Handbook on Agro Based Industries (2nd Revised Edition)# ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board ISBN 9789381039120
Code ENI12 Format Hardcover
Price: Rs 1595   1595 US$ 43   43
Pages: 179 Published 2012
Usually Ships within 5 days


***********Limited Edition- available in Photostat Version Only************

Agro based industry refers to an industry that adds values to agricultural raw materials through processing in order to produce marketable and usable products that bring forth profits and additional income to the producer. The development of the agro industry can help stabilize and make agriculture more lucrative and create employment opportunities both at the production and marketing stages. The broad based development of the agro products industry will improve both the social and physical infrastructure of India. India is one of the largest producers of food, and is the second largest producer of rice, wheat, fruits, and vegetables in the world. Nearly 70% of the population depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Since it would cause diversification and commercialization of agriculture, it will thus enhance the incomes of farmers and create food surpluses. It is a well recognized fact across the world, particularly in the context of industrial development that the importance of agro industries is relative to agriculture increases as economies develop. It should be emphasized that food is not just produce. Food also encompasses a wide variety of processed products. It is in this sense that the agro-industry is an important and vital part of the manufacturing sector in developing countries and the means for building industrial capacities. The development of agro-based industries commenced during pre-independence days. Cotton mills, sugar mills, jute mills were fostered in the corporate sector. During the post-Independence days, with a view to rendering more employment and using local resources, small scale and village industries were favored.
It is the second-largest producer of food in the world and spends more than a quarter of its expenditure on food and related items. Agriculture services attracted foreign direct investment (FDI) worth US$1440 million (INR 69,124.8 million). Indian food industry is estimated to grow from the present US$181 billion (INR 8688 billion) to US$318 billion (INR 15264 billion) by 2020. The food processing sector in India has potential of attracting US$33 billion (INR1, 584 billion) of investments in 10 years and generates employment of 9 mn person days.
The content of the book includes information about rubber. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like Agro Based Industries, Aloe Vera Juice, gel & Powder, Banana Powder, Charcoal Powder from Rice Husk, Coconut Oil, Disposable Plates from Banana Leaves, Drumstick Powder, Dry Lemon, Lemon Powder and Lemon Oil, Extraction of Ultra Pure Silicon from Rice Husk, Fruit Processing Ginger Products, Maize and Its Products, Mango Pickles, Potato Powder and Flakes , Rice Bran Oil.
Project profile contains information like introduction, properties, uses, raw material, manufacturing process, process flow diagram, plant economics, land and building, fixed capital, working capital/month, total working capital/month, cost of project, turn over/annum, profit sales ratio, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P).
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.

1. Agro Based Industries
2. Aloe Vera Juice, Gel & Powder
3. Banana Powder
4. Charcoal Powder from Rice Husk
5. Coconut Oil
6. Disposable Plates from Banana Leaves
7. Drumstick Powder
8. Dry Lemon, Lemon Powder and Lemon Oil
9. Extraction of Ultra Pure Silicon from Rice Husk
10. Fruit Processing
11. Ginger Products
12. Maize and Its Products
13. Mango Pickles
14. Potato Powder and Flakes
15. Rice Bran Oil


Potato Powder and Flakes


Indian vegetable basket is incomplete without mentioning the king of vegetables-potato-a sustaining force and a culinary delight. The power of potato is known for sustaining millions of lives by providing food and nutrition during distress times. Its high production potential per unit area, high nutritional value and great taste makes potato one of the most important food crops in the world. Classified as a vegetable, potatoes help contribute to the minimum goal of eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. One serving-a 5.3 ounce, medium potato-provides:


  • 45 percent of the daily value for vitamin C.

       •   21 percent of the daily value for potassium.

       •   Three grams of fiber.

       •   Only 100 calories.

The tantalizing taste of nutrient-rich potatoes makes it an essential part of every breakfast, lunch and dinner worldwide. An array of dishes created by potato speaks volumes about the variety that it offers to the palate. India produces around 15 varieties of potatoes that come in different shapes, sizes, skin colour and flavour. Kufri Jyoti, Kufri lauvkar, kufri swarna, Kufri lalima and kufri giriraj are some of the varieties that form a part of Indian potato portfolio, powered with energy.

       •   In India, potato   es are grown in winter under short-day conditions and harvested from January to march when there is no fresh harvest of potato in most parts of northern hemisphere making it a strategic crop from export point of view.

       •   India produces about 28 million tonnes of potato and the productivity of potato in India is 19t/ha, which is higher than the world average of 16.5t/ha.

       •   The Indian potato is cultivated in sandy loam soils resulting in good shape and luster to the tubers.

       •   Preferred worldwide for its taste, Indian potato meets the international quality standards in terms of freedom from prohibited diseases, shape, size, skin colour, flesh and dry matter content.

       •   Over the years India has developed indigenous technologies including development of suitable varieties, seed production technology, agro techniques and post-harvest technologies, offering world a quality product.

       •   The pride of Indian potato industry are the four agri export zones that have been set up by the government of India in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh for further value addition.

 Potato powder and flakes are processed potatoes. It will help to increase the shelf life of potatoes. There are various machines required for the processing of potatoes. Most of the machines are indigenously available; very few of them may be imported. There are plenty of well varieties of potato available for processing. As a whole the products have fair market demand. There is scope for new entrepreneurs. Environmental pollution problem is there, which can be solved by proper treatment.



Potato Powder

     1.   It is generally blow to mesh size free flowing powder.

     2.   It is tasty and mostly white to pale yellow coloured powder.

     3.   It absorbs moisture from air when it is kept in open air.

     4.   It can be preserved for more than one year when it is vacuum packed with nitrogen flash.

Potato Flakes

     1.   It is crispy and very lightweight product.

     2.   It also absorbs moisture from air and become soft.



It is used for making allu bhujia. It is used to make soup concentrate.


It is used as breakfast or snack food.


The basic raw materials required are:

1. Potatoes-of very good varieties

The potatoes required for processing dehydrated potato products are of very good quality. The kufri variety is generally used for processing. The only edible part of potato is tuber. It can grow in a wide range of climatic cycle. The growing cycle is 90-140 days.

With high percentage of water content, its quality is adversely affected with the passage of time. Potatoes chosen are free of sprouts, green skin, or spots. To prevent potatoes from greening, spoiling, they are stored in cold storage facilities that are well ventilated and under regulated temperatures. This prevents development of sugar in potatoes and these potatoes are commonly called Low Sugar Potatoes. Evening

2. Additives & Preservatives

The potato processing additives and their functions are:

Mono & Diglycerides - This reduces stickiness and is a required additive.

Sodium Bisulfite - inhibits browning.

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (SAPP) - inhibits greying, colour control.

Citric Acid - Processing aid for emulsions stability.

BHA, BHT - to inhibit oxidation - for preserving flavour.

Colour, Spice and Vitamins - added as required.




1. PACKING - Dehydrated potatoes shall be packed in clean, sound, moisture proof containers made of tin-plate, laminated foils or any suitable material which would prevent the intake of moisture.

2. MARKING - Each container shall be marked or labelled with the following particulars:

     a)   Name and type of the material,

     b)   Name and address of the manufacturer,

     c)   Net mass,

     d)   Declaration to the effect that permitted preservatives have been used,

     e)   Batch or code number indicating the date of manufacture, and

      f)   Manufacturer's license number.

     g)   Each container may also be marked with the ISI Certification Mark.


Basic Raw Material Required

    (1)   Potato (Kufri Chandramukhi variety)

    (2)   Sodium Metabisulphite

    (3)   Salt (Sodium chloride) Mixed Spices.

Basic Plant & Machines Required

    (1)   Pulper

    (2)   Paste maker

    (3)   Slurry making tank

    (4)   Sifter sieve

    (5)   Spray drier

    (6)   Boils

    (7)   Automatic filling weighing and sealing machine

    (8)   Extruder

    (9)   Flakers

   (10)   Storage tank

   (11)   Washing trap

   (12)   Digital Balance.




Take potatoes by bucket elevator to the pressure vessels heat it at 110°C for 15 - 20 minutes. Boiled potatoes are passed through washing machine. Washed and boiled potatoes are put in the pulping machine where the potatoes are deskinned and deskinned potatoes are feed in the automatic paste making machine. Potato paste is formed and put it in the slurry making machine, formed slurry of 30% concentrate is feed into the spray drier to form potato powder.

Entry temperature of the slurry is 80°C and spray drier steam temperature 125°C - 130°C. Potato powder formed which is collected in the holding drum and then packs it by automatic weighing and sealing machine.

Keep the pack product at room temperature and market the product. Check the quality of the product before marketing.


Make potato slurry of 30% and feed it into the flaker at 125°C-130°C to form potato flakes. Flakes rolls speed 3-4 minutes per revolutions.

Check the quality of the flakes and then pack it in 500 gm. 1 kg pack. Store the product at room temperature.


Rated Plant capacity          =      6.00 MT/day

                                        =      1800.00 MT/annum

                                                POTATO POWDER & FLAKES


No. of working days          =      25 days/month

                                        =      300 days/annum

No. of shifts                      =      2 per day

One shift                           =      8 hours



Currency - Rs.


LAND & BUILDING Cost                                                                                  Rs.       129 Lakh


     1.   Spray Drier

     2.   Washing Tank

     3.   Flaker

     4.   Jacketed Pressure Vessel

     5.   Bucket Elevator

     6.   Jacketed Slurry Making Tank

     7.   Holding Tank 5000 ltrs.

     8.   Boiler steam producing

     9.   Automatic Fill, Weighing & Packing Machine

    10.   Digital Balance

    11.   Paste Making Machine made by SS 304

    12.   Maintenance Equipments

    13.   Potato Pulping Machine

    14.   Dehumdifier

    15.   Material Handling Equipments

    16.   Laboratory Equipments

    17.   Miscellaneous Machine like pipeline

           valves, motor etc.                                                               TOTAL         Rs.       133.25 Lakh


     1.   LAND & BUILDING                                                                                 Rs.       129 Lakh

     2.   PLANT & MACHINERY                                                                           Rs.       133.25 Lakh

     3.   OTHER FIXED ASSETS                                                                         Rs.         67.5 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.       329.75 Lakh



     1.   Potato (Kufri Chandra Mukhi)

     2.   Lab Chemicals

     3.   Printed Packing Material                                                      TOTAL         Rs.         45.83 Lakh


     1.   RAW MATERIAL                                                                                     Rs.         45.83 Lakh

     2.   SALARY & WAGES                                                                                Rs.          6.86 Lakh

     3.   UTILITIES & OVERHEADS                                                                      Rs.          8.38 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.         61.07 Lakh




           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.       329.75 Lakh

           MARGIN MONEY                                                                                   Rs.         45.8 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.       375.55 Lakh


           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.       329.75 Lakh

           TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS                                           Rs.       183.19 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.       512.94 Lakh

           TURN OVER/ANNUM                     =     Rs. 1032 Lakh

           PROFIT SALES RATIO                  =     20.46%

           RATE OF RETURN                         =     41.16%

           BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P)         =     43.31%







NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

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And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


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• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

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Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR