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Detailed Project Profiles on Hi-Tech Plastic Products (2nd Revised Edition)# ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Plastic Technologists ISBN 9789381039632
Code ENI23 Format Hardcover
Price: Rs 1895   1895 US$ 150   150
Pages: 203 Published 2015
Publisher NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES

Plastic is a polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped, usually by the application of heat and pressure. This property of plasticity, often found in combination with other special properties such as low density, low electrical conductivity, transparency, and toughness, allows plastics to be made into a great variety of products. Many of the chemical names of the polymers employed as plastics have become familiar to consumers, although some are better known by their abbreviations or trade names. Thus, polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride are commonly referred to as PET and PVC, while foamed polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate are known by their trademarked names, Styrofoam and Plexiglas (or Perspex). The plastic consumption will increase to 20 million tonnes a year in 2020 from the current 8 million tonnes a year in India. Plastics is one of the biggest contributor to India’s GDP with the growth rate of 12%-15% per annum, it houses over 50,000 manufacturers and employees of over 40 lakh workers in the plastics industry.
Polymers are chemical compounds whose molecules are very large, often resembling long chains made up of a seemingly endless series of interconnected links. The size of these molecules, as is explained in chemistry of industrial polymers, is extraordinary, ranging in the thousands and even millions of atomic mass units. Polymers have found uses in all spheres of life with demand for better materials, greater functional utility, more economical packaging and versatile and durable all-weather products. The per capita consumption of polymers in India is around 5.5 kg. The Government of India has prepared an ambitious plan to achieve a ten-fold increase in plastic exports (from $ 25 mn to 250 mn) to the US.
Polyethylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. PET in its natural state is a colorless, semi-crystalline resin. Based on how it is processed, PET can be semi-rigid to rigid, and it is very lightweight. It makes a good gas and fair moisture barrier, as well as a good barrier to alcohol and solvents. Poly (vinyl chloride), is the third-most widely produced polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. 
Around 1.1 Million Metric Tons, out of which, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) accounts for 0.36 Million Metric Tons, Polypropylene (PP) 0.27 Million Metric Tons and Polyethylene (PE) 0.46 Million Metric Tons. The quantum of imports increased further to 1.8 MMT with imports of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethylene (PE) rising to 0.70, 0.43 and 0.62 MMT. Replicating the growth in gross domestic product, polymer demand in India grew from 3.459 Million Metric ton per annum (MMtpa) in 2000 to 9.013 MMtpa in 2011 at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 9.1%. Strong growth in the packaging sectors will drive the demand further to 14.315 MMtpa in 2016. To meet this growing demand, India increased its polymer production from 3.568 MMtpa in 2000 to 7.377 MMtpa in 2016. With an increase in demand the polymer consumption is expected to double by 2020, to about 20 million metric tons. 
Disposable is the ability of something to be disposed of or thrown away after use. A disposable (also called disposable product) is a product designed for a single use after which it is recycled or is disposed as solid waste. The term often implies cheapness and short-term convenience rather than medium to long-term durability. Polystyrene is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed. General purpose polystyrene is clear, hard, and rather brittle. It is an inexpensive resin per unit weight. It is a rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor and has a relatively low melting point. Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its production being several billion kilograms per year. India is growing at an average annual rate of 7.6% for the past five years and it is expected to continue growing at an equal if not faster rate. The rapid economic growth is increasing and enhancing employment and business opportunities and in turn increasing disposable incomes. As households with disposable incomes from Rs 200,000 to 1,000,000 a year comprises about 50 million people, roughly 5% of the population at present. By 2025 the size of middle class will increase to about 583 million people, or 41% of the population. The size of the Indian medical device industry will jump to INR 761 billion by 2017 registering a CAGR of 20% during 2012-17. 
The content of the book includes information about plastic. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like Plastics and Polymers Industry in India, Disposable Plastic Syringes, Flexible Polyurethane Foam, PVC Wires & Cables, Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork & Cutlery Items (Spoon)Thermacol Cups, Glass and Plates, Pet Bottle from Pet Resin, PVC Flex Banner (Front Lit, Backlit & Vinyl),Wood Plastic Composite (WPC),HDPE/PP Woven Sacks, Pet Bottle Recycling, Plastic Injection, Moulded Products (Buckets, Tumblers, Tubs & Toilet Bowl Cleaning Brush),Disposable Plastic Cups, Plates & Glasses.
Project profile contains information like introduction, uses and applications, properties, manufacturing process, B.I.S. specifications, raw material details, process description, process flow diagram, suppliers of plant & machinery, suppliers of raw material, land & building, plant & machinery, fixed capital, working capital requirement/month, total working capital/month, cost of project, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P)
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.

Introduction

A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that

are malleable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain

other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many

are partially natural.

 

Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water,

plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They

have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, paper,

metal, glass, and ceramic, in most of their former uses. In developed countries, about a third of plastic is

used in packaging and another third in buildings such as piping used in plumbing or vinyl siding. Other

uses include automobiles furniture, and toys. In the developing world, the ratios may be different - for

example, reportedly 42% of India's consumption is used in packaging.

Common Plastics and Uses

· Polyester (PES) – Fibers, textiles.

· Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) – Carbonated drinks bottles, peanut butter jars, plastic film,

microwavable packaging.

· Polyethylene (PE) – Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags, plastic bottles.

· High-density polyethylene (HDPE) – Detergent bottles, milk jugs, and molded plastic cases.

· Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) – Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames,

flooring.

· Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) – Food packaging.

· Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) – Outdoor furniture, siding, floor tiles, shower curtains,

clamshell packaging.

· Polypropylene (PP) – Bottle caps, drinking straws, yogurt containers, appliances, car fenders

(bumpers), plastic pressure pipe systems.

· Polystyrene (PS) – Packaging foam, food containers, plastic tableware, disposable cups, plates,

cutlery, CD and cassette boxes.

· High impact polystyrene (HIPS) - Refrigerator liners, food packaging, and vending cups.

 

The Polymers

Polymers are chemical compounds whose molecules are very large, often resembling long

chains made up of a seemingly endless series of interconnected links. The size of these molecules, as is

explained in chemistry of industrial polymers, is extraordinary, ranging in the thousands and even

millions of atomic mass units (as opposed to the tens of atomic mass units commonly found in other

chemical compounds). The size of the molecules, together with their physical state and the structures

that they adopt, are the principal causes of the unique properties associated with plastics—including the

ability to be molded and shaped.

 

Reaction Injection Molding

One type of network-forming thermoset, polyurethane, is molded into parts such as automobile

bumpers and inside panels through a process known as reaction injection molding, or RIM. The two

liquid precursors of polyurethane are a multifunctional isocyanate and a prepolymer, a low-molecularweight

polyether or polyester bearing a multiplicity of reactive end-groups such as hydroxyl, amine, or

amide. In the presence of a catalyst such as a tin soap, the two reactants rapidly form a network joined

mainly by urethane groups. The reaction takes place so rapidly that the two precursors have to be

combined in a special mixing head and immediately introduced into the mold. However, once in the

mold, the product requires very little pressure to fill and conform to the mold—especially since a small

amount of gas is evolved in the injection process, expanding the polymer volume and reducing

resistance to flow. The low molding pressures allow relatively lightweight and inexpensive molds to be

used, even when large items such as bumper assemblies or refrigerator doors are formed.

 

A first success in recycling of plastics is Vinyloop, a recycling process and an approach of the

industry to separate PVC from other materials through a process of dissolution, filtration and separation

of contaminations. A solvent is used in a closed loop to elute PVC from the waste. This makes it possible

to recycle composite structure PVC waste which normally is being incinerated or put in a landfill.

Vinyloop-based recycled PVC's primary energy demand is 46 percent lower than conventional produced

PVC. The global warming potential is 39 percent lower. This is why the use of recycled material leads to

a significant better ecological footprint. This process was used after the Olympic Games in London 2012.

Parts of temporary Buildings like the Water Polo Arena or the Royal Artillery Barracks were recycled.

This way, the PVC Policy could be fulfilled which says that no PVC waste should be left after the games.

 

Plastics and Polymers Industry in India

INTRODUCTION

During the past 40–50 years, foamed polymers have found increasing importance in the world

market place due to the unique characteristics and properties they provide when compared to solid

plastics. While most thermosets and thermoplastics can be made in a foamed or cellular structure under

certain conditions, the materials known as polyurethanes have become predominant for many

applications in this field. Through the proper selection of the starting materials, foamed polyurethanes

can range in characteristics from extremely soft, resilient cushioning products to very tough and rigid

structural members. As varied as the products are, so too are the machines and processes used to

produce them. Certain other systems, such as polyureas, are also processed with the same equipment

as polyurethanes. The word polyurethane is somewhat misleading since, unlike most plastics, the final

product is not made by polymerizing a monomer. Instead, the products contain a number of

polyurethane groups in a complex structure that is controlled by the choice of starting materials and the

production conditions.

Commercial products are manufactured by the reactions of two liquids: isocyanate (NCO)

compounds and polyol (polyoxyalkalene) components, in the presence of catalysts and processing aids.

Basic isocyanate chemistry has been available for more than 100 years, but it was not used commercially

until the mid-1930s. During World War II, German polyurethane developments centered on products to

replace scarce materials. The major products were rigid foams and cast elastomers. Following the war,

the technology was exploited by the United States, and rapid advances were made in the development

of products and processes.

There are four major polyurethane foam manufacturers in New Zealand. This article is based on

the process used by Dunlop Flexible Foam in Auckland, although all manufacturers use a similar process.

Dunlop has been using a continuous process since 1985, and has a daily capacity of more the 15 tonnes

of polyurethane foam.

FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM

Flexible polyurethane foam is used as cushioning for a variety of consumer and commercial

products, including bedding, furniture, automotive interiors, carpet underlay and packaging. Flexible

foam can be created in almost any variety of shapes and firmness. It is light, durable, supportive and

comfortable.

 

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) offers a myriad of physical property combinations and

processing applications. It is highly elastic, flexible and resistant to abrasion, impact and weather. TPUs

can be colored or fabricated in a wide variety of methods and their use can increase a product's overall

durability.

 

Additives

Some polyurethane materials can be vulnerable to damage from heat, light, atmospheric

contaminants, and chlorine. For this reason, stabilizers are added to protect the polymer. One type of

stabilizer that protects against light degradation is a UV screener called hydroxybenzotriazole. To

protect against oxidation reactions, antioxidants are used. Various antioxidants are available such as

monomeric and polymeric hindered phenols. Compounds which inhibit discoloration caused by

atmospheric pollutants may also be added. These are typically materials with tertiary amine

functionality that can interact with the oxides of nitrogen in air pollution. For certain applications, ant

mildew additives are added to the polyurethane product. After the polymers are formed and removed

from the reaction vessels, they are naturally white. Therefore, colorants may be added to change their

aesthetic appearance. Common covalent compounds for polyurethane fibers are dispersed and acid

dyes.

 

PVC Wires & Cables

INTRODUCTION

The generation, transmission, and distribution of power involve electrical facilities, apparatus,

and components, to carry the electrical energy from its generating site to where it is utilized. An

important part of this power system is the cable system that is used exclusively to carry power from the

main substations to secondary substations at load centers. Low-voltage cable is used to distribute power

from the load centers to utilization equipment in conduits and ducts, even though other methods such

as cable trays, direct burial for outdoor applications, and aerial cable are used. Electrical, mechanical,

and environmental considerations are the main factors in selecting and applying cable systems for

distribution and utilization of electrical power.

Previously rubber insulated cables were in vogue but their life used to be short. Now days in the

field of insulated cables PVC cables have occupied an important place and in fact these are most

popular. Various types of PVC cables are available, e.g., cables for control, signaling, instrumentation,

rural electrification and house wiring, communication as well as for use in wires, automobiles, T.V.

electric welding etc.

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) COMPOUNDS

PVC and polyethylene are the two main polymer types used for wire and cable insulation, with

PVC comprising about 2/3 of the insulation used for building wiring. Several grades of compounds are

detailed in these standards for both insulation and sheathing requirements. PVC compounds are

thermoplastic by nature and consequently are designed to operate within a prescribed temperature

range. Grades of PVC can therefore be selected to suit particular environment temperatures, with the

maximum conductor temperature for heat resisting grade PVC being 900C and the lowest operating

temperature grade PVC below minus 300C.

 


 

USES & APPLICATION

PVC wires & cables are used in home appliance, house wiring, T.V, VCR control panel, power

distribution & secondary transmissions etc. The main use of PVC wires & cables are in house wiring.

Since as the name suggests it’s used everywhere, where electricity is to be carried from one point to

another with safety.

Domestic cables & wires used extensively. These types of cable are used in house wiring, wiring

of T.V, Video & Control panel circuits. These types of wires are used where temporary wiring for

domestic use is necessary.

 

Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork & Cutlery Items (Spoon)

 

INTRODUCTION

In the modern busy and first growing life, there is essentially require disposable dishes, knife,

fork and cuttlery items. It should be manufactured by using low valued hygenic raw material for

manufacturing of disposable dishes, knife, fork and cuttlery items. Mostly used raw material is used

engineered thermoplastic or special grade papers or wooden material or aluminium coated paper as

raw material. Plenty of raw materials are available in India. Plant and machineries, which is required for

manufacturing of the above mentioned products are also available indigenously in our country. There is

few technical expert available in this field who can provide total manufacturing process technology.

Annual market growth of these products is 5%. It can be assumed that there will be increase in busy life

in near future and demand growth will be increased proportionately. There are few organised

manufacturer available in India who are supplying their products in the Indian market as well as they are

exporting to neighboring countries. There is very negligible amount of environment pollution arises in

this product which can be controlled by proper treatment. As a whole this project is good one. New

entrepreneur may enter in this field of manufacturing will be successful.

 

Properties of Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork and Cutlery Items

1. It should be light enough and low cost items.

2. It should be hygenic and should not support of microbial growth.

3. It may be washable.

4. It should not melt below 80°C.

 

Properties of Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork and Cutlery Items

1. It should be light enough and low cost items.

2. It should be hygenic and should not support of microbial growth.

3. It may be washable.

4. It should not melt below 80°C.

 

Thermocol Cups, Glass and Plates

INTRODUCTION

"Foam" is generally known everywhere but in fact its' meaning is so wide. According to

translation "Foam" means, "expand" or "blow". Herewith we concern "Foam" as the expanded plastics.

There are many kinds of plastics in the world, any plastics when react with the Blowing Agent will

become "Foam" which generally called "Foam Plastics".

There are two kinds of Polystyrene Foams:

· Expandable Polystyrene / EPS usually use as packaging for many kind of products such as

television, electrical appliances, helmet, ice box, sheet foam and block foam for road

construction.

· Polystyrene Paper / PSP so called Extruded Polystyrene / XPS which use to produce food tray

and food box.

Thermocol has a particular characteristic: it gives the hand a sentation of velvety softness not

experienced in contact with traditional types of plastic. Until recently Thermocol has been employed

almost exclusively in the packing and thermoacustic isolation sectors; utilizing new processes and

sophisticated equipment has been possible to create containers for foods with a perfect retention of

liquids.

Thermocol is formed by the synthesizing of spherical particles consisting of air (at a rate of 98%)

contained within an infinite number of hollow cells. These cells, forming a structure of pellets fused

together, give consistency and rigidity to the final product.

 

USES & APPLICATIONS

Any product of any shape or size may be packaged in expanded polystyrene. The following only

touches on the possibilities in both the industrial and food packaging sectors using thermocol.

Foamed plastics materials have achieved a high degree for importance in the plastic industry.

Foams can be made soft and flexible to hard and rigid. Expanded polystyrene is one of such foams. It

may be used such as thermal insulation material; acoustic treatments shock protective packaging, etc.

Its properties can be varied widely in manufacture to meet both general and specific demands.

Custom-molded thermocol interior packaging has been highly effective in protecting sensitive

electronic components, consumer goods and office equipment; its mold ability allows interior packaging

components to hold products snugly in place. High insulating properties and moisture resistance have

made thermocol a popular choice in the food packaging, medical and pharmaceutical industries.

Thermocol is also used to protect a myriad of other products used for component assembly, during

internal distribution and storage and delivery to the end user.

 

Disposable Plastic Cups, Plates & Glasses

INTRODUCTION

The plastic industry in India plays a very important and key role in Industrializations. A wide

spectrum of plastics and articles manufactured by the industry has touched the life of every Indian in

many ways through consumer plastics. Now we have entered into another era of plastic consumer

goods continuously replacing the traditional items. The disposable plastic cups are manufactured by

thermoforming technique. They are fast replacing conventional cups. Ice-cream and other dairy

products are packed in disposable cups. Besides Ice-cream industry, hotels, restaurants, canteens etc.

have been increasingly using disposable cups as against conventional glass-wares or ceramic cups.

Disposable cups are mainly used for food items and are made out of polypropylene or polystyrene

sheets. Sheets having thickness 0.35mm to 18mm are used for these items in thermoforming machine.

Disposable cups, glasses, plates and spoons are used in daily life nowadays. In addition to be

used at home these are largely used during at parties and other functions.

The use of disposable items is increasing day by day because of better hygenic conditions, low

cost, easy usability and impressive appearance. Plastic cups are largely used for tea, juices, coffee and

other purposes.


 

APPLICATION

Thermoformed disposables are generally used for Tea, Water and Packing of Beverages etc.

These Thermoform shapes are created from a process where a sheet of plastic is heated and vacuumed

on top of a model or die. The die can be made up from variety of materials. There are different

industries using thermoformed cups and trays like:

 

APPLICATION OF THERMOFORMING TECHNIQUE

Thermoforming technique is applied to a wide variety of thermoplastic materials such as

polystyrene, polyesters, ABS, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Main applications are in industrial,

automotive and packaging sectors.

In industrial sector major applications consist construction, transportation and refrigeration

industries. Auto headliners, fender wells, overhead panels, door panels, refrigerator liners, freezer

panels, mould liners, casting inserts etc. are typical parts.

The largest application of thermoformed products is in packaging field. Articles like trays, cups,

cartons, fast food disposables and carryouts, disposable tableware, caps and containers, various types of

foodstuffs are packed in thermoformed products.

 

Wood Plastic Composite (WPC)

INTRODUCTION

Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and

thermoplastic(s) (includes PE, PP, PVC etc.).Chemical additives seem practically "invisible" (except

mineral fillers and pigments, if added) in the composite structure. They provide for integration of

polymer and wood flour (powder) while facilitating optimal processing conditions. In addition to wood

fiber and plastic, WPCs can also contain other lingo-cellulosic and/or inorganic filler materials. WPCs are

a subset of a larger category of materials called natural fiber plastic composites (NFPCs), which may

contain no cellulose-based fiber fillers such as pulp fibers, peanut hulls, bamboo, and straw, dig estate,

etc.

Wood plastic composites (WPCs) are roughly 50:50 mixtures of thermoplastic polymers and

small wood particles. The wood and thermoplastics are usually compounded above the melting

temperature of the thermoplastic polymers and then further processed to make various WPC products.

WPC can be manufactured in a variety of colors, shapes and sizes, and with different surface textures.

Depending on the processing method, WPCs can be formed into almost any shape and thus are used for

a wide variety of applications, including windows, door frames, interior panels in cars, railings, fences,

landscaping timbers, cladding and siding, park benches, molding and furniture.

Wood plastic composite is good to solve the problem arises in the environment. There is scope

of use agricultural waste product. In this case we will use waste polypropylene or polyethylene, or it may

be used virgin polypropylene or polyethylene, waste wood floor. Rice husk, plastic additives like (DOP,

DBP etc.). There are different percentages of raw material used for the production of pallets decking,

outdoor furniture like park bench, windows and door shutter frames etc. This product is manufactured

by using automatic imported machineries or by using indigenous machines.

 

PROPERTIES

Wood-plastic composites exhibit hybrid properties of wood and plastic. In general, adding wood

to a thermoplastic matrix increases the mechanical properties and thermal stability when compared to

the solid thermoplastics. Conversely, the thermoplastic component can present moisture barriers to the

wood elements, decreasing the water adsorption and swelling characteristics as compared to wood and

traditional wood composites.

· It may be fire proof.

· It is waterproof, comparative light, high strength, and long self-life.

· It can be stored in the room at room temperature

· It is comparatively low-density product.

· It has smooth body; there are very rare cases of rough surfaces available.

 

ADVANGAGES

· The presence of wood in a plastic matrix can result in a stiffer and lower-cost material than if

plastic alone was used.

· Also, the compression properties (resistance to crushing) for most WPCs are superior to that of

wood loaded perpendicular to the grain.

• The plastic in the product is not subject to water absorption or biological attack, so the WPC can

have lower maintenance requirements than solid wood.

• WPC lumber will not warp, splinter or check.

• WPCs are also potentially recyclable, because recovered material can be melted and reformed.

• WPCs may be identified as sustainable materials, due to the wood particles predominately being

a byproduct of sawmill and other wood-processing waste streams, and because much of the

plastic is derived from consumer and industrial recycling efforts.

• WPCs offer great flexibility in the shapes and colors of the materials produced.

 

Pet Bottle Recycling

 

INTRODUCTION

Polyethylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used

in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and

engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. It may also be referred to by the brand

name Dacron; in Britain, Terylene; or, in Russia and former Soviet Union, Lavsan. The majority of the

world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for

about 30% of global demand. In the context of textile applications, PET is referred to by its common

name, polyester, whereas the acronym PETis generally used in relation to packaging. Polyester makes up

about 18% of world polymer production and is the third-most-produced polymer; polyethylene (PE)

and polypropylene (PP) are first and second, respectively.

PET consists of polymerized units of the monomer ethylene terephthalate, with repeating

C10H8O4 units. PET is commonly recycled, and has the number 1 as its recycling symbol.

PET-bottles contribute increasingly to the generation of waste and litter especially in developing

countries. One-way discarded PET-bottles have a negative impact on the environments because they:

· Waste resources

· Pollute soil, rivers, coastal areas

· Pollute the air when burned

· Consume a lot of landfill site space

· Get scattered and make the environment look untidy.

140 Detailed Project Profiles on Hi-Tech Plastic

 

USES & APPLICATIONS

Because PET is an excellent water and moisture barrier material, plastic bottles made from PET

are widely used for soft drinks. For certain specialty bottles, such as those designated for beer

containment, PET sandwiches an additional polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) layer to further reduce its oxygen

permeability.

Biaxially oriented PET film can be aluminized by evaporating a thin film of metal onto it to

reduce its permeability, and to make it reflective and opaque (MPET). These properties are useful in

many applications, including flexible food packaging and thermal insulation such as "space blankets".

Because of its high mechanical strength, PET film is often used in tape applications, such as the carrier

for magnetic tape or backing for pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes. It is used to make the fabric polar

fleece.

 

Modernization of Pet Bottle

· The National Recycling Coalition cites PET as one of the top materials for food containers

because it is 100% recyclable.

· Recycling of PET bottles is strongly encouraged because PET can be turned back into new

containers, as well as fleece coats, clothing, pillows, carpets and a variety of other consumer

products.

· Modern PET bottles are not only recyclable but also use fewer Resources than ever before. In

many cases, bottles also require less energy and generate fewer greenhouse gas emissions than

other popular packaging alternatives, such as glass and aluminium.

 

 

 

 

PVC Flex Banner (Front Lit, Backlit & Vinyl)

INTRODUCTION

PVC Flex is best to all Digital printer specially designed for Indian market. Due to stable chemical

character and excellent ink absorbency, PVC Flex will bring wonderful digital printing images for large

format picture advertisements. In virtue of the high classic quality and best sales service, nowadays PVC

Flex is playing an important role in signage & Banner Advertising industry.

Large format digital printing flex media, PVC sheeting for digital printing like front lit flex in

various gsm 260 gsm, 280 gsm, 300 gsm, 320 gsm, 340 gsm and 440 gsm and back lit flex in 550 gsm and

610 gsm and also we have vinyl, star flex type media.

PVC flex is made out of PVC and fabric raw material, specially designed for solvent printing

industry. It is suitable for indoor and outdoor printing used in billboard, display, banners and exhibition

booth decoration.

Flex is a sheet of polythene widely used to deliver high quality digital print for outdoor hoardings

and banner, mainly printed by large color plotters in CMYK mode. These prints are efficient, Low-cost

and durable substitutes of hand painted hoarding and hand written banner.

TYPES OF PVC FLEX

Frontlit Flex & Backlit Flex

Laminated Backlit flex products are widely used for indoor and outdoor advertisement. Its

surface has fine ink absorption which is compatible for all solvent-based printers such as Vutek, Nur,

Scitex, etc. With special treatment, the products have a good property of anti-microbial and anti-aging.

Backlit flex is a good translucent media material design for backlit displays which perform a high

printing quality while printing a single strike image. Its certain finishing treatment makes ideal

performance.

FEATURES

· Glossy surface,

· White substrate finishing for large format digital printing,

· Pure white translucent substrates for backlit displays,

· Applicable to Vutek, Scitex, Nur, Infinity, Flora, etc.

· Weather resistant (anti-UV, anti rain and frost resistant)

RAW MATERIALS

PVC

PVC, PE, PP and PS are general purpose plastics. The features of the particular plastic are

determined by its chemical composition and type of molecular structure (molecular formation:

crystalline/amorphous structure) PVC has an amorphous structure with polar chlorine atoms in the

molecular structure. Having chlorine atoms and the amorphous molecular structure are inseparably

related. Although plastics seem very similar in the context of daily use, PVC has completely different

features in terms of performance and functions compared with olefin plastics which have only carbon

and hydrogen atoms in their molecular structures.

Chemical stability is a common feature among substances containing halogens such as chlorine

and fluorine. This applies to PVC resins, which furthermore possess fire retarding properties, durability,

and oil/chemical resistance.

Fire Retarding Properties

PVC has inherently superior fire retarding properties due to its chlorine content, even in the

absence of fire retardants. For example, the ignition temperature of PVC is as high as 455°C, and is a

material with less risk for fire incidents since it is not ignited easily furthermore, the heat released in

burning is considerably lower with PVC, when compared with those for PE and PP. PVC therefore

contributes much less to spreading fire to nearby materials even while burning. Therefore, PVC is very

suitable for safety reasons in products close to people’s daily lives.

 

Formulating PVC Products

Before PVC can be made into products, it has to be combined with a range of special additives.

The essential additives for all PVC materials are stabilizers and lubricants; in the case of flexible PVC,

Plasticizers are also incorporated. Other additives, which may be used, include fillers, processing aids,

impact modifiers and pigments. Additives will influence or determine the mechanical properties, light

and thermal stability, colour, clarity and electrical properties of the product. Once the additives have

been selected, they are mixed with the polymer in a process called compounding. One method uses an

intensive high-speed mixer that intimately blends all the ingredients. The result is a powder, known as a

‘dry blend’, which is then fed into the processing equipment.

 

PLASTICIZERS

A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible,

resilient and easier to handle.

Early examples of Plasticizers include water to soften clay and oils to plasticise pitch for

waterproofing ancient boats. There are more than 300 different types of Plasticizers of which about 50-

100 are in commercial use. The most commonly used are phthalates and adipates.

PVC is basically rigid at normal temperature. This is due to the short distances between the

molecules since there are strong pulling forces between them (intermolecular forces). When heated, the

energies of molecular motions become greater than the intermolecular forces, which widen molecular

distances, resulting in softening of the resin. When plasticizers are added to PVC at this stage, the

plasticizer molecules make their way between the PVC molecules and prevent the PVC polymer

molecules from coming closer with each other. Consequently the polymer molecules are kept apart

even at normal temperature and softness is maintained. This is the role of Plasticizers and such process

is technically called plasticizing.

PVC polymer molecules have positive and negative polarities inside, while plasticizer molecules

also have such polar and non-polar parts. The PVC polymer molecules and the plasticizer molecules are

electrically attracted to each other, and the non-polar parts widen the distance among the polymer

molecules to keep softness. PVC products, which are softened by Plasticizers, are called soft (flexible)

PVC products. In Europe, about 30 % of the total PVC resin production is used for flexible PVC products.

 

Introduction

A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that

are malleable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain

other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many

are partially natural.

 

Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water,

plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They

have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, paper,

metal, glass, and ceramic, in most of their former uses. In developed countries, about a third of plastic is

used in packaging and another third in buildings such as piping used in plumbing or vinyl siding. Other

uses include automobiles furniture, and toys. In the developing world, the ratios may be different - for

example, reportedly 42% of India's consumption is used in packaging.

Common Plastics and Uses

· Polyester (PES) – Fibers, textiles.

· Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) – Carbonated drinks bottles, peanut butter jars, plastic film,

microwavable packaging.

· Polyethylene (PE) – Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags, plastic bottles.

· High-density polyethylene (HDPE) – Detergent bottles, milk jugs, and molded plastic cases.

· Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) – Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames,

flooring.

· Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) – Food packaging.

· Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) – Outdoor furniture, siding, floor tiles, shower curtains,

clamshell packaging.

· Polypropylene (PP) – Bottle caps, drinking straws, yogurt containers, appliances, car fenders

(bumpers), plastic pressure pipe systems.

· Polystyrene (PS) – Packaging foam, food containers, plastic tableware, disposable cups, plates,

cutlery, CD and cassette boxes.

· High impact polystyrene (HIPS) - Refrigerator liners, food packaging, and vending cups.

 

The Polymers

Polymers are chemical compounds whose molecules are very large, often resembling long

chains made up of a seemingly endless series of interconnected links. The size of these molecules, as is

explained in chemistry of industrial polymers, is extraordinary, ranging in the thousands and even

millions of atomic mass units (as opposed to the tens of atomic mass units commonly found in other

chemical compounds). The size of the molecules, together with their physical state and the structures

that they adopt, are the principal causes of the unique properties associated with plastics—including the

ability to be molded and shaped.

 

Reaction Injection Molding

One type of network-forming thermoset, polyurethane, is molded into parts such as automobile

bumpers and inside panels through a process known as reaction injection molding, or RIM. The two

liquid precursors of polyurethane are a multifunctional isocyanate and a prepolymer, a low-molecularweight

polyether or polyester bearing a multiplicity of reactive end-groups such as hydroxyl, amine, or

amide. In the presence of a catalyst such as a tin soap, the two reactants rapidly form a network joined

mainly by urethane groups. The reaction takes place so rapidly that the two precursors have to be

combined in a special mixing head and immediately introduced into the mold. However, once in the

mold, the product requires very little pressure to fill and conform to the mold—especially since a small

amount of gas is evolved in the injection process, expanding the polymer volume and reducing

resistance to flow. The low molding pressures allow relatively lightweight and inexpensive molds to be

used, even when large items such as bumper assemblies or refrigerator doors are formed.

 

A first success in recycling of plastics is Vinyloop, a recycling process and an approach of the

industry to separate PVC from other materials through a process of dissolution, filtration and separation

of contaminations. A solvent is used in a closed loop to elute PVC from the waste. This makes it possible

to recycle composite structure PVC waste which normally is being incinerated or put in a landfill.

Vinyloop-based recycled PVC's primary energy demand is 46 percent lower than conventional produced

PVC. The global warming potential is 39 percent lower. This is why the use of recycled material leads to

a significant better ecological footprint. This process was used after the Olympic Games in London 2012.

Parts of temporary Buildings like the Water Polo Arena or the Royal Artillery Barracks were recycled.

This way, the PVC Policy could be fulfilled which says that no PVC waste should be left after the games.

 

Plastics and Polymers Industry in India

INTRODUCTION

During the past 40–50 years, foamed polymers have found increasing importance in the world

market place due to the unique characteristics and properties they provide when compared to solid

plastics. While most thermosets and thermoplastics can be made in a foamed or cellular structure under

certain conditions, the materials known as polyurethanes have become predominant for many

applications in this field. Through the proper selection of the starting materials, foamed polyurethanes

can range in characteristics from extremely soft, resilient cushioning products to very tough and rigid

structural members. As varied as the products are, so too are the machines and processes used to

produce them. Certain other systems, such as polyureas, are also processed with the same equipment

as polyurethanes. The word polyurethane is somewhat misleading since, unlike most plastics, the final

product is not made by polymerizing a monomer. Instead, the products contain a number of

polyurethane groups in a complex structure that is controlled by the choice of starting materials and the

production conditions.

Commercial products are manufactured by the reactions of two liquids: isocyanate (NCO)

compounds and polyol (polyoxyalkalene) components, in the presence of catalysts and processing aids.

Basic isocyanate chemistry has been available for more than 100 years, but it was not used commercially

until the mid-1930s. During World War II, German polyurethane developments centered on products to

replace scarce materials. The major products were rigid foams and cast elastomers. Following the war,

the technology was exploited by the United States, and rapid advances were made in the development

of products and processes.

There are four major polyurethane foam manufacturers in New Zealand. This article is based on

the process used by Dunlop Flexible Foam in Auckland, although all manufacturers use a similar process.

Dunlop has been using a continuous process since 1985, and has a daily capacity of more the 15 tonnes

of polyurethane foam.

FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM

Flexible polyurethane foam is used as cushioning for a variety of consumer and commercial

products, including bedding, furniture, automotive interiors, carpet underlay and packaging. Flexible

foam can be created in almost any variety of shapes and firmness. It is light, durable, supportive and

comfortable.

 

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) offers a myriad of physical property combinations and

processing applications. It is highly elastic, flexible and resistant to abrasion, impact and weather. TPUs

can be colored or fabricated in a wide variety of methods and their use can increase a product's overall

durability.

 

Additives

Some polyurethane materials can be vulnerable to damage from heat, light, atmospheric

contaminants, and chlorine. For this reason, stabilizers are added to protect the polymer. One type of

stabilizer that protects against light degradation is a UV screener called hydroxybenzotriazole. To

protect against oxidation reactions, antioxidants are used. Various antioxidants are available such as

monomeric and polymeric hindered phenols. Compounds which inhibit discoloration caused by

atmospheric pollutants may also be added. These are typically materials with tertiary amine

functionality that can interact with the oxides of nitrogen in air pollution. For certain applications, ant

mildew additives are added to the polyurethane product. After the polymers are formed and removed

from the reaction vessels, they are naturally white. Therefore, colorants may be added to change their

aesthetic appearance. Common covalent compounds for polyurethane fibers are dispersed and acid

dyes.

 

PVC Wires & Cables

INTRODUCTION

The generation, transmission, and distribution of power involve electrical facilities, apparatus,

and components, to carry the electrical energy from its generating site to where it is utilized. An

important part of this power system is the cable system that is used exclusively to carry power from the

main substations to secondary substations at load centers. Low-voltage cable is used to distribute power

from the load centers to utilization equipment in conduits and ducts, even though other methods such

as cable trays, direct burial for outdoor applications, and aerial cable are used. Electrical, mechanical,

and environmental considerations are the main factors in selecting and applying cable systems for

distribution and utilization of electrical power.

Previously rubber insulated cables were in vogue but their life used to be short. Now days in the

field of insulated cables PVC cables have occupied an important place and in fact these are most

popular. Various types of PVC cables are available, e.g., cables for control, signaling, instrumentation,

rural electrification and house wiring, communication as well as for use in wires, automobiles, T.V.

electric welding etc.

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) COMPOUNDS

PVC and polyethylene are the two main polymer types used for wire and cable insulation, with

PVC comprising about 2/3 of the insulation used for building wiring. Several grades of compounds are

detailed in these standards for both insulation and sheathing requirements. PVC compounds are

thermoplastic by nature and consequently are designed to operate within a prescribed temperature

range. Grades of PVC can therefore be selected to suit particular environment temperatures, with the

maximum conductor temperature for heat resisting grade PVC being 900C and the lowest operating

temperature grade PVC below minus 300C.

 


 

USES & APPLICATION

PVC wires & cables are used in home appliance, house wiring, T.V, VCR control panel, power

distribution & secondary transmissions etc. The main use of PVC wires & cables are in house wiring.

Since as the name suggests it’s used everywhere, where electricity is to be carried from one point to

another with safety.

Domestic cables & wires used extensively. These types of cable are used in house wiring, wiring

of T.V, Video & Control panel circuits. These types of wires are used where temporary wiring for

domestic use is necessary.

 

Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork & Cutlery Items (Spoon)

 

INTRODUCTION

In the modern busy and first growing life, there is essentially require disposable dishes, knife,

fork and cuttlery items. It should be manufactured by using low valued hygenic raw material for

manufacturing of disposable dishes, knife, fork and cuttlery items. Mostly used raw material is used

engineered thermoplastic or special grade papers or wooden material or aluminium coated paper as

raw material. Plenty of raw materials are available in India. Plant and machineries, which is required for

manufacturing of the above mentioned products are also available indigenously in our country. There is

few technical expert available in this field who can provide total manufacturing process technology.

Annual market growth of these products is 5%. It can be assumed that there will be increase in busy life

in near future and demand growth will be increased proportionately. There are few organised

manufacturer available in India who are supplying their products in the Indian market as well as they are

exporting to neighboring countries. There is very negligible amount of environment pollution arises in

this product which can be controlled by proper treatment. As a whole this project is good one. New

entrepreneur may enter in this field of manufacturing will be successful.

 

Properties of Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork and Cutlery Items

1. It should be light enough and low cost items.

2. It should be hygenic and should not support of microbial growth.

3. It may be washable.

4. It should not melt below 80°C.

 

Properties of Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork and Cutlery Items

1. It should be light enough and low cost items.

2. It should be hygenic and should not support of microbial growth.

3. It may be washable.

4. It should not melt below 80°C.

 

Thermocol Cups, Glass and Plates

INTRODUCTION

"Foam" is generally known everywhere but in fact its' meaning is so wide. According to

translation "Foam" means, "expand" or "blow". Herewith we concern "Foam" as the expanded plastics.

There are many kinds of plastics in the world, any plastics when react with the Blowing Agent will

become "Foam" which generally called "Foam Plastics".

There are two kinds of Polystyrene Foams:

· Expandable Polystyrene / EPS usually use as packaging for many kind of products such as

television, electrical appliances, helmet, ice box, sheet foam and block foam for road

construction.

· Polystyrene Paper / PSP so called Extruded Polystyrene / XPS which use to produce food tray

and food box.

Thermocol has a particular characteristic: it gives the hand a sentation of velvety softness not

experienced in contact with traditional types of plastic. Until recently Thermocol has been employed

almost exclusively in the packing and thermoacustic isolation sectors; utilizing new processes and

sophisticated equipment has been possible to create containers for foods with a perfect retention of

liquids.

Thermocol is formed by the synthesizing of spherical particles consisting of air (at a rate of 98%)

contained within an infinite number of hollow cells. These cells, forming a structure of pellets fused

together, give consistency and rigidity to the final product.

 

USES & APPLICATIONS

Any product of any shape or size may be packaged in expanded polystyrene. The following only

touches on the possibilities in both the industrial and food packaging sectors using thermocol.

Foamed plastics materials have achieved a high degree for importance in the plastic industry.

Foams can be made soft and flexible to hard and rigid. Expanded polystyrene is one of such foams. It

may be used such as thermal insulation material; acoustic treatments shock protective packaging, etc.

Its properties can be varied widely in manufacture to meet both general and specific demands.

Custom-molded thermocol interior packaging has been highly effective in protecting sensitive

electronic components, consumer goods and office equipment; its mold ability allows interior packaging

components to hold products snugly in place. High insulating properties and moisture resistance have

made thermocol a popular choice in the food packaging, medical and pharmaceutical industries.

Thermocol is also used to protect a myriad of other products used for component assembly, during

internal distribution and storage and delivery to the end user.

 

Disposable Plastic Cups, Plates & Glasses

INTRODUCTION

The plastic industry in India plays a very important and key role in Industrializations. A wide

spectrum of plastics and articles manufactured by the industry has touched the life of every Indian in

many ways through consumer plastics. Now we have entered into another era of plastic consumer

goods continuously replacing the traditional items. The disposable plastic cups are manufactured by

thermoforming technique. They are fast replacing conventional cups. Ice-cream and other dairy

products are packed in disposable cups. Besides Ice-cream industry, hotels, restaurants, canteens etc.

have been increasingly using disposable cups as against conventional glass-wares or ceramic cups.

Disposable cups are mainly used for food items and are made out of polypropylene or polystyrene

sheets. Sheets having thickness 0.35mm to 18mm are used for these items in thermoforming machine.

Disposable cups, glasses, plates and spoons are used in daily life nowadays. In addition to be

used at home these are largely used during at parties and other functions.

The use of disposable items is increasing day by day because of better hygenic conditions, low

cost, easy usability and impressive appearance. Plastic cups are largely used for tea, juices, coffee and

other purposes.


 

APPLICATION

Thermoformed disposables are generally used for Tea, Water and Packing of Beverages etc.

These Thermoform shapes are created from a process where a sheet of plastic is heated and vacuumed

on top of a model or die. The die can be made up from variety of materials. There are different

industries using thermoformed cups and trays like:

 

APPLICATION OF THERMOFORMING TECHNIQUE

Thermoforming technique is applied to a wide variety of thermoplastic materials such as

polystyrene, polyesters, ABS, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Main applications are in industrial,

automotive and packaging sectors.

In industrial sector major applications consist construction, transportation and refrigeration

industries. Auto headliners, fender wells, overhead panels, door panels, refrigerator liners, freezer

panels, mould liners, casting inserts etc. are typical parts.

The largest application of thermoformed products is in packaging field. Articles like trays, cups,

cartons, fast food disposables and carryouts, disposable tableware, caps and containers, various types of

foodstuffs are packed in thermoformed products.

 

Wood Plastic Composite (WPC)

INTRODUCTION

Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and

thermoplastic(s) (includes PE, PP, PVC etc.).Chemical additives seem practically "invisible" (except

mineral fillers and pigments, if added) in the composite structure. They provide for integration of

polymer and wood flour (powder) while facilitating optimal processing conditions. In addition to wood

fiber and plastic, WPCs can also contain other lingo-cellulosic and/or inorganic filler materials. WPCs are

a subset of a larger category of materials called natural fiber plastic composites (NFPCs), which may

contain no cellulose-based fiber fillers such as pulp fibers, peanut hulls, bamboo, and straw, dig estate,

etc.

Wood plastic composites (WPCs) are roughly 50:50 mixtures of thermoplastic polymers and

small wood particles. The wood and thermoplastics are usually compounded above the melting

temperature of the thermoplastic polymers and then further processed to make various WPC products.

WPC can be manufactured in a variety of colors, shapes and sizes, and with different surface textures.

Depending on the processing method, WPCs can be formed into almost any shape and thus are used for

a wide variety of applications, including windows, door frames, interior panels in cars, railings, fences,

landscaping timbers, cladding and siding, park benches, molding and furniture.

Wood plastic composite is good to solve the problem arises in the environment. There is scope

of use agricultural waste product. In this case we will use waste polypropylene or polyethylene, or it may

be used virgin polypropylene or polyethylene, waste wood floor. Rice husk, plastic additives like (DOP,

DBP etc.). There are different percentages of raw material used for the production of pallets decking,

outdoor furniture like park bench, windows and door shutter frames etc. This product is manufactured

by using automatic imported machineries or by using indigenous machines.

 

PROPERTIES

Wood-plastic composites exhibit hybrid properties of wood and plastic. In general, adding wood

to a thermoplastic matrix increases the mechanical properties and thermal stability when compared to

the solid thermoplastics. Conversely, the thermoplastic component can present moisture barriers to the

wood elements, decreasing the water adsorption and swelling characteristics as compared to wood and

traditional wood composites.

· It may be fire proof.

· It is waterproof, comparative light, high strength, and long self-life.

· It can be stored in the room at room temperature

· It is comparatively low-density product.

· It has smooth body; there are very rare cases of rough surfaces available.

 

ADVANGAGES

· The presence of wood in a plastic matrix can result in a stiffer and lower-cost material than if

plastic alone was used.

· Also, the compression properties (resistance to crushing) for most WPCs are superior to that of

wood loaded perpendicular to the grain.

• The plastic in the product is not subject to water absorption or biological attack, so the WPC can

have lower maintenance requirements than solid wood.

• WPC lumber will not warp, splinter or check.

• WPCs are also potentially recyclable, because recovered material can be melted and reformed.

• WPCs may be identified as sustainable materials, due to the wood particles predominately being

a byproduct of sawmill and other wood-processing waste streams, and because much of the

plastic is derived from consumer and industrial recycling efforts.

• WPCs offer great flexibility in the shapes and colors of the materials produced.

 

Pet Bottle Recycling

 

INTRODUCTION

Polyethylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used

in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and

engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. It may also be referred to by the brand

name Dacron; in Britain, Terylene; or, in Russia and former Soviet Union, Lavsan. The majority of the

world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for

about 30% of global demand. In the context of textile applications, PET is referred to by its common

name, polyester, whereas the acronym PETis generally used in relation to packaging. Polyester makes up

about 18% of world polymer production and is the third-most-produced polymer; polyethylene (PE)

and polypropylene (PP) are first and second, respectively.

PET consists of polymerized units of the monomer ethylene terephthalate, with repeating

C10H8O4 units. PET is commonly recycled, and has the number 1 as its recycling symbol.

PET-bottles contribute increasingly to the generation of waste and litter especially in developing

countries. One-way discarded PET-bottles have a negative impact on the environments because they:

· Waste resources

· Pollute soil, rivers, coastal areas

· Pollute the air when burned

· Consume a lot of landfill site space

· Get scattered and make the environment look untidy.

140 Detailed Project Profiles on Hi-Tech Plastic

 

USES & APPLICATIONS

Because PET is an excellent water and moisture barrier material, plastic bottles made from PET

are widely used for soft drinks. For certain specialty bottles, such as those designated for beer

containment, PET sandwiches an additional polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) layer to further reduce its oxygen

permeability.

Biaxially oriented PET film can be aluminized by evaporating a thin film of metal onto it to

reduce its permeability, and to make it reflective and opaque (MPET). These properties are useful in

many applications, including flexible food packaging and thermal insulation such as "space blankets".

Because of its high mechanical strength, PET film is often used in tape applications, such as the carrier

for magnetic tape or backing for pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes. It is used to make the fabric polar

fleece.

 

Modernization of Pet Bottle

· The National Recycling Coalition cites PET as one of the top materials for food containers

because it is 100% recyclable.

· Recycling of PET bottles is strongly encouraged because PET can be turned back into new

containers, as well as fleece coats, clothing, pillows, carpets and a variety of other consumer

products.

· Modern PET bottles are not only recyclable but also use fewer Resources than ever before. In

many cases, bottles also require less energy and generate fewer greenhouse gas emissions than

other popular packaging alternatives, such as glass and aluminium.

 

 

 

 

PVC Flex Banner (Front Lit, Backlit & Vinyl)

INTRODUCTION

PVC Flex is best to all Digital printer specially designed for Indian market. Due to stable chemical

character and excellent ink absorbency, PVC Flex will bring wonderful digital printing images for large

format picture advertisements. In virtue of the high classic quality and best sales service, nowadays PVC

Flex is playing an important role in signage & Banner Advertising industry.

Large format digital printing flex media, PVC sheeting for digital printing like front lit flex in

various gsm 260 gsm, 280 gsm, 300 gsm, 320 gsm, 340 gsm and 440 gsm and back lit flex in 550 gsm and

610 gsm and also we have vinyl, star flex type media.

PVC flex is made out of PVC and fabric raw material, specially designed for solvent printing

industry. It is suitable for indoor and outdoor printing used in billboard, display, banners and exhibition

booth decoration.

Flex is a sheet of polythene widely used to deliver high quality digital print for outdoor hoardings

and banner, mainly printed by large color plotters in CMYK mode. These prints are efficient, Low-cost

and durable substitutes of hand painted hoarding and hand written banner.

TYPES OF PVC FLEX

Frontlit Flex & Backlit Flex

Laminated Backlit flex products are widely used for indoor and outdoor advertisement. Its

surface has fine ink absorption which is compatible for all solvent-based printers such as Vutek, Nur,

Scitex, etc. With special treatment, the products have a good property of anti-microbial and anti-aging.

Backlit flex is a good translucent media material design for backlit displays which perform a high

printing quality while printing a single strike image. Its certain finishing treatment makes ideal

performance.

FEATURES

· Glossy surface,

· White substrate finishing for large format digital printing,

· Pure white translucent substrates for backlit displays,

· Applicable to Vutek, Scitex, Nur, Infinity, Flora, etc.

· Weather resistant (anti-UV, anti rain and frost resistant)

RAW MATERIALS

PVC

PVC, PE, PP and PS are general purpose plastics. The features of the particular plastic are

determined by its chemical composition and type of molecular structure (molecular formation:

crystalline/amorphous structure) PVC has an amorphous structure with polar chlorine atoms in the

molecular structure. Having chlorine atoms and the amorphous molecular structure are inseparably

related. Although plastics seem very similar in the context of daily use, PVC has completely different

features in terms of performance and functions compared with olefin plastics which have only carbon

and hydrogen atoms in their molecular structures.

Chemical stability is a common feature among substances containing halogens such as chlorine

and fluorine. This applies to PVC resins, which furthermore possess fire retarding properties, durability,

and oil/chemical resistance.

Fire Retarding Properties

PVC has inherently superior fire retarding properties due to its chlorine content, even in the

absence of fire retardants. For example, the ignition temperature of PVC is as high as 455°C, and is a

material with less risk for fire incidents since it is not ignited easily furthermore, the heat released in

burning is considerably lower with PVC, when compared with those for PE and PP. PVC therefore

contributes much less to spreading fire to nearby materials even while burning. Therefore, PVC is very

suitable for safety reasons in products close to people’s daily lives.

 

Formulating PVC Products

Before PVC can be made into products, it has to be combined with a range of special additives.

The essential additives for all PVC materials are stabilizers and lubricants; in the case of flexible PVC,

Plasticizers are also incorporated. Other additives, which may be used, include fillers, processing aids,

impact modifiers and pigments. Additives will influence or determine the mechanical properties, light

and thermal stability, colour, clarity and electrical properties of the product. Once the additives have

been selected, they are mixed with the polymer in a process called compounding. One method uses an

intensive high-speed mixer that intimately blends all the ingredients. The result is a powder, known as a

‘dry blend’, which is then fed into the processing equipment.

 

PLASTICIZERS

A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible,

resilient and easier to handle.

Early examples of Plasticizers include water to soften clay and oils to plasticise pitch for

waterproofing ancient boats. There are more than 300 different types of Plasticizers of which about 50-

100 are in commercial use. The most commonly used are phthalates and adipates.

PVC is basically rigid at normal temperature. This is due to the short distances between the

molecules since there are strong pulling forces between them (intermolecular forces). When heated, the

energies of molecular motions become greater than the intermolecular forces, which widen molecular

distances, resulting in softening of the resin. When plasticizers are added to PVC at this stage, the

plasticizer molecules make their way between the PVC molecules and prevent the PVC polymer

molecules from coming closer with each other. Consequently the polymer molecules are kept apart

even at normal temperature and softness is maintained. This is the role of Plasticizers and such process

is technically called plasticizing.

PVC polymer molecules have positive and negative polarities inside, while plasticizer molecules

also have such polar and non-polar parts. The PVC polymer molecules and the plasticizer molecules are

electrically attracted to each other, and the non-polar parts widen the distance among the polymer

molecules to keep softness. PVC products, which are softened by Plasticizers, are called soft (flexible)

PVC products. In Europe, about 30 % of the total PVC resin production is used for flexible PVC products.

 

ABOUT NPCS

 

NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

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Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.

 


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:


• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period


We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.

 

The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?


The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.


Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.

 

Our Approach:


• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.

 

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:

 

 

Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications

 

Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity

 

Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers

 

Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel

 

Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)

 

Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram

 

Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities

 

Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:

 

  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital

 

  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals

                Revenue/Income/Realisation

                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios

                D.S.C.R

                Earnings Per Share (EPS)

               

             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 

                B.E.P

  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR