Modern Technology Of Perfumes, Flavours And Essential Oils (2nd Edition) ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board ISBN 8186623434
Code ENI33 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 975   975 US$ 19   19
Pages: 844 Published 2004
Publisher National Institute of Industrial Research
Usually Ships within 5 days

Since primeval times Flavors and Fragrances has been an element of our life. We have been making it a part of life. By different means we all utilize perfumery and flavor materials, in our everyday life. Fragrances have a key part in religious ceremonies as it was considered to possess strengths to cure and protect from evil. We in our routine life starting from morning till night make different uses of products for personal care and cleanliness which have perfumes. Even consumables like confectionary contain some type of perfume or flavors. Most fragrance comes naturally form many plants. This smell is known as aroma which is a Latin word and those flora which have this aroma are known as aromatic plants. These aromas are extracted from some odoriferous material called essential oils. There is no dearth of aromatic plants in India. The country is famous for its rich endowment with aromatic plant. In fact the Vedic literature one can find many references of Ayurveda Gandhshastra the science of odor which deals with the cosmetics and fragrances. The famous aromatic plants in India with medicinal uses are mint, Tulsi etc. The book tries to give a brief note on the fragrance and essential oils and has been one of the bestseller.
The book contains chapter on Standards on Essential Oils in India, Fragrance and Flavors Industry in India, Process Flavorings, The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin Essential Oils, Terpeneless Oils, The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Synthetic Origin, Synthetic Ingredients of Food Flavorings, Beverage Flavorings and Their Applications, The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Synthetic Origin, Citronella Oil and many more detailed chapters.
This versatile book takes way out to most realistic formulae on diversified perfumery products, flavors, essential oils etc. Taken as a whole, the book furnishes complete formulae with processes along with the technical aspect which are enormously innovative and profoundly utilitarian for new entrepreneurs as well as will act as a source of motivation to the existing units in quality improvement and cost reduction. Flow diagrams for various methods of preparation are vivid representations of the process sequence, Sequence. The enclosure section in the book also has a directory on Sources of raw materials; plant and machinery. 

1. Standards on Essential Oils in India
Standardisation of Essential Oils
Standard for Essential Oils 
Material Specifications for Essential Oils

2. Fragrance and Flavour Industry in India
Industry Growth in India
Production of Aroma Chemicals
Natural Raw Materials

3. Role of Trace Ingredients in Natural Perfumes
Methods of Extraction of Natural Perfumes
Analysis of Natural Perfumes
Synthesis of Natural Perfume
Role of components in Citrus Oils & Mint Oils
Trace Components and threshold values

4. Essential Oils
The Production of Essential Oils
Further Processing of Essential Oils
The uses of Essential Oils
The Composition of Essential Oils

5. Synthetic Ingredients of Food Flavourings
General aspects
Synthetic Flavour Ingredients
Synthetic Flavour Ingredients and the future

6. Beverage Flaourings and Their Applications
Categories of Beverages
Types of flavouring for Beverages
Methods of extraction solubelization & Concentration of Flavouring

7. Flavours
Flours from Ingredients
Flavours Developed During Processing
Selection of Flavourings

8. Dairy Flavourings
Development of Flavour in Dairy Products
Instrumental Analysis

9. Process Flavourings
Research into Beef Flavour
Creating a Process Flavouring
Applications of Process Flavourings
The Safety Question
Process Flavouring in the Future

10. Historical & Biographical

11. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin
Introduction, Concretes & Absolutes
Concrete Oils
Absolute Oils
Essential Oils derived from distillation
Essential Oils obtained by expression
Isolated etc. from Essential Oils
Natural Odorants as Tinctures
Balsams & Raisins

12. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin
Essential Oils, Terpeneless Oils 

13. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin
Tinctures, Raisins, Balsams

14. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Synthetic Origin
Rose Odorants
Jasmine Odorants
Orange Flavour and Neroli Odorants
Muguet Odorants 
Green Ootes
Fruity Notes
Woody Notes
Empyreumatic Notes
The Salicylates
Animal Ootes
The Fatty Alcohols, Aldehydes and Acetates

15. Formulary Section: Flower Perfumes
Rose Jasmine
Orange Flower & Neroli
Fougere (Ferm)
Lilly of the Valley
Mignonette (Reseda)
Sweet Pea
Syringa (Philadelphus)
Treele (Clover)
Wall Flower
Ylang Ylang

16. Formulary Section: Sophisticated or Fantasy Perfumes
Flower Bouquets Perfumes
Aldehydic Perfumes
Chypre Types
Oriental Perfumes
Green Perfumes
Dominent Note Types
The Ampergris Notes
Manufacturing Process
Alcoholic Strengths

17. Colognes: Eaux de Toilette: Perfumes for Men
Eau - de - Cologne
Toilet Waters
Modifies Colognes
Perfume for Men

18. Packaging and Marketing
The Importance of Presentation
Packaging in the Past
The Impact of Aerosols
Giving a Perfume Identity
Who Makes the Decision
Perfume and World of Fashion
National Preferences
Question of Colour

19. The Production of Natural Perfumes
The Perfume in the Plant 

20. Odour Classification and Fixation
Top Note 
Middle Note
Duration of Evaporation Table

21. Monographs on Flower Perfumes
Fern Gardenia
New Mown Hay
Orange Blossom
Sweet Pea
Wall Flower

22. Menthol Oils
Property & Structure
Uses & Application
Market Survey
Material & Methods
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

23. Essential Oil from Flowers and Leaves
Properties of Essential Oils
Market Survey
Essential Oils in India & Trade
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

24. Essential for Biscuit Confectionery
Uses & Applications
Market Survey
Formulations of Non-Alcoholic Flavour
Cost Estimation

25. Jasmine and Lily Flower Oil
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

26. Extraction of Jasmine Essence
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

27. Extraction of Oil (Cardamom, Jeera, Ajowan, Genger Oil)
Ajowan (Bishops Week)
Orangepeel Oil
Process of Manufacture
Cost Estimation

28. Extraction of Essential Oil & Packing
Orangepeel Oil
Market Potential 
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

29. Eucalyptus Oil 
Uses & Applications
Market Survey
Process of Manufacture
Cost Estimation

30. Lemon Gass Oil
Uses and Properties
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

31. Ginger Oil
Uses and Applications
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

32. Aromatic Perfumery Compounds
Properties & Uses
Market Position
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

33. Agarbatti Perfumery Compounds
Market Survey
Process of manufacture
Cost Estimation

34. Nilgiri Oil
Properties Uses & Application
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation 

35. Citronella Oil 
Uses & Applications
Market Survey
Process of Manufacture
Cost Estimation

Supplier of Plant & Machineries

Raw Material Suppliers


Formulary Section: Sophisticated or Fantasy Perfumes


Sophisticated or fantasy perfumes: in other words, this chapter is devoted to what in France is quite simply called 'la Grande Parfumerie'. A difficult task faces us here, in that we must seek to hold the interest of the reader without exposing ourselves to charges of revealing too much or breaching confidences. This is a particularly delicate situation when currently fashionable perfumes are the subject of discussion.

We shall restrict ourselves to being as objective as possible, but in so doing will offer guides to creation and some formulae, as examples, to facilitate basic research.

Perfumes of Fantasy (as we may call them for want of a better name) are roughly divisible into six categories:

Floral perfumes

Aldehydic perfumes

Chypre types

Oriental types

Green types

Perfumes with a distinguishing dominant note.

These types may and do, of course, overlap. And, independently of the notes that characterise perfumes in each separate category, the tonality also plays an important part. This may be, in each group, one of three, namely light, medium and heavy.

Before quoting examples of these different groups, we give formulae for certain bases, both of a general and more specific nature, that can be utilised in a variety of formulae, just as can many of the floral bases already discussed in the previous chapter. Here is a representative of the very interesting bergamot-vanilla bases:

Bergamot-Vanilla Base

Bergamot oil 100
Vanillin 5
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 10% 1
Aldehyde C.8, 10% 0.3

In the formula that follows the cedrat oil, once a natural product, may be replaced by the now conventional artificial blend of lemon, bergamot and orange oils.

Aldehydic base A.1

Aldehyde C.8 0.50
Aldehyde C.9 1.25
Aldehyde C.10 2.50
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 1.25
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 2.50
Aldehyde C.22 (MNA) 1.50
Bergamot oil 12.50
Bergamot oil, sesquiterpeneless 6.20
Superorange (Lautier) 50% 10.00
Supercitron (Lauiter) 5% 1.90
Lemon oil 1.25
Cedrat oil 3.75
Neroli A 3.10
Folia (Bertrand frères) 0.60
Ylang-ylang oil 37.50
Opopanax L.G. (Givaudan) 1.25
Costus absolute 0.60
Musk tincture No.1 2.50
Rose No.2 6.20
Sandalwood oil 3.15

Aldehydic Base A.2


Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 1.30
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 0.78
Aldehyde C.10 0.39
Vanillin 1.95
Coumarin 9.75
Hydroxycitronellal (Laurine, Givaudan) 9.75
Phenylethyl alcohol 14.30
Rose oil, Bulgarian 2.60
Geraniol 100% extra (Frimenich) 6.50
Beta-si Methyl ionone (Raldeine D 6.50
Benzyl acetate 4.55
Jasim absolute 3.90
IsoEugenol 6.50
Anisic aldeyde 7.80
Ylang-ylang oil 6.50
Linalool ex bois de rose Brazil 13.00
Sandalwood oil 11.70
Dimethyl phthalate 22.23

Curacao Base

The 'orange curacao' note is very characteristic and the actual Curacao orange oil virtually unobtainable. For that reason the following formula will often prove useful.

Bitter orange oil (Guinea) 37.50
Bitter orange oil, deterpenated 7.45
Anethole 4.65
Citral 3.70
Coriandrol (from Russian coriander oil) 2.70
Aldehyde C.8 2.00
Aldehyde C.9 10% 5.00
Aldehyde C.10 7.00
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 18.30
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 3.00
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 8.70

Leather or 'cuir' bases have continued to be popular and widely utilised in perfumery at the time of writing. They are indispensable in certain fashionable perfumes and are particularly of interest in perfumes for men.

Cuir Base C.1

Bergamot oil 1.5
Framboisis (de Laire) 7.5
Coromia (Givaudan) 40.0
Corinal (Firmenich) 14.0
beta-Methyl ionone 4.5
Jasmin No.2 2.4
Mandarin oil 1.5
Cedrol 12.0
Lilac No.2 9.0
Musk ketone 1.8
Musk ambrette 1.8
Neroli B 0.9
Coriandrol 0.3
Cedrate oil 0.8
Vanillin 1.5
Dimethyl phthalate 0.5

Cuir Base 2

Alliantone (Givaudan) 14.0
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal Works) 9.0
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 10% 10.0
Aldehyde C.10, 10% 4.0
Angelica root oil 2.0
Hydroxycitronellal 4.0
Musk ketone 3.0
Ethyl vanillin 6.5
Costus absolute, 10% 2.5
Birch tar oil. rectified 10.0
beta-Methyl inone 15.0
Ionone extra 10.0
Terpineol 10.0

The woody note is often employed in association with other notes, not only to confer its own characteristics but to soften and round off the finished composition.

Woody Base B.1

Linalyl acetate 27.00
Bergamot oil 12.35
Rose de Grasse absolute 12.20
Jasmin absolute 6.90
Bois de rose oil, Brazil 6.00
Lilac No.2 5.70
Muguet No.1 5.25
Vanillin 4.95
Coumarin 4.95
Sandalwood oil 3.90
beta-Methyl ionone 2.70
Neroli oil 1.95
Bitter orange oil, Guinea 1.95
Labdanum absolute 1.20
Patchouli oil 1.05
Vetiver oil, Bourbon 1.05
Hyperessence orange (Charabot) 0.90

The moss note plays a very important part in perfumery. It sustains the head notes of 'green' compositions, which are currently fashionable; but long before this it found other applications. That great perfumer Roudnitska has contributed significantly to the popularly of the moss note, and perfumers everywhere known the famous mossy base, made by one of the leading synthetic houses and bearing the name of a German province.

The day when oakmoss was first associated with the synthetic odour of isobutylquinoline, was indeed a landmark in the history of perfumery. It opened a new and broad avenue of perfume creation, and especially so when homologous odorants became available to vary the original accord and multiply the possibility of further combinations.

In their basic notes these mossy compositions afford admirable support for special fruity effects, on condition that they are accompanied by a more 'human' note, as it were, such as musk, amber, civet etc.

Moss Base M.1

Sandalwood oil 10.20
Bergamot oil 10.25
Bulgarian rose oil 2.40
beta-Methyl ionone 9.10
Coriandrol 0.25
Jasmin No.4 2.40
Patchouli oil 6.70
Thyme oil, red 0.35
Vetiver oil, Bourbon 5.30
Ciste absolute 5.50
Oakmoss absolute 5.30
Castoreum absolute 11.30
Neroli A 0.95
Musk ambrette 0.75
Caraway oil (Flebo) 17.65
Superorange (Lautier) 11.60

In the following formula readers should note that vetiver acetate does not mean vetiveryl acetate. The former - with its own distinctive odour - results from the acetylation of the oil itself, which naturally involves not only the acetylation of the oil's vetiverol but also that of the other alcohols present in the oil. Vetiveryl acetate, on the other hand, is prepared by the simple acetylation of vetiverol.

Base 1.S

Opopanax L.G.(Givaudan) 30.0
beta-iso Methyl ionone 13.5
Hydroxycitronellal 7.5
Ylang-ylang oil 2.5
Ionone alpha 5.0
Rose Bulgarian oil (10%) 10.0
Jasmin absolute 5.0
Vetiver oil, Java 1.0
Musk ambrette 2.5
Coumarin 1.0
Vanillin 2.0
Base Claveline No.1 2.5
Muguet No.2 10.0
Vetiver acetate 5.0
IsoButylquinoline 2.5

Moss Base M.2

Sandalwood oil 16.60
Rose de Mai absolute 3.80
beta-Methyl ionone 4.50
Neroli oil 1.50
Jasim absolute 3.80
Thyme oil 0.60
Patchouli oil 1.55
Vetiver oil, Java 7.60
Ciste absolute 4.15
Tree moss absolute 9.10
Castoreum tincture 2.65
Opopanax L 2.65
Musk ambrette 1.15
Tincture of musk 1.50
Bergamot oil 32.70
IsoButylquinoline (5%) 4.60
Supercitron (Lautier) 50% 0.75
Superorange (Lautier) 0.40
Coriandrol 0.40

See Chapter 13 of this book, under Green, Fruity and other special notes. In addition to the newer 'green' odorants marketed as pure chemicals, others have been introduced as proprietary bases. In most instances these bases have been well contrived, so as to permit their introduction into standard formulae without causing any undue imbalance or interference. They nevertheless give rise to effects that are quite distinctive and different from those that preceded their introduction. The auxiliary notes so introduced may of course be pleasing or displeasing, but the possibility of producing novel and interesting effects cannot be overlooked.

Moss notes may be more or less 'fruity' in type, according to taste. Moss Base M.2 can very easily be reorientated in this fashion.

A certain number of odorants are capable of suggesting the sea and the open air, faintly suggesting the odour of ozone. Givaudan's Alliantone, Laserson's Aldehyde Mer and Robertet's Absolu Marin are among the products of this type that strike a note of originality and may well introduce effects that appeal to outdoors enthusiasts, the masculine market, and perhaps a still wider market. This type of perfume could well be the subject of tomorrow's success story.

We now turn to the various general types of perfumes indicated in our earlier classification.


Parfum QH No.1


Lilac No.2
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal Works) 0.10
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 10% 0.25
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 10% 0.10
Citronellyl lactone (I.F.F.) 10% 0.05
Amyl salicylate 5.00
Sandalwood oil 1.55
beta-Methyl ionone 5.05
Benzyl acetate 3.90
Rose No.3 4.00
Jasmin absolute 2.00
Cedrat oil 7.00
Bergamot oil 5.00
Ylang-ylang oil 10.00
Musk ambrette 1.00
Musk ketone 1.00
Vanillin 2.00
Ambrophore (Firmenich) 2.00

The next flower perfume (A) is characteristic of a kind of bouquet which had a great success at the end of the nineteenth century. As an essential part of its structure it contained a base termed Bouvardia, which had then and still retains a wide acceptance among perfumers. For that reason we first give a formula for a base or this general type.

Bouvardia BM

Ylang-ylang oil 20.00
Geraniol extra 5.00
Jasmin absolute 3.75
Base Tuberone No.1 2.50
Neroli B 12.50
beta-Methyl ionone 25.00
Bois de rose oil, Brazil 25.00
Hypressence orangeflower (UOP) 6.25

Parfum AO

Mimosa flower absolute 1.7
Rose de mai absolute 3.4
Hyperessence orangeflower 5.0
Narcisse des Montagnes absolute(Camilli) 2.0
Base Tuberose No.2 4.0
Jasmin absolute 3.4
Jasmonone No.4a 1.0
Ylang-ylang oil, Manilla 3.0
Heliotropin 2.0
Acacia 200 (Firmenich) 8.5
Bouvardia BM 4.0
Bouvardia 100% (de Laire) 3.0
Bergamot oil 10.0
beta-Methyl ionone 8.0
Anisic aldehyde 6.0
Methyl anthranilate 1.0
Linalyl acetate 2.0
Ionone alpha 2.0
Ambrophore (Firmenich) 3% 20.0
Civet tincture 10.0

The following perfume is distinguished by its association of a lilac type of composition with the atmosphere or the sea.

Parfum TL

Musk ketone 1.2
Rose No.1 2.0
Hyacinth No.1 5.6
Lilas Isobutaflor (Robertet) 7.7
Jasmin absolute 10.0
Lilac No.3 72.0
Aldehyde Mer (Laserson & Sabetary) 0.5
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal) 1.0

Parfum F

Ylang-ylang oil 12.70
Jasmin absolute 3.40
Narcisse des Montagnes absolute (Camilli) 2.10
Lilac No.3 21.50
Paracetone (Givaudan) 22.70
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan) 10.25
Heliotropol (Firmenich) 4.20
Jasmin No.4 4.20
Grapefruit oil 5.10
Bergamot oil, sesquieterpeneless 3.40
Neroli A 3.40
Base Cuir C.1 2.10
Coumarin 1.70
Bornoia absloute oil 1.00
Rose No.1 1.00
Pollenol (Firmenich) 0.50
Hyperessence reseda (Charabot) 0.15
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal) 0.15
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA)50% 0.05
Phenylacetaldyde dimethylacetal 50% 0.05
Cyclopentadecanolide 0.35

Parfum HB

Jasmin No.2 7.50
Bergamot oil 10.00
Lavender oil 7.45
Opaslaunax (Ets: Hasslauer) 7.50
Methyl anthranilate 6.70
Orange oil 4.10
Lilac No.1 3.60
Rose No.1 3.00
Methyl ionone 2.20
Jasmin absolute 2.20
Muguet No.1 2.00
Neroli A 1.40
Claveline Base No.1 1.30
isoEugenol 1.30
Sandalwood oil 1.30
Heliotropin 1.30
Ambreine S (Firmenich) 0.80
Vanillin 0.80
Coumarin 0.75
Orangeflower water absolute 0.80
Ylang-ylang oil 0.65
Anisic aldehyde 0.45
Cedarwood oil, Virginia 0.40
Merisia (Descollonges) 0.40
Orris absolute P.V. 0.20
Benzyl acetate 0.20
Zdravetz oil, 10% 0.90
Cinnamon oil, Ceylon 10% 0.40
Framboisis (de Laire) 10% 0.20
Peru balsam tincture 13.00
Civet tincture 13.00
Musk No.1 tincture 4.20

Parfum AR

Jasmin No.4 1.10
Jasmin No.2 3.95
Jasmin absolute 2.65
Rose de Grasse absolute 1.60
Rose No.1 2.10
Ylang-ylang oil 1.60
Arhenol (Firmenich) 7.10
Hydroxycitronellal 6.10
Daturol (Firmenich) 0.55
Lilac No.1 5.10
Methyl ionone 3.60
Irophore (Firmenich) 0.30
Bioflor (Synarome) 6.65
Linalool 2.60
Bois de rose oil, Brazil 1.15
Nerol 0.55
Teprene (Synarome) 6.15
Muguet No.1 10.00
Bergamot oil 13.00
Aldehydic Base A1 3.20
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 10% 0.40
Oakmoss absolute dècolorèe (Robertet) 1.10
Cyclopentadecanolide 1% 0.80
Vanillin 0.55
Musk ketone 1.20
Musk ambrette 1.10
Heliotropin 0.95
Civet tincture 3.70
Musk No.1 tincture 3.20
Vanilla tincture 5.25
Castoreum tincture 1.10
Cuir Base C.1 0.80
Castoreum Anhydrol (Givaudan) 1% 0.80


Parfum VN

Bergamot oil 5.30
Bitter Orange oil 4.25
Aldehydic Base A2 3.00
Ambreine S (Firmenich) 3.25
Methyl ionone 4.25
Cinnamic aldehyde 340
Jasmin de Provence (Descollonges) 3.00
Petitgrain oil, French 2.20
Jasmin absolute 2.20
Sophora (Givaudan) 2.80
Lavender 1.40
Neroli 1.15
Jonquil absolute (Charabot) 0.50
Hydroxycitronellal 2.70
Sandalwool oil 0.60
Benzoin Gomodor (UOP) 0.60
Opopanax vrai resine (Hasslauer) 3.00
Elemi resinoid 2.00
Rose No.1 2.20
Civet tincture 30.60
Musk tincture 12.45
Peru balsam tincture 5.15
Castoreum tincture 4.00

Parfum C

Rose No.2 0.40
Lilac No.3 4.20
Jasmin No.2 6.70
Neroli B 0.15
Hydroxycitronellal 6.30
Terpineol 3.20
Cinnamic alcohol ex styrax 0.50
Methyl ionone 3.20
Amarante (Givaudan) 5.00
Oakmoss absolute 1.25
Opopanax L 3.75
Base 1.S. 2.60
Liquidambar II 0.10
Mousse de Saxe (de Lair) 5.00
Thyme oil 0.30
Vetiver oil, Java 1.90
Patchouli oil 3.00
Sandalwool oil 3.00
Coriander oil, Russian 4.00
Cedrat oil 1.00
Bitter Orange oil 2.00
Lavender oil 3.00
Bergamot oil 10.00
Linalyl acetate 5.00
Ambreine S (Firmenich) 4.50
Dimethyl phthalate 0.60
Ethyl vanillin 0.80
Musk ketone 0.50
Musk ambrette 1.00
Cyclopentadecanolide 3.00
Coumarin 3.00
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 0.42
Aldehyde C.12(lauric) 0.36
Aldehyed C.12 (MNA) 0.27
Tincture of civet 1.50
Tincture of castoreum 8.50

Fairly frequent reference is made in these formula to the natural resin, Liquidambar. This balsamic product of very dark bituminous aspect is not used as such but is appropriately treated to yield three different fractions. The first of these has the strongly 'grassy' styrene odour; the second has a labdanum odour and an 'animal' note; while the third has the animal note in an even more marked degree. In fine perfumery only the second and third fractions are normally used; and these are referred to in the various formulae as Liquidambar II and Liquidambar III.

Treatment of raw materials in this way may be carried out in the perfumery laboratories if they happen to include a suitable chemical laboratory adequately staffed. Alternatively, arrangements can often be made with an outside laboratory to carry out this and other collaborative work.

Parfum SP

Opopanax L 2.20
Opopanax 18 (de Laire) 0.90
Cyclamen aldehyde 0.10
Amyl salicylate 0.25
Costus resinoid (Camilli) 0.15
Bergamot oil 3.20
Patchouli oil 2.40
Grisambrol (Firmenich) 0.80
Labdanum oil (Schmoller) 0.25
Moss Base M2 0.40
Oakmoss absolute superessence (Yugoslav) 0.90
Liquidambar II 0.05
Mousse 1026 (Roure Dupont) 2.15
Musk BRB (Rhône-Poulenc) 0.10
Musk ketone 0.60
Cyclopentadecanolide 0.15
Ethyl vanillin 0.10
Thibetine (Givaudan) 0.60
Animalis (Synarome) 0.30
Civette RP No.2(Rohône-Poulenc) 0.10
Elecampane oil 4.50
Sandalwood oil 0.20
Methyl ionone 3.20
Jasmonone No.4 5.70
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan) 19.70
Gardenia No. 1 4.50
Gardamon oil, Naardenised (Naarden) 0.25
Hydroxycitronellal 2.40
Corona (Roure Dupont) 1.70
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal) 1.60
Phenylacetaldehyde 0.05
Camomile absolute (Schmoller) 0.15
Lavender oiol, Barrême (42% esters) 1.30
Linalool ex bois de rose 4.50
Ylang-ylang oil 0.25
Styrallyl acetate 2.10
Aldehyde C.8 0.10
Adehyde C.9 0.10
Aldehyde C.10 0.60
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 0.60
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 50% 0.70
Opopanax resin tincture 6.30
Peru balsam tincture 2.00
Vanilla tincture 1.10
Castoreum tincture 2.70


Chypre perfumes have always found great favour among women and, indeed, among men. Witness the famous Chypre of Coty, about which and its constituents so much has been written.

Characteristic of the Chypre odour, in addition to its conventional notes of bergamot, oakmoss, civet, linalyl acetate, amyl salicylate, rose, neroli, vetiver, sandalwood, labdanum and the little rustic or herbal notes of red thyme, tarragon and basil, etc.... is a note of safrole or isosafrole. Others will see in this very special note, which assures the perfume's success, a celebrated composition of the German firm Heine, known under the name of Product EM and probably based on oakmoss, labdanum, liquidambar, linalyl acetate - and various floral elements.

Many Chypre variants have been introduced each, with its slightly different note or emphasis which distinguish it from the other members of its class.

When a perfumery house lacks imagination enough to devise a really new perfume. It tends to fall back on a 'special' Chypre; this being a more or less safe bet, in that it is most unlikely to prove an abject failure. This 'policy of the least effort' provoked Maurice Chevron to remark: 'It is simply beef steak.' During the past few years aldehydic chypres have made headway. The following examples are given as typical of this class.

Pafum C.2

Rose No.1 1.80
Ysminia (Firmenich) 15.00
Jasmin absolute 15.00
Oakmoss absolute superessence, Yugoslav (Schmoller) 0.60
Bergamot oil 4.20
Oakmoss absolute (Camilli) 4.35
Jasmin No.1 4.00
Geranium sur rose oil 1.80
Methyl ionone 11.30
Vetiver oil 3.60
Sandalwool oil 1.30
Linalool ex bois de rose 1.80
Dianthine (Firmenich) 7.60
Eugenol 0.75
Hydroxycitronellal 0.75
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan) 4.00
Costus absolute 10% 2.10
Mace oil 0.15
Florizia (Firmenich) 3.15
Tincture of Musk, 3% 7.60
Tincute of Civet, 3% 1.00
Musk ambrette 0.70
Musk ketone 1.40
Coumarin 0.30
Vanillin 0.15
Aldehyde C.10, 1% 0.80
Aldehyde C.11 (undecyclenic) 1% 1.20
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 10% 3.60

This is typical of Aldehydic Chypre. The following Chypre Base is also, in its way, very characteristic.

Base Chypre H

Coumarin 8.70
Vanillin 4.60
Ethyl vanillin 2.90
Heliotropin 1.80
Methyl ionone 1.20
Musk ketone 0.75
Rose H 0.60
Orange oi, bitter, Guinea 4.50
Geraniol extra 2.90
Bois de Rhodes oil (Chiris-UOP) 1.00
Noisette (de Laire) 0.20
Sandalwood oil 2.80
Benzoin Supergomodor (Chiris-UOP) 0.45
Liquidambar II 2.90
Labdanum Clair (Lautier) 5.80
Linalool ex bois de rose Cayenne 0.75
Linalyl acetate ex bois de rose 2.90
Terpinyl acetate 8.80
Benzyl acetate 2.90
Vetiver acetate 0.09
Estragon (tarragon) oil 5% 0.54
isoButylquinolin 5% 0.75
Ysminia (Firmenich) 1.20
Bergamot oil, sesquiterpeneless 34.97
Bergamot oil 6.00

Parfum MD

Opopanax L 2.60
Hydroxycitronellal 2.60
Cyclamen aldehyde 0.40
isoButyl salicylate 1.70
Costus oil 0.90
Bergamot oil 4.22
Cyclosia Base (Firmenich) 2.00
Patchouli oil 18.10
Vetiverol 4.82
Jasmin No.1 4.23
Ylang-ylang oil 5.07
Muguet No.1 4.22
Paracetone (Givaudan) 4.22
Lavender oil 1.70
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal Works) 0.45
Cardamine (Synarome) 4.22
Gardenia No.1 6.07
Galbanum oil (Robertet) 1.70
Oakmoss absolute superessence (Schmoller) 2.60
Base Tuberose No.1 0.85
Rose No. 2 0.45
Cardamon oil 1.70
Ambre 83 (de Laire) 10% 0.85
Grisambrol (Firmenich) 2.25
Ethyl vanillin 0.45
Musk ketone 4.22
Musk BRB (Rhône-Poulenc) 0.85
Coumarin 3.37
Cyclopentadecanolide 0.90
Civettone (Firmenich) 100% 0.90
Musk ambrette 4.22
Ambrophore (Firmenich) 2.87
Animalis (Synarome) 2.15
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 1.70
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 0.45

The number of chypre variations is very great and it would be impossible for us to offer examples of a comprehensive range of them in the necessarily restricted space available to us. The following, however, reveals the incorporation of distinctively 'animal' note in a chypre base.

Chypre I.D.

Oakmoss absolute hyperessence (Charabot) 0.30
Jasmin absolute 0.90
Musc VH (Ets. Hasslauer) 10% 20.15
Musc baume epure (Payan & Bertrand)10% 10.00
Ambergris tincture 18.80
Civet tincture 29.00
Musk ketone 0.30
alpha-Methyl ionone 0.90
Sandalwood oil 0.40
Vetiver oil 0.90
Bergamot oil 4.75
Rose No.3 3.75
Bouvardia CNC (Firmenich) 4.75
Carrot Clair (Lautier) 10% 2.05
Celery Clair (Lautier) 10% 1.25
Tobacco W (I.F.F.) 0.55
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 10% 0.25
Cyclopentadecanolide 1% 0.15
Orange oil superdèterpenèe (Charabot) 0.35
Celery seed oil 0.35
Angelica root oil 0.15

The following formula is for a modified chypre perfume with a peach type of top note.

Parfum V.W.

Ysminia (Firmenich) 3.00
Wardia (Firmenich) 2.00
Benzyl acetate 9.00
Orange oil, sweet 3.00
Jasmin absolute 1.25
Vetiveryl acetate 4.50
Cedryl acetate (Givaudan) 4.00
Sandalwood oil (Mysore) 2.50
Lavender oil, Barrême 42% esters 6.00
isoEugenol 1.75
Amyl salicylate 1.50
Bergamot oil 12.00
Lemon oil, Guinea 3.50
Methyl ionone 5.00
Ylang-ylang oil 3.50
Oakmoss decolorèe (Robertet) 3.50
Patchouli oil 2.50
Petitgrain oil, paraguay 4.00
Indole 0.15
Citral 0.50
Aurantiol 4.00
Dimethyl benzyl carbinol 3.00
Hydroxycitronellal 3.00
I-citronellol 2.00
Geranium extra 2.50
Fennel oil 0.75
Black pepper oil 0.75
Coumarin 2.60
Musk ketone 1.50
Civettone 0.20
Ambrettozone (Haarmann & Reimer) 0.40
Ambrarome Absolute (Synarome) 0.25
Clove bud oil 0.30
Aldehyde (pseudo) C.18, 10% 0.40
Aldehyde (pseudo) C.16, 10% 0.20
Aldehyde C.14 ('peach'), 10% 5.00


The principle underlying the creation of so-called oriental perfumes is to utilise balsams and resins of all kinds as the base, e.g. Perue balsam, benzoin, opopanax, olibanum, labdanum, etc., accormpanied by musk and civet, etc., natural and artificial. The conventional crystalline 'fixatives' are also used according to taste. The desired objective is to obtain a perfume with warm and even seductive tonalities. The typically oriental base is 'floralized' by means of heady flower odours such as jasmin, tuberose, magnolia, gardenia, honey-suckle, syringa, etc.

Due note must be taken of the fact that all the basic raw materials are heavy in character and slow to be released into the atmosphere. It is, therefore, necessary to use, with them, a sufficiency of citrus type oils, etc., acetates and other synthetics of a light nature, in order to entrain and disperse them.

By way of example we give a base that may serve as a starting point for these types of perfume.

Base S.H.


Tonka beans hyperessence (Charabot) 1.75
Peru balsam rectified (Hasslauer) 3.30
Castoreum anhydrol (Givaudan) 2.55
Ethyl vanillin 2.20
Bergamot oil 51.25
Orange oil, bitter (Guinea) 8.70
Orange oil, sweet 8.70
Lavender oil, Barrême 4.40
]Ondatrol (Descollonges) 0.75
Linalyl acetate ex shiu oil 16.40

Here is another oriental pefume:

Parfum J

Coriandrol (Robertet) 10.85
Vetyrisine (Firmenich) 7.30
Opaslaunax (Hasslauer) 7.30
Humuscol (Descollonges) 5.82
Vanillin 3.90
Heliotropol (Firmenich) 0.35
Coumarin 3.65
Sandalwool oil 3.65
Lavender oil, Barrême, 40% esters 3.65
Bergamot oil 3.65
Coriander oil, U.S.S.R. 2.91
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan) 3.65
Neroli 2.54
Supercuracao (Lautier) 2.59
Clary sage (Chiris-UOP) 1.48
Jasmin absolute 1.48
Patchouli oil 0.74
Musk ambrette 0.74
Ylang-ylang oil 0.37
Rose No.1 0.37
Wintergreen oil 0.14
Peru balsam rect. (Hasslauer) 2.50
Cyclopentadecanolide 0.92
Anhydrol Castoreum (Givaudan) 0.37
Civettone 100% 0.37
Musk tincture No.1 28.71


For some years there has been a growing demand for perfumes with a more or less pronounced note of greenery or verdure. It could of course be said that the original perfumes with a type of green note were the ferns or fougères, led by the famous Fougère Royale of Houbigant, created by Paul Parquet around 1880-1882. Other fougères were quick to follow, and all helped to popularize the fern note, which is really one of forest trees and undergrowth rather than a truly green leaf note.

Towards 1920 or perhaps a little later appeared, under one of the more modest brand names, Parfums Ybry, a very green type of hyacinth-based perfume. Some years after this came Schiaparelli's Shocking, with its lightly green note superimposed on a very powdery base. Still later (1930-32) Houbigant tried to launch a green type of perfume under the name Festival. But it was still too soon to anticipate success in this direction. A little later, however, Carven came out with Ma Griffe and this, with its truly green note, proved to be a great success. After this came a profusion of 'green' perfumes, and the fashion still endures.

Her is a hyacinth-green base which can be of considerable service in the creation of green perfumes.

Hyacinth Green Base No. 10

Hydroxycitronellal (Cyclosia,Firmenich) 3.60
Phenylethyl acetate 1.80
Phenylethyl alcohol 43.00
isoEugenol 3.50
Cinnamic alcohol 16.66
Phenylacetaldehyde 50% 0.85
Phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal 0.50
Folial (Firmenich) 0.05
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal) 1.25
Benzyl acetate 1.80
Phenylethyl formate 0.50
Terpineol 3.10
Rhodinol 1.20
alpha-Amylcinnamic aldehyde 0.30
Paracetone (Givaudan) 0.20
Rose No.2 0.06
Jasmin absolute 0.20
Hosaldeine (de Laire) 0.79
Framboise 2222 (Firmenich) 10% 0.24
Dimethyl phthalate 20.40

The green note is rather more restrained in the formula that follows:

Parfum P No. 2

Jasmin No.1 12.65
Jasmin absolute 5.60
Lilac No.3 22.90
Vetiver oil, Java 2.45
Orangeflower No.4 4.95
Rose No.1 4.95
Narcisse des Montagnes absolute (Camilli) 4.95
Methyl cinnamate 2.40
Phenylacetaldehyde 2.45
Nardcissus No. 2 25.65
Phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal 0.26
Vert de Lilas (de Laire) 0.94
Coumarin 3.70
Musk ketone 1.20
Oakmoss absolute, Yugoslav,Superessence (Schmoller) 3.75
Liquidambar II 1.20

Other suggestions on the subject of green notes are to be found in Chapter 14.


These are perfumes which have a well-defined characteristic note produced by a specific synthetic odorant or a group of two or three odorants, natural or synthetic.

It is easy enough to obtain in perfumery what, in painting, one terms a grisaille: in other words a soulless overall tint, which shades off into a heavy and nondescript mist. To avoid this one experiments with a restricted number of odorants in order to arrive at a note that is at once novel and, as we have said, well defined.

Here is a formula in which the dominant note is formed by an accord of four principal odorants: ambergris, Arhenol, boronia and cassis:

Parfum D

Bornia absolute oil(Plaimer) 3.75
Cassis bud absolute incolore 3.00
Oakmoss absolute incolore 2.50
Jasmin absolute Butaflor (Robertet) 1.25
Vetiver oil, naardenised (Naarden) 7.38
Carrot oil, naardenised 0.07
Paracetone (Givaudan) 9.80
Benzoin Supergomodor (Chiris-UOP) 2.00
Rose No.1 1.87
Cinnamon oil, naardenised (Naarden) 1.25
Clary sage oil, naardenised 3.50
Clary sage oil, natural 3.50
Sandalwood oil 4.00
Hydroxycitronellal 4.50
Arhenol (Firmenich) 4.50
Pollenol (Firmenich) 3.00
Ambrarome (Firmenich) 7.38
Ondatrol (Descollonges) 3.50
Alcohol C.11 (undecylenic) 0.62
Aldehyde C.10, 10% 0.03
Linalool ex bois de rose Brazil 3.75
Bergamot oil, sesquiterpeneless 15.50
Mandarin oil 0.75
Moskene (Givaudan) 0.25
Ethyl vanillin 2.50
Benzyl acetate 2.25
Opopanax tincture 4.00
Castoreum tincture 3.60

The ambergris note

When it comes to using this composition for preparing a perfume of chosen concentration, the quantity of tincture of ambergris that should be added, is calculated in the proportion of 100 parts of the concentrate to 73.5 parts of ambergris tincture - with the balance made up of perfumery alcohol. As an example, suppose that what is wanted is a perfume containting 15 per cent of concentrate. Then to 15 parts of the concentrate we add 11 parts of tincture of ambergris, and complete the formula by adding a sufficiency of alcohol at 95o to arrive at a total volume of 100 parts.

Tincture of ambergris at 3 per cent concentration may be replaced by much less expensive synthetics: vide the section on Animal Notes in the chapter on synthetic odorants. In this particular case excellent results, possibly even superior to those yielded by the natural product, may be obtained with a 3 per cent tincture of Ambergris Synthètique (Givaudan).

Another example of a formula in this category may be given:

Parfum BM

Arhenol (Firmenich) 5.40
Sophora (Givaudan) 20.00
Cattleya (Givaudan) 3.60
Jonquille alpha (de Laire) 6.00
Hydroxycitronellal 23.00
Orangeflower A 0.30
Folia (Bertrand fères) 2.00
Methyl ionone 1.00
Paracetone (Givaudan) 3.00
Cinnamic alcohol ex styrax 9.78
Benzyl acetate 2.00
Linalyl acetate 4.00
Phenylethyl alcohol 0.80
Rose No. 1 3.20
isoEugenol 0.80
Citral 0.40
Orange oil, bitter 4.00
Orange oil, sweet 1.60
Cedrat oil 2.00
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 0.03
Aledhyed C.11 (undecylenic) 0.02
Patchouli oil 0.27
Coumarin 3.00
Ethyl vanillin 0.80
Jasmonone No.4A 3.00

The formula for the finished perfume is made up as follows:

Perfume concentrate as above (Parfum BM) 15 kilos
Tincture of musk No. 2 4 litres
Alcohol at 95o 81 litres

After chilling and filtration one obtains 100 liters of perfume.

Many simple, small-scale chemical processes may be profitably used by the perfumer or his associates. One thinks of the fractional distillation of Virginian cedarwood oil, for example, or the interesting end-product of distilling bergamot oil over oakmoss, just as the larger supply houses have distilled geranium over rose flowers and petitgrain over orange flowers. The separation of a determined portion or portions of a known essential oil can also yield an attractive result. Nothing should be overlooked, in fact, that may contribute a novel and perhaps an in inimitable note to a new perfume.

Manufacturing Processes

No perfume can be better than the concentrate from which it is prepared. Hence the necessity not merely of ensuring the best results in conception and formulation but also of taking every possible care in the selection, purchase and storage of raw materials. A constant standard of quality is essential.

Citrus oils are among those materials which deteriorate relatively rapidly. Stocks should therefore be used up accordingly and any falling off in quality duly noted and acted upon. Storage basements, etc., should be dry, shaded and well ventilated. They should afford adequate protection against normal fire risks. Storage should preferably be in glass, although internally lined aluminium cans provide one of the permissible alternatives. Some oxidation-prone essential oils are often treated on the production site with traces (e.g. 1 part in 20,000) of antioxidants, but the practice of adding such materials should be kept to a minimum and note knowingly encouraged in fine perfumery. First-grade fresh oil is always superior to comparable treated oil.

A few odorants, e.g. myristic aldehyde, should not be stored in the cold. This particular aldehyde tends to polymerise if kept below room temperature.

When weighing-out, the formula may conveniently be typed on a Cellophane-wrapped card and clipped into a holder having a movable wide flat strip, designed to indicate clearly the actual line that is to be wieghed.

Much thought should be given to the containers and other utensils, in respect of the metals from which they are fabricated (e.g. good quality tinplate) and their design (e.g. with spouts for drip-free pouring and bases suitable for use on a steam bath or hot plate.


Accurate weighing is essential, and especially so in the case of very small quantities, which may have to be weighed separately on a more sensitive balance or used as a 10, 5 or 1 per cent solution in ethyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, diethyl phthalate or other appropriate diluent. A very serviceable type of balance is one that incorporates a zero resetting device and a calculator which shows automatically, at the end of the weighing, the same total as that shown in the typed formula.

Most mixtures are prepared in the cold, but some require gentle heating to promote thorough solution. Sensitive materials such as flower absolutes and fatty aldehydes should be added only after such dissolving-with-heat has been affected and the blend allowed to cool.

Modern mixing equipment offers many improvements on the old-fashioned hand methods once used in the perfumery industry. The steps that follow comprise the maturation of the concentrate on storage and (in the case of spirituous perfumes) its subsequent reduction or dilution with alcohol; its chilling, filtration and filling into bottles.

Probably the best way of preparing a finished perfume consisting of the compounded odorants known as the perfume concentrate, together with alcohol and water, is to pre-mix the concentrate with an equal quantity by volume of the alcohol, and then to dilute the rest of the alcohol with the proper amount of distilled water, allow to cool completely, and then add the concentrate-plus-alcohol with renewed stirring. This method tends to prevent colloidal precipitation of part of the concentrate, which one gets by adding the concentrate to the main bulk of alcohol initially, or the difficulty in solubilisation that may arise when the concentrate is added last of all.

After the lapse of some 24 hours the alcoholic batch is chilled (-0.4 to -0.6o C) and filtered. Where filter aids are used, as in the case of weakly alcoholic solutions, asbestos wool and diatomaceous earth are preferred to the mildly alkaline magnesium carbonate.

Alcoholic Strengths

As we mention in the chapter on eaux de Cologne, the perfume content of Colognes, eaux de toilette, eaux de parfume and other fancifully named 'dilute perfumes' may range from 3 to 8 per cent, although in some few cases this figure has been found to exceed even 10 per cent. There seems little point in marketing as a toilet water what is, in fact, a perfume - unless its water solubility has been artificially enhanced for the purpose.

Perfumes themselves range from the perhaps old-fashioned 'low' of 10 per cent to 15, 20, 25 and even, quite irrationally, 35 per cent. The alcoholic strength may lie between 850 and 950 Inexperienced perfumers, and some captains of industry in the perfumery world who are not perfumers, seem occasionally to believe that higher perfume concentration means enhanced strength and tenacity. This is not so. Sometimes the tenacity may be slightly increased but, beyond a certain optimum level, the strength is not increased. Indeed, too high a concentration lowers the tonality of a perfume and flattens it out, curtailing its ability to expand. With a very high concentration dull, non-diffusive perfumes result, and one of the most valued properties of a good grade of ethyl alcohol is wasted.


Adequate checking and control methods are of course essential at all stages of perfume production: from the intake and essay of raw materials, through storage and processing to filling and packaging. The variability of certain materials because of batch or climatic deviations, etc., is an additional obstacle in the way of producing a uniform series over a period of time. The perfumer should be closely concerned with the provision and use of standard samples for odour checking and comparison. These standards must be kept in optimum conditions, i.e. where possible in sealed ampoules or under nitrogen. Watch should also be kept on the exact matching of colour shades.

Ethyl Alcohol: Conversion from Gay-Lussac to equivalent degrees Proof, U.S. and U.K., and compared with Percentage Alcohol by Volume

Gay-Lussac(15oC)% Alcohol by volume (60oF)Equivalent specific gravity in air (60oF/60oF)Degrees overproof (U.K.)U.S. Proof at 60oF (approx.)
85 84.71 0.8503 48.49 170
86 85.71 0.8472 50.25 172
87 86.72 0.8442 52.01 174
88 87.72 0.8411 53.78 176
89 88.73 0.8378 55.55 178
90. 89.74 0.8346 57.31 180
91 90.75 0.8312 59.08 182
92 91.75 0.8278 60.85 184
93 92.76 0.8243 62.62 186
94 93.76 0.8206 64.38 188
95 94.76 0.8168 66.15 190
96 95.76 0.8129 69.67 192
97 96.76 0.8087 69.67 193
98 97.77 0.8043 71.44 195
99 98.79 0.7996 73.20 197
100 99.78 0.7947 74.97 199
100.2 100.00 0.7936 75.35 200


  1. Equivalent specific gravities in air at the now standard temperature of 200C are given in the Specific Gravity of Spirits tables published by H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1954.[/l]
  2. Degrees overproof may also be stated as 'percentage of proof spirit', in which case 48.49, for example, become 148.49.
  3. It will be seen that the Gay-Lussac figures are in close approximation to those given for percentage alcohol by volume. They are in fact derived from the volume of alcohol measured at 15oC contained in 100 cc of the alcohol-water mixture also at 15oC.

It is fequently necessary to dilute 95 per cent alcohol to 90, 85, 80, 70 per cent or even lover strengths. To determine the quantity of water required to reduce the proof of alcoholic solutions by a definite amount, one divides the percentage by volume of alcohol in the given proof by the percentage by volume of alcohol of the desired proof. The quotient is multiplied by the percentage by volume of water in the desired proof, and from this one subtracts the percentage by volume of water in the given proof. The remainder is the number of volumes of water that must be added to 100 volumes of the given proof to produce a solution of the desired proof. The resultant volume of the diluted alcohol will be the quotient first obtained multiplied by the original volume.

Thus if 13.38 vol. of distilled water are added to 100 vol. of 95 per cent alcohol, the resultant solution will be 85 per cent alcohol.

90 per cent alcohol may be prepared by diluting 947 ml of 95 per cent alcohol with water to 1000 ml.

80 per cent alcohol results from diluting 842 ml of 95 per cent alcohol to 1000 ml.

70 per cent alcohol is obtained by diluting 737 ml of 95 per cent alcohol; 60 per cent by diluting 632 ml, 50 per cent by diluting 526 ml, and 45 per cent by diluting 474 ml to 1000 ml with purified water.

Contraction of volume and rise of temperature occur when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed. The final adjustment of volume, when preparing these dilutions, is therefore made at the same temperature as that at which the 95 per cent alcohol is measured, i.e. about 20o C.




NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
  • Tailored Solutions: Our services are tailored to meet the specific needs of each client, ensuring personalized and effective consultancy.

Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.