         7. Built Soaps for Cottons and Linens


         8. Sandle Soap


         (G) Vaseline Soap


         (H) Liquid Soap


         (I) Girt Soaps


         2. Hand Soap Paste with Mineral Abrasive


         3.  Powdered Hand Soap with Vegetable Abrasive and Lanolin


         (J) Depilatory Soaps


         (K) Metallic Soaps in protective coating industry


         Method of Precipitation

         (L) Liquid Dental Soap

         (M) Medicated Soap

         Neem Soap


   7.   Handmade Soap                                                        


         Benefits of Handmade Soap

         Types of Handmade Soap

         Cold Process Soap

         Hot Process Soap

         Liquid Soap

         Transparent Soap

         Glycerin Soap

         Ready-Made Soap Bases

         Basic Ingredients in Handmade Soap

         Tools and Equipments

         Temperature Chart

         Handmade Soap Formulae

         Lavender Soap

         Sweet Almond Oil Soap

         Seagrass Soap

         Cocoa and Shea Butter Soap

         Column Swirl Soap

         Spoon Swirl Handmade Soap

         Cocoa Butter Soap

         Coffee Soap

         Creamy Coconut Milk Soap

         Rose Milk Soap

         Sweet Citrus Honey

         White Camellia Oil Soap

         Basic Soap-Making Processes

         Cold Process

         Hot Processes


         Purification and Finishing

   8.   Detergent Soap                                                       


         Uses & Applications

         Detergent Cake Formulation

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

   9.   Liquid Detergent                                                    

         Uses of Liquid Detergent

         Liquid Detergent Formulations

         1.  Heavy Duty Liquid Detergent

         2.  Light Duty Liquid Detergent

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

10.   Detergent Powder                                                 

         Properties of Detergent Powder

         Uses & Application

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

11.   Application and Formulae of


         Household Cleaning

         Heavy-Duty Laundering

         Formula 9

         Spray-dried Heavy-duty Household Hand-washing Powder

         Foam Control

         Formula 10

         Heavy-duty Fully Automatic Washing Machine Powder

         Formula 11

         Low-foaming Machine Powder for Soft-water Areas

         Formula 12

         Low-foaming Machine Powder for Soft-water Areas Using

         Formulae 13-14

         Spray- dried Household Low-foaming Laundry Powders

         Formulae 15, 16, 17, 18

         Heavy-duty Liquid Detergents

         Formula 19

         Heavy-duty Liquid Detergent with ‘Controlled Foam’

         Formula 20

         Heavy-duty Liquid Detergent and Bleach

         Formula 21

         Light-duty Household Liquid Detergent

         Formula 22

         Lotion-type Light-duty Liquid Detergent

         Formulae 23-27

         Light-duty Liquid Detergents

         Formula 28

         Household Fine-wash Spray-dried Powder

         Formula 29

         40 per cent Detergent Paste

         Formula 30

         Spray-dried General-purpose Powder

         Formula 31

         General-purpose Powder

         Formula 32

         General-purpose Powder

         Choice of Non-Ionic

         Concentrated Powders

         Mix Together

         Cold Water Washing

         Hard-Surface Cleaners

         Formula 33

         Hard-surface Cleaner

         Formula 34

         Hard-surface Cleaner

         Formula 35

         Aerosol Oven Cleaner

         Machine Dishwashing

         Formula 36

         Machine Dish-washing Powder for Soft-water Areas

         Formula 37

         Machine Dish-washing Powder for Moderately Hard-water Areas

         Formula 38

         Machine Dish-washing Powder for Hard-Water Areas

         Abrasive-Type Cleaners

         Formula 39

         Household Scouring Powder

         Formula 40

         Formula 41

         Household Scouring Liquid

         Miscellaneous Household Cleaners

         Formula 42

         Household Window-cleaning Liquid

         Formula 43

         Floor Cleaner

         Commercial Laundering

         Formula 44

         Spray-dried Industrial Laundry Powder

         Formula 45

         Industrial Laundry Powder not Spray-dried

         Solvent Detergents

         Formula 46

         Detergent-solvent Combination

         Formula 47

         Detergent-solvent Combination

         Formula 48

         Kerosene Water Solution                                  

         Formula 49

         Solvent detergent Combination

         Formula 50

         Solvent-detergents based on 100 per cent  ABS (So3 produced)

         Formula 51

         Dry-cleaning Detergent

         Carpet and Upholstery Cleaners

         Textile Dressing

         Formula 52

         Textile Scouring Paste

         Formula 53

         Textile Degumming Detergent Paste


         Food and Dairy Industries

         Formulae 54-56

         Food and Dairy Alkaline Detergent Cleaner

         Formula 57

         Bottle-washing Compound

         Detergent Sanitizers

         Formula 58 and Formula 59

         Metal Cleaners

         Formula 60

         Acid Cleaner for Water-cooling Systems

         Miscellaneous Cleaners

         Lavatory Cleaner

         Hand Cleaners

         Formula 75

         Hand Cleanser

         Formula 76

         Detergent Hand Cleanser

         Formula 77

         Hand Cleanser in Powder Form

         Waterless Hand Cleansers

         Formula 78

         Waterless Hand Cleanser

         Formula 79

         Waterless Hand Cleanser

         Formula 80

         Waterless Hand Cleanser

12.   Detergent Bar                                                         


         Sequence of Additions

         Type of Defects

         Manufacturing Process of Detergent Bar

13.   DeterGents of Various Types                            

         (A) Detergent Powder


         Other Formulaes


         List of Plant and Machinery

         Raw Materials Used per day

         Dairy Equipment Cleaners

         Bottle Cleaners

         Preparation of Caustic Gluconate Solution

         Dairy Equipment Cleaners

         Dish Washing Detergents

         (a) For China Dishes by Soft Water

         (b) In Soft as well as Moderately Hard Water

         (c) For China Dishes by Hard Water

         (d) For Plasticware/Chinaware

         Other Dish-Washing Compounds (Vim Type Cleaning-Powder)

         1. For Aluminium Ware

         2. For Glass, China and Siverware

         3. Washing Powder (For Cottons)

         4. Washing compounds (For Woollens)

         5. Washing Compound (For Wool)

         6. Rug Cleaners

         7. Floor Cleaners (Building Surface)                

         8. Wall Cleaner

         9. Floor Cleaner (Light Duty Powder)

         10. Heavy Duty Cleaner

         11. Various Head Cleaning Compounds

         12. Cleaner for Artificial Teak

         13. Stoneware Glaze

         14. Paint Brush Cleaner

         15. Auto Polish


         Direction for Use


         Direction for Use


         Direction for Use

         Scouring Powders

         Floor Cleaners

         1. Common Wall Cleaner

         2. Light Duty Cleaner (Powder)

         3. Heavy Duty Cleaner

         4. Cleaner for Building Surface

         Sanitary Cleaner

         List of Plants and Machinery

         Raw Material

         Metal cleaners

         Aluminium Cleaner

         Steel Cleaner

         Cleaner for Iron Applied Prior to Galvanishing

         Liquid Pine Scrub Soap for General Floor Scrubbing

         Wax Removing Cleaner (Liquid)

         Sweeping Compound (Oil Base)

         Painted Surface Cleaner (Powder)

         (B) Liquid Detergents

         All Purpose Liquid Cleaners

         Dish Washing Liquid Detergents

         Formulations for Mechanical Dishwasher

         Hand Washing Liquid Detergent

         Miscellaneous Cleaners

         Textile Scouring Paste

         Degumming Paste for Wool

         Liquid Cleaners for Hard Surface

         Window Panes Cleaning Liquid

         Dry Cleaning Detergent


         (C) Detergent (Nirma Type)

         Formulations for the Nirma Type Detergent Powder

         List of Plant and Machinery

         Raw Materials Required/Month

         (D) Detergent Cake

         Manufacturing Process for Detergent Cake Basis 1 TPD

         1. Sulfonation of Alkyl Benzene

         2. Separation Step

         3. Neutralization Stop

         4. Mixing of Ingredients

         5. Concentration of Slurry

         6. Making of Cake

         7. Packing

         8. Despatching

         List of Plant and Machinery

         Raw Materials Required per day

14.   Formulating Liquid Detergents                       

         Requisites of Surfactants for Formulating Liquid Detergents

         Surfactants Most Commonly Used


         Viscosity Controllers

         Other Ingredients

         Household Liquid Detergents For Laundering

         Heavy Duty

         Typical Formulations


         Light Duty : (for Silk, Wool etc.)


         Rug Cleaning Liquid Detergent Formulations

         A Recommended Formulation

15.   Phenyl                                                                        



         Manufacturing Process

16.   Floor Cleaner                                                         

         Composition of Floor Cleaner

         Uses of Floor Cleaner

         Raw Material Required for Floor Cleaner

         Manufacturing Process of Floor Cleaner

         Process Flow Diagram of Floor Cleaner

17.   Toilet Cleaner                                                        



         Formulations of Toilet Cleaner

         Manufacturing Process of Toilet Cleaner

         Process Flow Diagram of Toilet Cleaner

18.   Mosquito Coils                                                        

         Uses and Application


         Basic Raw Material

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

19.   Naphthalene Balls                                                

         Uses & Application


         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

20.   Air Freshener (Odonil Type)                               


         Uses and Applications

         Formulation for Preparing Odonil Type Solid                Deodorant Cake

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Diagram

21.   Liquid Hand wash and Soaps                               

         Method of Manufacture

         Raw Material Required

22.   Hand Sanitizer                                                         

         Physical and Chemical Properties



         Formulation of Herbal Hand Sanitizer

         Manufacturing Process

23.   Aerosols–Water and Oil based
(Flies, Mosquitoes  Insect and Cockroach  Killer Spray)     

         Aerosol Container

         Formulation of Insecticide Aerosols

         Oil-Based Aerosol (OBA)

         Water-Based Aerosols (WBA)

         Alcohol-Based Aerosol

         Filling Process of Oil-based Insecticide Aerosols

         The Production Process of Oil-Based Insecticide Aerosol

         The Preparation of Concentrate

         The Preparation of Diluent Solution


         Filling Process of Water-Based Insecticide Aerosols (T-t-V method)

         Filling Process of Water-Based Insecticide Aerosols (U-t-C)

         Instruction of Process

         A. Procedures of Water-Based Aerosols

         B. Procedures of Oil-Based Aerosols

         C. Aerosol Production Line

         Water-Based Aerosol Insecticide Formulation

         The Biological Efficacy of Typical Formulation

         FE Insecticide Aerosols

         A. Features

         B. Composition and the Physical Feature

         C. Comparison of Efficacy to Insects Between FE and Other Knock Down Agent

         Insecticide Aerosols for Special Uses

24.   Ecomark Criteria for Soaps &

         A. Toilet Soaps

         1. General Requirements

         2. Product Specific Requirements

         B. Detergents

         1. General Requirements

         2. Product Specific Requirements

         3. General Requirements

25.   Plant Layout                                                            

26.   Process Flow Chart and Diagram                    

27.   Raw Material Suppliers List                              

28.   Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details  

         Liquid Soap Making Machine

         Three Roll Mill


         Heat Exchanger



         Flash Tank

         Water Strainer

         Cyclone Separator

         Vaccum Pump

         Hammer Mill

         Jacketed Kettle


         Storage Tank

         Steam Heater


         Soap Packing Machine

         Transfer Pump


         Spray Dryer

         Pulverizer Machine

         Washing Powder Making Machinery

         Bath Soap Making Machine

         Soaps Wrapping Machine

         Detergent Cake Making MAchine

         Manual Soap Cutter

         Soap Extruders

         Soap Mixer

         Soap Presses

         Soap Crutcher

         Soap Flaker

         Detergent Making Machine

         Hand Wash Liquid Soap Making Machine

         Ribbon Blender

         Cage Mill

         Automatic Production Line for High Laundry Detergent Filling and Capping

         Soap Finishing Line

         Canned Fresh Air Filling Machine Assembly Line 2800E

         Air Filling Machine 1600D1

         Aerosol Filling Machines Automatic Single Platform 2800A

         Aerosol Filling Machines

         Aerosol Contract Filling Machine

         Aerosol Filling Plant

         Aerosol Filling Equipment With 5 in 1 Function 1600C

         Toilet Soap Line

         Laundry Soap Making Process Chart

         Soap Production Line Machine

         Soap Production Line Plant

         Soap Making Line Machinery

         Soap Production Line



Soaps are cleaning agents that are usually made by

reacting alkali (e.g., sodium hydroxide) with naturally

occurring fat or fatty acids. The reaction produces sodium

salts of these fatty acids, which improve the cleaning process

by making water better able to lift away greasy stains from

skin, hair, clothes, and just about anything else. As a

substance that has helped clean bodies as well as

possessions, soap has been remarkably useful.

The basic structure of all soaps is essentially the same,

consisting of a long hydrophobic (water-fearing) hydrocarbon

“tail” and a hydrophilic (waterloving) anionic “head”: The

length of the hydrocarbon chain (“n”) varies with the type of

fat or oil but is usually quite long. The anionic charge on the

carboxylate head is usually balanced by either a positively

charged potassium (K + ) or sodium (Na + ) cation. In making

soap, triglycerides in fat or oils are heated in the presence of

a strong alkali base such as sodium hydroxide, producing

three molecules of soap for every molecule of glycerol. This

process is called saponification.

A soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid. A

soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain

(composed of carbons and hydrogens) with a carboxylic acid

group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metal ion, usually

a sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and

is soluble in nonpolar substances (such as fats and oils), and

the ionic end (the salt of a carboxylic acid) is soluble in water.

Soap is one of the oldest chemical produced over two

thousand years ago by saponification animal fats with the

ashes from plants. Although soap are mainly used as

surfactant for washing, bathing cleaning, but they are also

being used in textile spinning and as important constituent

of lubricating grease. Now soap and detergent have become

integral part of our society. There has been continuous

development Soap making technology starting with batch

kettle making process in cottage industry and to present

continuous modern soap making process using either fat

saponification or by fatty acid neutralization utilizing a wide

variety of natural and synthetic feed. Soaps are also key

components of most lubricating grease which are usually

emulsion of, calcium, sodium, lithium soaps and mineral


With detergents spreading in usage, it is imperative that

we understand what they are and how they affect our

environment. Detergents are household chemical cleaning

compounds used for laundering and dishwashing. They

contain wetting agents and emulsifiers based on non-soap

synthetic surfactants. Synthetic detergent powders are made

up of surface-active agents, builders and fillers. In addition,

they contain additives such as anti re-deposition agents,

optical fibre brighteners (whitening agents), bluing agents,

bleaching agents, foam regulators, organic sequestering

agents, enzymes, perfumers, and substances that regulate

density and assure the crispness of the material they are used


A disinfectant is a chemical agent, which destroys or

inhibits growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the nonsporing

or vegetative state. Disinfectants do not necessarily

kill all organisms but reduce them to a level, which does not

harm health or the quality perishable goods. Disinfectants

are applied to inanimate objects and materials such as

instruments and surfaces to control and prevent infection.

They may also be used to disinfect skin and other tissues prior

to surgery (see also Antiseptics, above). Disinfection means

the freeing of an article from some or all of its burden of live

pathogenic microorganisms which might cause infection

during its use. The term is a relative one and disinfection may

be described as being partially or highly effective according

to the proportion of pathogenic organisms killed or removed.

Disinfection needs to be used rather than sterilization.

The market is witnessing globalization in the sector, as

more and more global vendors are branching out in the

market to increase their market share. With rising

globalization, vendors of the market are facing new challenges

to sustain their growth and compliant as per the laws and

regulations directed by various government agencies. The

potential opportunities in the developing economies are

expected to provide ample of demand for the product over the

forecast period.



When soap is mentioned, the cake or bar form usually

comes to mind. However, it has definite basic

disadvantages for use in public or semi-public wash rooms.

For one thing, it does not “stayput”. A piece of cake soap

on a public wash basin will disappear with alarming a

clarity. Even if the cake is not stolen, it has the habit of

slipping to the floor or soaking away in the basin or else

degenerating into soggy, slimy, dirty and Uniointing looking


To obviate the shortcomings of cake or bar soap, liquid

soaps are utilized. Liquid soaps are most popular for normal

use of soap in public wash rooms. These are used widely in

public buildings, schools, hotels and institutions. Besides

providing better rinsing than cake or powdered soaps, liquid

soap is more economical. It is manufactured in large batches

and sold in bulk, and does not have to go through crutching,

drying, milling, grinding, wrapping, packing etc. all of which

cost money.

The main different between liquid soap and hard soap is

that the former is saponified with caustic potash and the

latter with caustic soda. When suitable oils are used, caustic

potash produces a soap that will give a rich lather in low



For small manufacturers, the best advice on making

liquid detergents is to purchase from primary producers an

intermediate dodecyl benzene sulphuric acid (DDBSA) better

known as Acid Slurry. They, themselves, can neutralize the

dodecyl compound in a variety of ways. They may use

ammonia amines, soda, or potash to yield liquid detergents.


In this class those may be included which are marketed

under designations such as: Surgical Liquid soap, Hospital

Liquid Soap, Medicated Liquid Soap and those under trade

names utilizing a descriptive word which intimates germ

killing properties.

It is common knowledge that soap removes some surface

germs from the skin due to its mechanical action of washing.

When used correctly for cleaning the hands or for washing

eating utensils, soaps are undoubtedly potent factors in

preventing the spread of diseases due to certain organisms.

The action of soaps as germicides is however limited.

Coconut oil soaps, on account of their high laurate

content are more strongly germicidal than other soaps. It

would appear that although by a liberal interpretation, the

word “Antiseptic” is sometimes applied to soap, the fact

remains that ordinary soap has no effect against the pus or

staphylococus germ, which is the most commonly found on

the skin.


The need for soap with effective antiseptic action is

fulfilled by a relatively new compound known commonly as

hexachlorophene. Recent medical literature contains

numerous published studies which demonstrate the

bactericidal and antiseptic action of this compound in

combination with soaps. The compound may be used in either

bar, powdered, or liquid products. Bar soaps incorporating

two percent hexachlorophene are usually designed for general

toilet use, and if used regularly, will reduce and maintain the

bacterial flora of the skin to about five percent of the usual

number. A liquid soap containing hexacholorophene produces

better results than a bar soap incorporating the compound.

Chemically, hexachlorophene is defined as bis (3, 5, 6 –

trichloro —2 —hydroxyphenyl) methane. It is a white

crystalline powder, insoluble in water soluble in acetone,

alcohol and dilute alkalies has a melting point of 164-180°C,

and exhibits antiseptic and germicidal, action against microorganisms.

It is prepared by the condensation of two

molecules of 2, 4, 5 trichlorophenol with one molecule of

formaldehyde in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid.


Control of Clarity

Coconut oil is considered the best for making clear liquid

soap. However after saponification, the higher titre fractions,

such as stearates, and palmitates precipitate out of solution,

and cause a turbidity which is encouraged further by low

temperatures. The oil also contains unsaponifiables, which

cause clouding.

Commercial caustic potash contains a small amount of

soda impurities which form soda soaps, such as Sodium

Stearate, palmitate, or lamatic. These are less soluble than

the potash soaps and therefore, precipitate out of solution.

Chemically pure caustic potash is preferred, but its cost

makes it commercially uneconomical.

Allowing liquid soap to remain in a storage tank permits

a certain percentage of clouding ingredients to settle out. Cold

hastens the precipitation. However, if the liquid soap is too

neutral or super fatted, cloudiness will be excessive in cold

weather, clear up as the temperature rises, and reappear

when it drops.


Bottling and Packaging

After the soap passes through the filter press, it is stored

in tanks and later transported to the bottles. For this purpose

steel drums makes the best packing, as they do not affect

clarity where soap is packed in bottles, it may in some cases

develop turbidity even if the soap has been manufactured

correctly and treated as described. This may be due to the

quality or a glassware Bottle manufacturers use different

formulations and it has been found that some glass acts

unfavourably by slowly liberating an excess of lime and

magnesia salts used in making the glassware, thereby

forming insoluble soaps which cause clouding. The best may

to ascertain which bottles are suitable is to put liquid soap

into different make bottles and observe the effect on clarity.



Soap is integral to our society today, and we find it hard

to imagine a time when people were kept sweet-smelling

by the action of perfume rather than soap. However, the

current widespread use of soap is only a very recent

occurrence, despite the fact that it has been made for more

than 2500 years. The first recorded manufacture of soap was

in 600 BC, when Pliny the Elder described its manufacture

by the Phonecians from goats tallow and ash, and it was

known among the British Celts and throughout the Roman

Empire. However, these people used their soap medicinally,

and it was not until the second century AD that it was used

for cleaning, and not until the nineteenth century that it

began to be commonly used in the Western world.

Handmade soaps are manufactured locally in small

batches with the personal oversight and care of the soap

maker. Handmade soap makers use high-quality ingredients

and are able to add specialty oils and additives to personalize

their formulations. Also known as “homemade soap” or

“handcrafted soap”, handcrafted soap is a blend of both

science and art. By combining the scientific knowledge of the

last 150 years and the artistic creativity of the soap maker,

each bar is safe, luxurious and unique. Handcrafted soap is

soap in its true and most pure form. Handcrafted soap can

be made from scratch by the cold or hot process methods or

by utilizing a pre-made soap base. The Handcrafted Soap

makers Guild recognizes any soap made by these methods

to be handcrafted so long as at least 50% of the process is

done by hand.

 True soaps are the result of a chemical reaction between

vegetable or animal fats, water and lye. When combined, they

transform into soap and glycerin with no lye remaining in

the soap. This reaction is called “saponification”, which

literally means “the making of soap”. Handcrafted soap

makers generally pride themselves on the unique recipes that

create their signature soaps. Most handcrafted soap makers

use food-quality, natural ingredients, starting with a variety

of vegetable oils such as olive, coconut, or palm, or they may

use purified tallow or lard. To these might be added

specialized oils, nut butters or seed extracts to bring the

desired qualities to the finished bar.

Fragrance oils or plant-based essential oils are added for

scent. For color or texture, soap makers often use cosmeticgrade

pigments or dyes, botanicals, herbs, spices or other

natural ingredients. For those with sensitivities, many soap

makers also make “simple soap” with no additives or scent.

Besides all the wonderful ingredients that may be in

handcrafted soap, perhaps the biggest advantage of

handcrafted soap is in the soap makers themselves, each of

whom invests their care and attention to detail into every

batch and bar. When you use a bar of handcrafted soap, you

know it was made with the personal touch of a local soap




Handmade soaps are made with natural ingredients

instead of cheap imitations which may cause irritation.

Coconut, olive, and palm oils are carefully blended to create

a skin smoothing concoction that cleanses the skin without

drying it out. A variety of natural fragrance oils can also be

added to the handmade soap for additional moisture locking

effects. An example of the types of fragrance oils used include:

orange, vanilla rose petals, almond, avocado, jojoba,

cottonseed, etc. Most importantly, handmade soaps are

respectful of nature by not testing their products on animals.



While the chemical reaction that creates soap is always

the same, different types of soaps can be made by different

methods, all still relying upon that basic chemical reaction

that occurs.

Cold Process Soap

Cold process soap making is the method most often used

by soap makers who make soap from scratch. It’s called “cold”

process because no additional heat is added during the soap

making process; however the process itself does generate

heat. Often cold process soaps are insulated in the mould

until they are completely cooled.

Soaps produced via the cold process method are opaque

and usually have a creamy feel to the bar. Without any

additives that change the color, the soap ranges from whitewhite

to creamy-tan, depending on the oils that are used in

making the soap. The feel of the lather varies, also dependent

upon the oils used to make the soap. The lather can range

from tiny, very slippery, long-lasting bubbles (as with pure

olive oil soap), to big, fluffy, short-lived bubbles (as with pure

coconut oil soap).



Understanding the materials that go into handmade soap

can help a soap maker predict how materials and additives

will affect the final outcome of a batch of soap. Using the right

materials, a soap maker can adjust a soap to ensure it has

the desired texture, color, scent and chemical properties.

Preparing soap with the proper handmade soap materials and

tools can help produce a quality batch of soap while allowing

the soap maker to stay safe during the soap making process.

Oil: Almost oil can be made to be soap. Just looking for

easy materials such as: Coconut Oil, Palm Oil, Olive Oil,

Corn Oil and Soybean Oil etc.

Sodium/Potassium Hydroxide is used to change oil to


Water: It is used as a catalyst/solvent. Choose distilled

or bottled water. Plumbing water is not good because

containing of many minerals.



A detergent is a formulated product which is specially

designed to promote the cleaning action. Each individual

component in the formulation has its own specific functions

in the washing process but it can also produce synergistic

effect with other components.

The term detergent originated from the latin word

detergine (i.e. wipe off), is now-a-days applied to all synthetic

washing compounds. Soaps, detergents, cleaning fluids and

many emergency stain removers are effective cleaners

because they can dissolve and emulsify (break up and

suspend) the oil and grease that holds dirt in place. Synthetic

detergent is an effective substitute of washing soap have

become now very popular replacing the soap. All soaps and

detergents contain a surfactant as their active ingredient.

However detergent has better cleaning properties than soap

because good detergency and has increasingly popular.

Detergent cake largely used in the domestic houses,

commercial sectors, hotel industries, garment industries and

in many other sections of the society. There is much more

utilization of enzymes, by using enzyme activity of detergent

cake and bar increases. But enzymatic process of detergent

manufacturing is not economically viable to produce low

priced detergent. Formulation of cake is different from that

of cake in powder form. To give grit to the cake and firmness

of solids, clay and starch-like fillers are added and sodium

sulphate content is reduced. The production of detergent bar




Detergent Cake

1. It should be handy enough and it should not be melted

at room temperature.

2. It should not be corrosive in hand.

3. It should have good appearance.

4. It should not loss its property within one year.

5. It should be soluble in water and solution is slightly


6. It should produce good foam in the water and it should

clean the garments and other articles.



8. These are used in the domestic houses and in the

industrial for cleaning of clothes, garments etc.

9. Hand Soaps and Shampoo.

10. Cleaning and degreasing of metals.

11. Cleaning of glass and containers.

12. Cleaning of painted surfaces.

13. Cleaning of painted walls, roofs etc.

14. Household washing.

15. Washing and cleaning of clothes, fabrics etc.

16. Industrial equipment cleanings etc.


The most easily produced type of solvent-detergent is a

combination of non-ionic detergent with solvents. Very often

a simple mixing of solvents with detergents is sufficient to

obtain a clear, stable product, which generally forms milky

emulsions in water. However, not all non-ionics are soluble

in any proportion in any solvent. Very often they are only

slightly soluble in non-polar solvents of the aliphatic type.

Here it is necessary to use so-called ‘co-solvents’, together

with the non-polar aliphatic solvent, to give the desired


The subject of solvency is of the greatest importance in

working out effective products. By giving concrete examples,

it will be made clear how important this type of solvent is in

formulating high-grade products.

Carpet and Upholstery Cleaners

Fabric cleaners of this type differ in their operation from

other detergent materials in that it is usually very difficult

to rinse the material being cleaned. To overcome this,

methods of cleaning have been developed where a solution

of the detergent is applied to the carpet by ‘shampooing’ to

form copious foam, or a foam is formed first and the carpet

sponged with this foam,. In either instance the combination

of the detergency of the cleaner and the mechanical energy

applied lifts and holds the dirt in the foam.

The foam, having very thin walls and enormous surface

area dries relatively quickly into brittle particles of dust and

this dust is either vacuum cleaned or brushed away.

Initial formulations for these carpet shampoos were

normal light-duty detergents with the addition of tetrasodium

pyrophosphate, its function being both to increase detergency

and to make the dried residue more brittle. A suitable

detergent material which is also in itself fairly brittle when

dehydrated is the sodium or magnesium salt, or one of the

fatty alcohol sulphates. Some formulae also called for the

incorporation of a solvent but with the newer fabrics and

rubberized bases being used, the solvent should be chosen

with care of left out.

These formulation were not, however, the complete

answer to the problem. A portion of the active matter became

absorbed into the fibre and when dried this left a deposit

which tended to attract dirt. Carpets cleaned in this manner

became soiled very quickly.




Here are below mentioned some of the formulae for

preparation of detergent powders for different purposes.

The methods of preparation and compounding of the

constituents with their merits and demerits have already been

discussed in the preceeding chapters. The same method is

applied in the preparation of these. The main technique being

either mixing up of the constituents in powdered from in

mixers and then sifting and sieving the product to get powder

of uniform gravity, or preparing an acid slurry and converting

it into powder from by spray drying as already mentioned.

However, the brief notes, if any, follow the formulation.


The cleaning of metals is necessary for removal of rust,

other corrosion products, dissolving scale, grease, oil paint,

foreign matter and preliminary treatment for acid treatment.

For removal of rust, corrosion products, and dissolution of

the scale 'acid treatment' is conducted while the other

purposes alkaline treatment suffices. The preliminary

treatment of metals with alkaline substances prior to acid

treatment is sometimes necessitated to avoid uneven finish

due to action of the acid on the metallic surfaces. Metals are

sometimes treated with strongly alkaline solutions to remove

grease oil and foreign matter prior to plating, enamelling and

other protective treatments employed now-a-days. As the

metals are affected differently by these treatments, therefore,

here are given some of the formulations for metal cleaners.



Liquid detergents are gaining mometum in the market in

the market and are, by and by replacing the powder

detergents. These are generally used for washing costly

clothes. Liquid hand cleaners, shampooes, liquid dish and

hardware cleaners occupy a major portion of the shelves of

the modern general stores in the big cities and metropolies.

Some of the trade names of such products are 'Genteel' and

'Homacole' etc. Liquid detergents are used for fine wash of

silk and synthetic fabrics at h ome and used in commercial

quantities in textile mills for wet processing of textile goods.

Due to greater foam volume and stability, liquid

detergents form an emulsion with the greasy foods which form

a thin film of the oily matter which is easily removed by

rinsing it with water.

A liquid detergent formulation generally comprises of a

basic anionic alkyl aryl surface active agent and a non-ionic

additive. The additive arrests the foaming power so that the

foam is completely exhausted with the end point of its

detergency. While making choice for the formulations it must

be ensured that the product obtained is biodegradable, a term

which has already been explained in detail.

The additives are rapidly dispersed into liquids at a

temperature of about 120F, therefore, these are incorporated

into liquid detergents very easily at this temperature. It is

better to take the required quantity of water at 500C and

added the required quantity of the non-ionic additive with

stirring so that the complete dissolution is achieved resulting

in a homogenous solution.

It is economical for the formulators of liquid detergents

to buy the active detergent material like dodecyl benzene

sulphonic acid or lined alkyl sulphonic acids from their

manufacturer rather manufacturing it themselves, which is

very cumbersome and technically unsound for ordinary


Taking the pros and cons of different materials, here are

some of the formulations for liquid detergents to achieve the

maximum output and the best results. To achieve the best

results a good liquid detergent must contain alkali,

sequestering agent and the soil-suspending agent. Instead

the variation in percentage composition of different

constituents of the formulas do affect the detergency of the

product. Some of the formulations are:



This detergent occupied large place of detergent powder

in the market. Widely used in India in the homes for washing

of clothes. In the technical aspect its manufacture process

is the same but ingredients used are particular for it.

In a small, cottage scale production there is no need of

heavy machineries. Detergent is manufactured by the simple

mixing of all the ingredients with the active orgainc

component i.e. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (Sodium

salt of acid slurry). In a big unit the process starts with the

sulphonation of dodecyl benzene and hence the process and

technology are complicated.

The required quanity of sodium dodecyl benzene

sulphonate and sodium LABS (Linear aryl benzene

sulphonate) mixture are taken in a simple mixer with agitator

(i.e. Ribbon Blender). Then required quantity of sodium

tripolyphosphate, trisodium phosphate, soda ash and CMC

are introduced into the mixer. During the addition of the

ingredients,. blending of the mass is accomplished by

continuous agitation. Then other ingredients except optical

whitener and colour are added and mixing is continued. At

last colour and optical whitener and small amount of water

are added. Addition of water is to ease homogenity.



Phenyl type disinfectants fall in the category of black oil

disinfectants and are extensively used for sanitation

purposes, for drains, floor, stables etc. and are prepared from

coal tar distillates containing high boiling tar acids. These

are, however, less, affected in contact with organic matter.

Phenyl is being used since very beginning for killing insects

grown in nallahas, lavatory and kooradan. Most of the

diseases causes due to insects.

Phenyl is a strong germicide for disinfecting areas

covering places like hospital, nursing homes, drains, lavatory,

toilets, cowsheds and is extensively used for sanitation

purpose. White phenyl compound is a disinfectant fluid of

milky color, often used to fight bad odors, repell mosquito‘s,

flies, insects and used for floor cleaning and fragrance, it has

demand everywhere, it is produced from a compound called

white phenyle concentrate, which is diluted to 20 to 40 parts

of water to produce white phenyle fluid, its packed in bottles

and cans and sold in market. Its use is almost everywhere

so its demand is growing day by day.

The demand for phenyl is rapidly increasing due to the

propagation and awareness regarding importance of hygiene.



White phenyl (phenyle) is most suitable to fight dirt and

germs in the house including kitchen appliances, carpets and

other items.

It is basically an agent, which destroys pathogenic

organism, and hence its uses are numerous. It is extensively

used in for sanitation purposes for drains, floors, stables, etc.

As these are slightly soluble in water, have to be emulsified

for use as disinfections.

White phenyl is finding wide spread use and acceptance

as hard surface cleaner to remove greasy, fatty and oily soils

or various non-porous hard surfaces like floors, bathrooms

marbles, ceramics, metals, plastics, concrete, granite, walls,

cabinet, appliances etc. White phenyl assist in the removal

of dirt and grim and leave all surfaces and atmosphere

pleasantly smelling.

It is being popular day by day in India in homes, hospitals,

clinics, veterinary clinics, restaurants, factories, food

establishments, offices, shops, schools, institutions,

government departments etc. for disinfecting purposes.

White Phenyl has effective composition to kill microbes

coming into contact with it and a fresh fragrance. The White

Phenyl is a great alternative for ensuring a fresh and diseasefree

environment. The reason for White Phenyl to be widely

preferred is its effectiveness to keep the surroundings

hygienic for long.




Cleaners are typically water-based, with acidic, alkaline,

or neutral washing agents added to them. The primary

use of an acidic agent is to eliminate inorganic deposits, like

lime scale. Alkaline agents serve to remove deposits that are

formed of grease, fat, protein, or oil. Neutral agents are so

named due to their neutral pH-level. Their purpose is to dispel

different forms of dirt.

Floor Cleaning is the process of removing visible debris

and dust particles too small to be seen by the naked eye.

Removal of lead-based paint hazards in a dwelling unit will

not make the unit safe unless excessive levels of leaded dust

are also removed. This is true regardless of whether the dust

was present before or generated by the lead hazard control

process itself. However, cleaning and clearance can be

achieved routinely if care and diligence are exercised.

Just as there are different types of bases for cleaners,

there are also different jobs for household cleaners. Allpurpose

cleaners can generally be used on any surface to

clean any kind of deposit.

Floor Cleaner that effortlessly removes oils, Floor Cleaner

is highly effective, versatile aqueous cleaner and degreaser.

The powerful cleaning action easily removes oils and heavy

soiling from most flooring surfaces.



• for the cleaning of industrial surfaces, shop floors and

workshop floors, production sites and warehouses

• can be used manually and mechanically in pressure

washers, floor cleaning machines, etc.

• by heating to a maximum of 90 °C cleaning performance

can be increased many times over.



Naphthalene C10H8, sometimes called ‘TARCAMPHOR’ is

a colourless crystalline-flaked solid with the familiar

odour of mothballs. Naphthalene C10H8 is an aromatic

hydrocarbon with two condensed ring aromatic compounds.

Naphthalene is a white solid chemical that vaporizes

easily. It has a strong smell. You can sometimes smell

naphthalene in the air or in water. Naphthalene is used in

mothballs and moth flakes. Petroleum and coal contain


Mothballs and other products containing naphthalene are

solids that turn into toxic gas. The toxic gas kills insects and

may repel animals.

A good commercial grade of naphthalene (called 78°

Naphthalene, referring to the melting point) is approximately

96% pure. Refined naphthalene is available in flakes, pellets,

and balls. Use of Naphthalene as an insect repellent has

dwindled in recent years as other materials, e.g. pdichlorobenzene,

have displaced it.

It is a consumable product, hence it finds extensive

application in cities. General awareness is improving in

cleanliness and hence this product has got good scope for



dyestuff industry and the manufacture of phthalic anhydride

for synthetic resins. It is also used in the manufacture of

lampblack, as an addition to enrich the illuminating gas and

motor fuels, and as an insecticides and soil fumigant.

It is used as intermediate for the manufacture of phthalic

anhydride teralin, declin, chlorinated naphthalenes and dyes.

It is most widely used as moth repellant and fungicides in


Other important applications are as explosives, cutting

fluids lubricants, preservatives. It is sometimes used as a

solvent for certain chemicals. Its minor uses are as textile

chemicals, emulsions breakers.

Naphthalene balls are used as moth repellent and

fungicide in homes to prevent the woolen clothes. Due to the

volatile character of naphthalene, balls are vaporizes and

require some additives wherever these are used. These are

also used in urinals and toilets to prevent the bad smell.



Hot pressed Naphthalene, relatively free of oils, has a

melting 168.8 to 172.4ºF. It should be noted, however, that

these temperatures are somewhat lower than given for the

pure naphthalene. As the oil content increases, the melting

point drops accordingly.

Crude naphthalene is generally produced by the fractional

distillation of coal tar. It exists in various forms depending

upon the amount of oil present. It is also formed in certain

processes for making fuel gases where it causes trouble in

gas distribution systems by depositing in small lines and


Naphthalene is known to domestic users as mothballs.

It is also used in the manufacture of dyes, phthalic acid,

explosives, lamp black, varnishes, in grease for greasing

vehicles, as an antiseptic, in the fun industry. Hydrogenated

naphthalene is also used in making tetralin & decalin, which

have been used as solvents & motor fuels. Naphthalene is

also used in a under variety of chemical compounds. 



NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR