Soaps are cleaning agents that are usually made by
reacting alkali (e.g., sodium hydroxide) with naturally
occurring fat or fatty acids. The reaction produces sodium
salts of these fatty acids, which improve the cleaning process
by making water better able to lift away greasy stains from
skin, hair, clothes, and just about anything else. As a
substance that has helped clean bodies as well as
possessions, soap has been remarkably useful.
The basic structure of all soaps is essentially the same,
consisting of a long hydrophobic (water-fearing) hydrocarbon
“tail” and a hydrophilic (waterloving) anionic “head”: The
length of the hydrocarbon chain (“n”) varies with the type of
fat or oil but is usually quite long. The anionic charge on the
carboxylate head is usually balanced by either a positively
charged potassium (K + ) or sodium (Na + ) cation. In making
soap, triglycerides in fat or oils are heated in the presence of
a strong alkali base such as sodium hydroxide, producing
three molecules of soap for every molecule of glycerol. This
process is called saponification.
A soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid. A
soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain
(composed of carbons and hydrogens) with a carboxylic acid
group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metal ion, usually
a sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and
is soluble in nonpolar substances (such as fats and oils), and
the ionic end (the salt of a carboxylic acid) is soluble in water.
Soap is one of the oldest chemical produced over two
thousand years ago by saponification animal fats with the
ashes from plants. Although soap are mainly used as
surfactant for washing, bathing cleaning, but they are also
being used in textile spinning and as important constituent
of lubricating grease. Now soap and detergent have become
integral part of our society. There has been continuous
development Soap making technology starting with batch
kettle making process in cottage industry and to present
continuous modern soap making process using either fat
saponification or by fatty acid neutralization utilizing a wide
variety of natural and synthetic feed. Soaps are also key
components of most lubricating grease which are usually
emulsion of, calcium, sodium, lithium soaps and mineral
With detergents spreading in usage, it is imperative that
we understand what they are and how they affect our
environment. Detergents are household chemical cleaning
compounds used for laundering and dishwashing. They
contain wetting agents and emulsifiers based on non-soap
synthetic surfactants. Synthetic detergent powders are made
up of surface-active agents, builders and fillers. In addition,
they contain additives such as anti re-deposition agents,
optical fibre brighteners (whitening agents), bluing agents,
bleaching agents, foam regulators, organic sequestering
agents, enzymes, perfumers, and substances that regulate
density and assure the crispness of the material they are used
A disinfectant is a chemical agent, which destroys or
inhibits growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the nonsporing
or vegetative state. Disinfectants do not necessarily
kill all organisms but reduce them to a level, which does not
harm health or the quality perishable goods. Disinfectants
are applied to inanimate objects and materials such as
instruments and surfaces to control and prevent infection.
They may also be used to disinfect skin and other tissues prior
to surgery (see also Antiseptics, above). Disinfection means
the freeing of an article from some or all of its burden of live
pathogenic microorganisms which might cause infection
during its use. The term is a relative one and disinfection may
be described as being partially or highly effective according
to the proportion of pathogenic organisms killed or removed.
Disinfection needs to be used rather than sterilization.
The market is witnessing globalization in the sector, as
more and more global vendors are branching out in the
market to increase their market share. With rising
globalization, vendors of the market are facing new challenges
to sustain their growth and compliant as per the laws and
regulations directed by various government agencies. The
potential opportunities in the developing economies are
expected to provide ample of demand for the product over the
LIQUID SOAP AND DETERGENTS
When soap is mentioned, the cake or bar form usually
comes to mind. However, it has definite basic
disadvantages for use in public or semi-public wash rooms.
For one thing, it does not “stayput”. A piece of cake soap
on a public wash basin will disappear with alarming a
clarity. Even if the cake is not stolen, it has the habit of
slipping to the floor or soaking away in the basin or else
degenerating into soggy, slimy, dirty and Uniointing looking
To obviate the shortcomings of cake or bar soap, liquid
soaps are utilized. Liquid soaps are most popular for normal
use of soap in public wash rooms. These are used widely in
public buildings, schools, hotels and institutions. Besides
providing better rinsing than cake or powdered soaps, liquid
soap is more economical. It is manufactured in large batches
and sold in bulk, and does not have to go through crutching,
drying, milling, grinding, wrapping, packing etc. all of which
The main different between liquid soap and hard soap is
that the former is saponified with caustic potash and the
latter with caustic soda. When suitable oils are used, caustic
potash produces a soap that will give a rich lather in low
For small manufacturers, the best advice on making
liquid detergents is to purchase from primary producers an
intermediate dodecyl benzene sulphuric acid (DDBSA) better
known as Acid Slurry. They, themselves, can neutralize the
dodecyl compound in a variety of ways. They may use
ammonia amines, soda, or potash to yield liquid detergents.
ANTISEPTIC AND GERMICIDAL LIQUID SOAP
In this class those may be included which are marketed
under designations such as: Surgical Liquid soap, Hospital
Liquid Soap, Medicated Liquid Soap and those under trade
names utilizing a descriptive word which intimates germ
It is common knowledge that soap removes some surface
germs from the skin due to its mechanical action of washing.
When used correctly for cleaning the hands or for washing
eating utensils, soaps are undoubtedly potent factors in
preventing the spread of diseases due to certain organisms.
The action of soaps as germicides is however limited.
Coconut oil soaps, on account of their high laurate
content are more strongly germicidal than other soaps. It
would appear that although by a liberal interpretation, the
word “Antiseptic” is sometimes applied to soap, the fact
remains that ordinary soap has no effect against the pus or
staphylococus germ, which is the most commonly found on
The need for soap with effective antiseptic action is
fulfilled by a relatively new compound known commonly as
hexachlorophene. Recent medical literature contains
numerous published studies which demonstrate the
bactericidal and antiseptic action of this compound in
combination with soaps. The compound may be used in either
bar, powdered, or liquid products. Bar soaps incorporating
two percent hexachlorophene are usually designed for general
toilet use, and if used regularly, will reduce and maintain the
bacterial flora of the skin to about five percent of the usual
number. A liquid soap containing hexacholorophene produces
better results than a bar soap incorporating the compound.
Chemically, hexachlorophene is defined as bis (3, 5, 6 –
trichloro —2 —hydroxyphenyl) methane. It is a white
crystalline powder, insoluble in water soluble in acetone,
alcohol and dilute alkalies has a melting point of 164-180°C,
and exhibits antiseptic and germicidal, action against microorganisms.
It is prepared by the condensation of two
molecules of 2, 4, 5 trichlorophenol with one molecule of
formaldehyde in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid.
Control of Clarity
Coconut oil is considered the best for making clear liquid
soap. However after saponification, the higher titre fractions,
such as stearates, and palmitates precipitate out of solution,
and cause a turbidity which is encouraged further by low
temperatures. The oil also contains unsaponifiables, which
Commercial caustic potash contains a small amount of
soda impurities which form soda soaps, such as Sodium
Stearate, palmitate, or lamatic. These are less soluble than
the potash soaps and therefore, precipitate out of solution.
Chemically pure caustic potash is preferred, but its cost
makes it commercially uneconomical.
Allowing liquid soap to remain in a storage tank permits
a certain percentage of clouding ingredients to settle out. Cold
hastens the precipitation. However, if the liquid soap is too
neutral or super fatted, cloudiness will be excessive in cold
weather, clear up as the temperature rises, and reappear
when it drops.
Bottling and Packaging
After the soap passes through the filter press, it is stored
in tanks and later transported to the bottles. For this purpose
steel drums makes the best packing, as they do not affect
clarity where soap is packed in bottles, it may in some cases
develop turbidity even if the soap has been manufactured
correctly and treated as described. This may be due to the
quality or a glassware Bottle manufacturers use different
formulations and it has been found that some glass acts
unfavourably by slowly liberating an excess of lime and
magnesia salts used in making the glassware, thereby
forming insoluble soaps which cause clouding. The best may
to ascertain which bottles are suitable is to put liquid soap
into different make bottles and observe the effect on clarity.
Soap is integral to our society today, and we find it hard
to imagine a time when people were kept sweet-smelling
by the action of perfume rather than soap. However, the
current widespread use of soap is only a very recent
occurrence, despite the fact that it has been made for more
than 2500 years. The first recorded manufacture of soap was
in 600 BC, when Pliny the Elder described its manufacture
by the Phonecians from goats tallow and ash, and it was
known among the British Celts and throughout the Roman
Empire. However, these people used their soap medicinally,
and it was not until the second century AD that it was used
for cleaning, and not until the nineteenth century that it
began to be commonly used in the Western world.
Handmade soaps are manufactured locally in small
batches with the personal oversight and care of the soap
maker. Handmade soap makers use high-quality ingredients
and are able to add specialty oils and additives to personalize
their formulations. Also known as “homemade soap” or
“handcrafted soap”, handcrafted soap is a blend of both
science and art. By combining the scientific knowledge of the
last 150 years and the artistic creativity of the soap maker,
each bar is safe, luxurious and unique. Handcrafted soap is
soap in its true and most pure form. Handcrafted soap can
be made from scratch by the cold or hot process methods or
by utilizing a pre-made soap base. The Handcrafted Soap
makers Guild recognizes any soap made by these methods
to be handcrafted so long as at least 50% of the process is
done by hand.
True soaps are the result of a chemical reaction between
vegetable or animal fats, water and lye. When combined, they
transform into soap and glycerin with no lye remaining in
the soap. This reaction is called “saponification”, which
literally means “the making of soap”. Handcrafted soap
makers generally pride themselves on the unique recipes that
create their signature soaps. Most handcrafted soap makers
use food-quality, natural ingredients, starting with a variety
of vegetable oils such as olive, coconut, or palm, or they may
use purified tallow or lard. To these might be added
specialized oils, nut butters or seed extracts to bring the
desired qualities to the finished bar.
Fragrance oils or plant-based essential oils are added for
scent. For color or texture, soap makers often use cosmeticgrade
pigments or dyes, botanicals, herbs, spices or other
natural ingredients. For those with sensitivities, many soap
makers also make “simple soap” with no additives or scent.
Besides all the wonderful ingredients that may be in
handcrafted soap, perhaps the biggest advantage of
handcrafted soap is in the soap makers themselves, each of
whom invests their care and attention to detail into every
batch and bar. When you use a bar of handcrafted soap, you
know it was made with the personal touch of a local soap
Handmade soaps are made with natural ingredients
instead of cheap imitations which may cause irritation.
Coconut, olive, and palm oils are carefully blended to create
a skin smoothing concoction that cleanses the skin without
drying it out. A variety of natural fragrance oils can also be
added to the handmade soap for additional moisture locking
effects. An example of the types of fragrance oils used include:
orange, vanilla rose petals, almond, avocado, jojoba,
cottonseed, etc. Most importantly, handmade soaps are
respectful of nature by not testing their products on animals.
TYPES OF HANDMADE SOAP
While the chemical reaction that creates soap is always
the same, different types of soaps can be made by different
methods, all still relying upon that basic chemical reaction
Cold Process Soap
Cold process soap making is the method most often used
by soap makers who make soap from scratch. It’s called “cold”
process because no additional heat is added during the soap
making process; however the process itself does generate
heat. Often cold process soaps are insulated in the mould
until they are completely cooled.
Soaps produced via the cold process method are opaque
and usually have a creamy feel to the bar. Without any
additives that change the color, the soap ranges from whitewhite
to creamy-tan, depending on the oils that are used in
making the soap. The feel of the lather varies, also dependent
upon the oils used to make the soap. The lather can range
from tiny, very slippery, long-lasting bubbles (as with pure
olive oil soap), to big, fluffy, short-lived bubbles (as with pure
coconut oil soap).
BASIC INGREDIENTS IN HANDMADE SOAP
Understanding the materials that go into handmade soap
can help a soap maker predict how materials and additives
will affect the final outcome of a batch of soap. Using the right
materials, a soap maker can adjust a soap to ensure it has
the desired texture, color, scent and chemical properties.
Preparing soap with the proper handmade soap materials and
tools can help produce a quality batch of soap while allowing
the soap maker to stay safe during the soap making process.
• Oil: Almost oil can be made to be soap. Just looking for
easy materials such as: Coconut Oil, Palm Oil, Olive Oil,
Corn Oil and Soybean Oil etc.
• Sodium/Potassium Hydroxide is used to change oil to
• Water: It is used as a catalyst/solvent. Choose distilled
or bottled water. Plumbing water is not good because
containing of many minerals.
A detergent is a formulated product which is specially
designed to promote the cleaning action. Each individual
component in the formulation has its own specific functions
in the washing process but it can also produce synergistic
effect with other components.
The term detergent originated from the latin word
detergine (i.e. wipe off), is now-a-days applied to all synthetic
washing compounds. Soaps, detergents, cleaning fluids and
many emergency stain removers are effective cleaners
because they can dissolve and emulsify (break up and
suspend) the oil and grease that holds dirt in place. Synthetic
detergent is an effective substitute of washing soap have
become now very popular replacing the soap. All soaps and
detergents contain a surfactant as their active ingredient.
However detergent has better cleaning properties than soap
because good detergency and has increasingly popular.
Detergent cake largely used in the domestic houses,
commercial sectors, hotel industries, garment industries and
in many other sections of the society. There is much more
utilization of enzymes, by using enzyme activity of detergent
cake and bar increases. But enzymatic process of detergent
manufacturing is not economically viable to produce low
priced detergent. Formulation of cake is different from that
of cake in powder form. To give grit to the cake and firmness
of solids, clay and starch-like fillers are added and sodium
sulphate content is reduced. The production of detergent bar
1. It should be handy enough and it should not be melted
at room temperature.
2. It should not be corrosive in hand.
3. It should have good appearance.
4. It should not loss its property within one year.
5. It should be soluble in water and solution is slightly
6. It should produce good foam in the water and it should
clean the garments and other articles.
USES & APPLICATIONS
8. These are used in the domestic houses and in the
industrial for cleaning of clothes, garments etc.
9. Hand Soaps and Shampoo.
10. Cleaning and degreasing of metals.
11. Cleaning of glass and containers.
12. Cleaning of painted surfaces.
13. Cleaning of painted walls, roofs etc.
14. Household washing.
15. Washing and cleaning of clothes, fabrics etc.
16. Industrial equipment cleanings etc.
The most easily produced type of solvent-detergent is a
combination of non-ionic detergent with solvents. Very often
a simple mixing of solvents with detergents is sufficient to
obtain a clear, stable product, which generally forms milky
emulsions in water. However, not all non-ionics are soluble
in any proportion in any solvent. Very often they are only
slightly soluble in non-polar solvents of the aliphatic type.
Here it is necessary to use so-called ‘co-solvents’, together
with the non-polar aliphatic solvent, to give the desired
The subject of solvency is of the greatest importance in
working out effective products. By giving concrete examples,
it will be made clear how important this type of solvent is in
formulating high-grade products.
Carpet and Upholstery Cleaners
Fabric cleaners of this type differ in their operation from
other detergent materials in that it is usually very difficult
to rinse the material being cleaned. To overcome this,
methods of cleaning have been developed where a solution
of the detergent is applied to the carpet by ‘shampooing’ to
form copious foam, or a foam is formed first and the carpet
sponged with this foam,. In either instance the combination
of the detergency of the cleaner and the mechanical energy
applied lifts and holds the dirt in the foam.
The foam, having very thin walls and enormous surface
area dries relatively quickly into brittle particles of dust and
this dust is either vacuum cleaned or brushed away.
Initial formulations for these carpet shampoos were
normal light-duty detergents with the addition of tetrasodium
pyrophosphate, its function being both to increase detergency
and to make the dried residue more brittle. A suitable
detergent material which is also in itself fairly brittle when
dehydrated is the sodium or magnesium salt, or one of the
fatty alcohol sulphates. Some formulae also called for the
incorporation of a solvent but with the newer fabrics and
rubberized bases being used, the solvent should be chosen
with care of left out.
These formulation were not, however, the complete
answer to the problem. A portion of the active matter became
absorbed into the fibre and when dried this left a deposit
which tended to attract dirt. Carpets cleaned in this manner
became soiled very quickly.
DETERGENTS OF VARIOUS TYPES
Here are below mentioned some of the formulae for
preparation of detergent powders for different purposes.
The methods of preparation and compounding of the
constituents with their merits and demerits have already been
discussed in the preceeding chapters. The same method is
applied in the preparation of these. The main technique being
either mixing up of the constituents in powdered from in
mixers and then sifting and sieving the product to get powder
of uniform gravity, or preparing an acid slurry and converting
it into powder from by spray drying as already mentioned.
However, the brief notes, if any, follow the formulation.
The cleaning of metals is necessary for removal of rust,
other corrosion products, dissolving scale, grease, oil paint,
foreign matter and preliminary treatment for acid treatment.
For removal of rust, corrosion products, and dissolution of
the scale 'acid treatment' is conducted while the other
purposes alkaline treatment suffices. The preliminary
treatment of metals with alkaline substances prior to acid
treatment is sometimes necessitated to avoid uneven finish
due to action of the acid on the metallic surfaces. Metals are
sometimes treated with strongly alkaline solutions to remove
grease oil and foreign matter prior to plating, enamelling and
other protective treatments employed now-a-days. As the
metals are affected differently by these treatments, therefore,
here are given some of the formulations for metal cleaners.
Liquid detergents are gaining mometum in the market in
the market and are, by and by replacing the powder
detergents. These are generally used for washing costly
clothes. Liquid hand cleaners, shampooes, liquid dish and
hardware cleaners occupy a major portion of the shelves of
the modern general stores in the big cities and metropolies.
Some of the trade names of such products are 'Genteel' and
'Homacole' etc. Liquid detergents are used for fine wash of
silk and synthetic fabrics at h ome and used in commercial
quantities in textile mills for wet processing of textile goods.
Due to greater foam volume and stability, liquid
detergents form an emulsion with the greasy foods which form
a thin film of the oily matter which is easily removed by
rinsing it with water.
A liquid detergent formulation generally comprises of a
basic anionic alkyl aryl surface active agent and a non-ionic
additive. The additive arrests the foaming power so that the
foam is completely exhausted with the end point of its
detergency. While making choice for the formulations it must
be ensured that the product obtained is biodegradable, a term
which has already been explained in detail.
The additives are rapidly dispersed into liquids at a
temperature of about 120F, therefore, these are incorporated
into liquid detergents very easily at this temperature. It is
better to take the required quantity of water at 500C and
added the required quantity of the non-ionic additive with
stirring so that the complete dissolution is achieved resulting
in a homogenous solution.
It is economical for the formulators of liquid detergents
to buy the active detergent material like dodecyl benzene
sulphonic acid or lined alkyl sulphonic acids from their
manufacturer rather manufacturing it themselves, which is
very cumbersome and technically unsound for ordinary
Taking the pros and cons of different materials, here are
some of the formulations for liquid detergents to achieve the
maximum output and the best results. To achieve the best
results a good liquid detergent must contain alkali,
sequestering agent and the soil-suspending agent. Instead
the variation in percentage composition of different
constituents of the formulas do affect the detergency of the
product. Some of the formulations are:
DETERGENT (NIRMA TYPE)
This detergent occupied large place of detergent powder
in the market. Widely used in India in the homes for washing
of clothes. In the technical aspect its manufacture process
is the same but ingredients used are particular for it.
In a small, cottage scale production there is no need of
heavy machineries. Detergent is manufactured by the simple
mixing of all the ingredients with the active orgainc
component i.e. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (Sodium
salt of acid slurry). In a big unit the process starts with the
sulphonation of dodecyl benzene and hence the process and
technology are complicated.
The required quanity of sodium dodecyl benzene
sulphonate and sodium LABS (Linear aryl benzene
sulphonate) mixture are taken in a simple mixer with agitator
(i.e. Ribbon Blender). Then required quantity of sodium
tripolyphosphate, trisodium phosphate, soda ash and CMC
are introduced into the mixer. During the addition of the
ingredients,. blending of the mass is accomplished by
continuous agitation. Then other ingredients except optical
whitener and colour are added and mixing is continued. At
last colour and optical whitener and small amount of water
are added. Addition of water is to ease homogenity.
Phenyl type disinfectants fall in the category of black oil
disinfectants and are extensively used for sanitation
purposes, for drains, floor, stables etc. and are prepared from
coal tar distillates containing high boiling tar acids. These
are, however, less, affected in contact with organic matter.
Phenyl is being used since very beginning for killing insects
grown in nallahas, lavatory and kooradan. Most of the
diseases causes due to insects.
Phenyl is a strong germicide for disinfecting areas
covering places like hospital, nursing homes, drains, lavatory,
toilets, cowsheds and is extensively used for sanitation
purpose. White phenyl compound is a disinfectant fluid of
milky color, often used to fight bad odors, repell mosquito‘s,
flies, insects and used for floor cleaning and fragrance, it has
demand everywhere, it is produced from a compound called
white phenyle concentrate, which is diluted to 20 to 40 parts
of water to produce white phenyle fluid, its packed in bottles
and cans and sold in market. Its use is almost everywhere
so its demand is growing day by day.
The demand for phenyl is rapidly increasing due to the
propagation and awareness regarding importance of hygiene.
White phenyl (phenyle) is most suitable to fight dirt and
germs in the house including kitchen appliances, carpets and
It is basically an agent, which destroys pathogenic
organism, and hence its uses are numerous. It is extensively
used in for sanitation purposes for drains, floors, stables, etc.
As these are slightly soluble in water, have to be emulsified
for use as disinfections.
White phenyl is finding wide spread use and acceptance
as hard surface cleaner to remove greasy, fatty and oily soils
or various non-porous hard surfaces like floors, bathrooms
marbles, ceramics, metals, plastics, concrete, granite, walls,
cabinet, appliances etc. White phenyl assist in the removal
of dirt and grim and leave all surfaces and atmosphere
It is being popular day by day in India in homes, hospitals,
clinics, veterinary clinics, restaurants, factories, food
establishments, offices, shops, schools, institutions,
government departments etc. for disinfecting purposes.
White Phenyl has effective composition to kill microbes
coming into contact with it and a fresh fragrance. The White
Phenyl is a great alternative for ensuring a fresh and diseasefree
environment. The reason for White Phenyl to be widely
preferred is its effectiveness to keep the surroundings
hygienic for long.
Cleaners are typically water-based, with acidic, alkaline,
or neutral washing agents added to them. The primary
use of an acidic agent is to eliminate inorganic deposits, like
lime scale. Alkaline agents serve to remove deposits that are
formed of grease, fat, protein, or oil. Neutral agents are so
named due to their neutral pH-level. Their purpose is to dispel
different forms of dirt.
Floor Cleaning is the process of removing visible debris
and dust particles too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Removal of lead-based paint hazards in a dwelling unit will
not make the unit safe unless excessive levels of leaded dust
are also removed. This is true regardless of whether the dust
was present before or generated by the lead hazard control
process itself. However, cleaning and clearance can be
achieved routinely if care and diligence are exercised.
Just as there are different types of bases for cleaners,
there are also different jobs for household cleaners. Allpurpose
cleaners can generally be used on any surface to
clean any kind of deposit.
Floor Cleaner that effortlessly removes oils, Floor Cleaner
is highly effective, versatile aqueous cleaner and degreaser.
The powerful cleaning action easily removes oils and heavy
soiling from most flooring surfaces.
USES OF FLOOR CLEANER
• for the cleaning of industrial surfaces, shop floors and
workshop floors, production sites and warehouses
• can be used manually and mechanically in pressure
washers, floor cleaning machines, etc.
• by heating to a maximum of 90 °C cleaning performance
can be increased many times over.
Naphthalene C10H8, sometimes called ‘TARCAMPHOR’ is
a colourless crystalline-flaked solid with the familiar
odour of mothballs. Naphthalene C10H8 is an aromatic
hydrocarbon with two condensed ring aromatic compounds.
Naphthalene is a white solid chemical that vaporizes
easily. It has a strong smell. You can sometimes smell
naphthalene in the air or in water. Naphthalene is used in
mothballs and moth flakes. Petroleum and coal contain
Mothballs and other products containing naphthalene are
solids that turn into toxic gas. The toxic gas kills insects and
may repel animals.
A good commercial grade of naphthalene (called 78°
Naphthalene, referring to the melting point) is approximately
96% pure. Refined naphthalene is available in flakes, pellets,
and balls. Use of Naphthalene as an insect repellent has
dwindled in recent years as other materials, e.g. pdichlorobenzene,
have displaced it.
It is a consumable product, hence it finds extensive
application in cities. General awareness is improving in
cleanliness and hence this product has got good scope for
dyestuff industry and the manufacture of phthalic anhydride
for synthetic resins. It is also used in the manufacture of
lampblack, as an addition to enrich the illuminating gas and
motor fuels, and as an insecticides and soil fumigant.
It is used as intermediate for the manufacture of phthalic
anhydride teralin, declin, chlorinated naphthalenes and dyes.
It is most widely used as moth repellant and fungicides in
Other important applications are as explosives, cutting
fluids lubricants, preservatives. It is sometimes used as a
solvent for certain chemicals. Its minor uses are as textile
chemicals, emulsions breakers.
Naphthalene balls are used as moth repellent and
fungicide in homes to prevent the woolen clothes. Due to the
volatile character of naphthalene, balls are vaporizes and
require some additives wherever these are used. These are
also used in urinals and toilets to prevent the bad smell.
Hot pressed Naphthalene, relatively free of oils, has a
melting 168.8 to 172.4ºF. It should be noted, however, that
these temperatures are somewhat lower than given for the
pure naphthalene. As the oil content increases, the melting
point drops accordingly.
Crude naphthalene is generally produced by the fractional
distillation of coal tar. It exists in various forms depending
upon the amount of oil present. It is also formed in certain
processes for making fuel gases where it causes trouble in
gas distribution systems by depositing in small lines and
Naphthalene is known to domestic users as mothballs.
It is also used in the manufacture of dyes, phthalic acid,
explosives, lamp black, varnishes, in grease for greasing
vehicles, as an antiseptic, in the fun industry. Hydrogenated
naphthalene is also used in making tetralin & decalin, which
have been used as solvents & motor fuels. Naphthalene is
also used in a under variety of chemical compounds.