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Handbook on Milk and Milk Proteins ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author H. Panda ISBN 9788178331485
Code ENI241 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1275   1275 US$ 125   125
Pages: 448 Published 2011
Publisher Select
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Proteins play an important role in nutrition, taste, allergies, texture, structure, processing and yield performance. In the food industry, proteins are a key element of our diet and an important ingredient for food technologists. The total protein component of milk is composed of numerous specific proteins. Isolated milk protein products represent an important and valuable source of protein ingredients due to their recognized superior nutritional, organoleptic and functional properties. Milk protein is a rich source of essential amino acids and they have been the subject of intensive research for an effort to unravel their molecular structure and interactions, relationship between structure and functional attributes, interactions of proteins during processing and, more recently, their physiological functions. Free fatty acids (FFA) in fresh milk normally amount to less than 1% of the total milk fat, yet they are important because of their effect on milk flavour. Now a day, the processing of milk is part of a highly organized and controlled dairy industry, which produces and markets a multitude of dairy products. Functional milk proteins are perfectly suited for use in the dairy sector of food production and the modern food processing industry is placing more and more emphasis upon the utilization of protein ingredients to provide specific functional properties to a wide range of formulated foods. In recent years, there has been a great deal of progress in the understanding and management of milk proteins across the production chain.


Some of the fundamentals of the book are surface tension of milk, lactose chemistry, milk proteins, phosphorylation of milk proteins, comparative aspects of milk proteins, utilization of milk proteins, heat stability of milks, heat stability of homogenized concentrated milk, lysinoalanine in milk and milk products, heat coagulation of type a milk, syneresis of heated milk, fatty acids in milk, milk gel assembly, mechanical agitation of milk, natural, leucocyte and bacterial milk, grass and legume diets and milk production

This book provides a complete overview and offers insights into topics for more in-depth reading on milk and milk proteins. The book covers chapters on milk proteins, biosynthesis & secretion of milk proteins, utilization, types of milk proteins, phosphorylation, milk glycoproteins and many more. It is hoped that this book will be very helpful to all its readers, students, new entrepreneurs, food technologist, technical institution and scientists.


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1. SURFACE TENSION OF MILK 
Materials and their analysis, Surface tension 
measurements, Instrumentation, Measurements


2. LACTOSE CHEMISTRY 
Selective esterification reactions, 
Selective acetalation reactions

3. MILK PROTEINS 
Heterogeneity and fracticmation, Microheterogeneity, Post-secretion proteolysis in milk, Molecular characteristics of the milk proteins, Ion-binding and precipitation of caseins, The casein micelle, Micettar demobilization, Acidification, Addition of calcium, Alcohol, Proteolysis, Heat coagulation, Commercial milk protein products, Functional properties of whey proteins, Solubility, Emulsion properties, Gelling properties, Whipping and gelling properties, Viscosity, Chemical and enzymic modification of whey proteins , Chemical modification, Enzymic modification, Functional properties of caseins and caseinates, Solubility, Emulsion properties, Gelling properties, Whipping and foaming properties, Viscocity, Chemical and Enzymic Modification of Caseinates, Chemical Modification, Enzymic modifications

4. MILK PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS AND SECRETION 
The Lactating Mammary Gland, Preoursors, Milk Protein Biosynthesis, Molecular aspects, Alteration of proteins, Milk Secretion, Structures involved, Membrane flow, Other Proteins in Milk, Blood proteins, Cellular constituents, Conclusion

5. PHOSPHORYLATION OF MILK PROTEINS 

6. MILK GLYCOPROTEINS 
k-Casein, Heterogeneity, Chymosin-sensitive linkage and primary structure, Localization and linkage of the sugar part, Structure of the carbohydrate part, Phylogenetic aspects concerning the sugar part, Evolution of the sugar part as a function of development, Location of the sugar part in the secondary structure of k-casein, Role of the sugars in k-casein, Lactotransferrin

7. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF MILK PROTEINS 
Kinds of Proteins in Milk,
Caseinate Micelles

8. UTILIZATION OF MILK PROTEINS 
General requirements of food protein products, Functional properties of food protein products, General properties of milk protein products, Preparalion and properties of casein curd and caseinates, Production and properties of co-precipitates, Production and properties of lactalbumin, Enzymic modification of lactalbumin, Production and properties of whey protein concentrates, Production and properties of milk protein blends

9. HEAT STABILITY OF MILKS 
Experimental Methods, Results and Discussion, 
Effects of b-lg, Effects of urea, Conclusions

10. HEAT STABILITY OF HOMOGENIZED MILK 
Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Preliminary experiments, Effect of Homogenization pressure, Homogenisation of skim-milk, Honwgeni-zation temperature and MFO size distribution, 
Seasonal effects, Addition of urea, Effect of changes 
in the mineral equilibrium on the heat stability of 
homogenized milk, Influence of SH-group 
interactions

11. HEAT STABILITY OF HOMOGENIZED CONCENTRATED MILK 
Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion

12. HEAT STABILITY OF EVOPORATED MILK 
Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Comparisons among milks of normal Whey protein content, Effect of Low whey Protein Concentration, Controls

13. HEAT STABILITY OF MILK WITH HCHO 
Materials and Methods, Milk supply, Caseinate systems, Chemicals, Heat treatment of milk samples, Amidination of milk proteins, Determination of N, Determination of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), Available lysine and formal titration, Determination of heat stability, Results and Discussion, Effect of ECHO on HCT-pH profile of skim milk and caseinate systems, Possible mechanism of HCHO action , Modification of lysine, Crosslinking action of HCHO

14. HEAT STABILITY OF CONCENTRAT ED SKIM-MILK 
Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion

15. CATIONIC DETERGENT ON HEAT STABILITY OF MILK 
Materials and Methods, Milk supply, Caseinate systems, Materials, Determination of heat stability, Results, Discussion

16. ARGININE RESIDUE AND HEAT STABILITY OF MILK 
Materials and Methods, Milk supply, Lactose-
free milk, Reagents, Determination of heat stability, Results, Effect of glyorals on heat stability, Effect of arginine-modifying agents on heat stability, Effect of lysine-modifying agents on heat stability, Effect of 
other modifying agents on heat stability, Discussion, 

17. KEEPING QUALITY OF PASTEURIZED MILK 
Experimental, Sampling at the dairies, Preparation of the milks for storage, Storage conditions, Bacteriological techniques, Spoilage, Effectiveness of the cleaning and disinfection procedure used for the laboratory pasteurizing plant, Results, Bacteriological quality of the raw and the freshly pasteurized milks, Effect of psychrotrophic PPC on the keeping quality of HTST-pasteurized milk, Effect of psychrotrophic PPC 
on the keeping quality of HTST-pasteurized milk, Psychrotrophic PPC in HTST-pasteurized milk in finished milk tanks and after filling into retail containers, Discussion

18. LYSINOALANINE IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS 
Conditions for the formation of LAL, Influence of structure, Influence of pH, temperature and time, Effect of multivalent cations, Inhibition of LAL formation, Determination of Lal, LAL content of milk and milk products, Biological effects and human health implications, Conclusion

19. 4-CASEINS IN RAW MILK 

20. PROTEOLYSIS IN UHT MILK 
Materials and Methods, Isolation of a proteinase-containing fraction, Determination of proteolytic activity, Experimental trials, Results and Discussion

21. PROTEOLYSIS IN MASTITIC MILK 
Materials and Methods, Results , Discussion

22. EQULIBRIA OF CA AND PHOSPHATE IN MILK 

23. HEAT COAGULATION OF TYPE A MILK

Symbols and Definitions used, Theory, Discussion

24. TITRIMETRIC STUDIES ON MILK PRODUCTS 
Results, Practical examples

25. OESTRUS AND MILK PRODUCTION 
Experimental, Animals, Oestrus, Milk production, Observations, Results, Milk production, Relationships with behaviour, Discussion

26 IMMUNOREACTIVE b-CASOMORPHIN IN MILK 
Materials and Methods, Incubation of milk with bacteria, Extraction procedure, Chromatography, Radioimmunwassays, Results, Discussion

27. SYNERESIS OF HEATED MILK 
Materials and Methods, Carboxymethylation of whole casein, Artificial micelle milk, Heat treatment, Syneresis, Rennet coagulation time (RCT), RESULTS, Effect of preheating on syneresis, Effect of preheating temperature, Influence of whey proteins on the response of AMM to head, Nature of the interaction between b-lg and K-casein, Discussion

28. NITROGEN CONTENT OF HUMAN MILK 
Nitrogen Content of Human Milk, Materials and Methods,, Sample material, Sampling procedure, Absorbance measurements, N content, Results and Discussion, Linearity of the method, Applicability of the method to milk stored in human milk banks, Applicability of the method to human expressed milk

29. STIMULATION OF MILK LIPOLYSIS 
Experimental, Methods, Variation between cows, Effect of high cell count, Effect of proteolysis, Results, 
Variation between cows, Effect of high cell counts, 
Effect of proteolysis, Materials and Methods,

30. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL FREE FATTY ACIDS IN MILK 
Materials and Methods, Preparation of Amberlyst 26 ion exchange resin, Extraction of lipid, Adsorption of FFA, Preparation of methyl esters, Gas chromatography conditions, Preparation of FFA mixture, Properties of the resin, Application to milk, Results and Discussion, Properties of the resin, Interference from phospholipid, Capacity of the method over the range of FFA in most milks, Application to milk

31. BEHAVIOUR OF S. LACTIS IN COW'S AND EWE'S MILK 
Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Composition of milk, Generation time, Acid production

32. MILK TREATMENT AND CURD STRUCTURE 
Experimental, Preparation of processed milks, Analyses of milk, Measurement of formation, 
properties and structures of curds, Cheese-making and analyses of cheeses, Results, Effect of treatments on milk fat globules and casein micelles, Relations between milk treatment and formation, structure and properties of curd, Cheesemaking properties of processed milks, Discussion

33. FERMENTATION OF GOATS MILK 
Materials and Methods, Starter cultures, Milks, Chemical analyses, Bacteriological analyses, Results, Discussion

34. LIPOLYSIS IN DEEP FROZEN RAW SHEEP'S MILK 
Materials and Methods, Results , Free fatty acid concentrations, Lipoprotein lipase activity, Hexane-extractable fat concentration, Discussion

35. MILK GEL ASSEMBLY 
Experimental, Results , Qualitative description of gel formation, Quantitative observations of gel formation, Discussion

36. FLAVOUR VOLATILES IN HEAT-TREATED MILKS 
Experimental, Procedure, for preparation of milk, Collection of volatiles, Gas chromatography, Identification of volatiles, Organoleptic assessment 
of heated milk, Results , Recovery experiments, 
Non-sulphur compounds, Suphur compounds, Organoleptic assessment, Isolation of volatiles, Concentrations relative to threshold, Correlation between sensory evalitaiion of milk and its chemical composition

37. MECHANICAL AGITATION OF MILK 
Materials and Methods, Experimental and Results, Influence of temperature of milk and speed and duration of agitation on substrate activation and lipolysis, Discussion

38. MILKS FROM RYEGRASS OR LEGUE DIETS-II 
Materials and Methods, Chemical analysis and coagulation properties, Data handling, Results, Discussion

39. NMR SPECTRA OF COW'S MILK 
Experimental, Materials, Methods, Results, P NMR spectrum of milk, Effect of pH on the. spectrum of milk, Line-broadening in P NMR spectra of milk, Discussion

40. NATURAL, LEUCOCYTE AND BACTERIAL MILK 
Materials and Methods, Isolation of PMN leucocytes and preparation of cell homogenates, Psychrotrophic bacteria and proteinase production, Determination of caseinolytic activity, Effect of processing on leucocytes in skim milk, Isolation of bovine plasminogen, Determination of proteinase specificities towards 
casein, Electrophoresis, Results, Growth of psychrotrophic bacteria and production of proteinases in milk, Proteinase activity of leucocytes and of natural milk proteinase in milk, Effect of processing on leucocytes in skim milk, Casein hydrolysis profiles, Discussion

41. MILK FROM RYEGRASS OR LEGUME DIETS-I 
Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion

42. GRASS AND LEGUME DIETS AND MILK PRODUCTION 
Materials and Methods, Animals, Experiment 1 , Pre experimental treatment of animals, Experimental treatment, Measurements, Sample preparation and analysis, Calculation and expression of results, Statistical analysis, Experiment 2 , Animals, Pastures, Measurements, Sample preparation and analysis, Statistical analysis, Results , Discussion, Milk production and composition, Intake and nutrient flow, Grass and legume forage for milk production


 

 

Surface Tension of Milk

Studies of the surface tension of milk, most of which are not recent, have generally been performed at ambient temperature. Several publications have dealt with determinations at high temperatures, up to 80 °C. Only Watson (1958) has proposed an equation for the dependence of  upon temperature based on results obtained at 15.6, 27.2 and 38.9 °C. To our knowledge, no measurements at temperatures greater than 80 °C have been reported and the use of this equation at such high temperatures would be imprudent.

A knowledge of the surface tension of milk is of value in designing biphasic milk-steam flows which occur in direct ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk-steam mixture installations. The present work was thus undertaken to determine the surface tension of milk between 18 and 135 °C. and forms part of a general investigation of the physical properties of milk above 80°C which includes studies of density viscosity and specific heat.

 

Materials and Methods

Materials and their analysis

A bulk milk from a herd of 146 Holstein-Friesian cows was used. Total milk solids (TS) were determined gravimetrically and fat contents (w/w) by the Gerber method (Kramer & Twigg, 1973). The skim-milk contained 8.99% TS (range 8.89-9.08%).

The whole milk contained 12.94 % TS (range 12.34-13.42 %) and 4.06 % fat (range 3.60-4.37%).

 

Surface tension measurements

Principle. The milk must undergo a minimum of modifications resulting from the heat treatment during the  determinations in order to be closely similar to UHT milk. The residence time of the milk in the apparatus must thus be kept to a minimum (e.g. a few seconds) and evaporation and boiling of the milk must be avoided. Consequently the measuring instrument utilizes continuously flowing milk under pressure. It is impossible in the present circumstances to utilize a method of y measurement requiring equilibration times of several minutes, such as the Du Noüy ring method. A dynamic method was thus chosen, involving the measurement of the mass of a number of drops falling from a stalagmometer contained in a thermostatted chamber at the output of the heating section of an indirect UHT installation. The air in the chamber was kept under pressure to avoid boiling the milk.

 

Instrumentation

The instrumentation we devised appeared not to be available commercially. The milk