A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that
are malleable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain
other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many
are partially natural.
Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water,
plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They
have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, paper,
metal, glass, and ceramic, in most of their former uses. In developed countries, about a third of plastic is
used in packaging and another third in buildings such as piping used in plumbing or vinyl siding. Other
uses include automobiles furniture, and toys. In the developing world, the ratios may be different - for
example, reportedly 42% of India's consumption is used in packaging.
Common Plastics and Uses
· Polyester (PES) – Fibers, textiles.
· Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) – Carbonated drinks bottles, peanut butter jars, plastic film,
· Polyethylene (PE) – Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags, plastic bottles.
· High-density polyethylene (HDPE) – Detergent bottles, milk jugs, and molded plastic cases.
· Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) – Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames,
· Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) – Food packaging.
· Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) – Outdoor furniture, siding, floor tiles, shower curtains,
· Polypropylene (PP) – Bottle caps, drinking straws, yogurt containers, appliances, car fenders
(bumpers), plastic pressure pipe systems.
· Polystyrene (PS) – Packaging foam, food containers, plastic tableware, disposable cups, plates,
cutlery, CD and cassette boxes.
· High impact polystyrene (HIPS) - Refrigerator liners, food packaging, and vending cups.
Polymers are chemical compounds whose molecules are very large, often resembling long
chains made up of a seemingly endless series of interconnected links. The size of these molecules, as is
explained in chemistry of industrial polymers, is extraordinary, ranging in the thousands and even
millions of atomic mass units (as opposed to the tens of atomic mass units commonly found in other
chemical compounds). The size of the molecules, together with their physical state and the structures
that they adopt, are the principal causes of the unique properties associated with plastics—including the
ability to be molded and shaped.
Reaction Injection Molding
One type of network-forming thermoset, polyurethane, is molded into parts such as automobile
bumpers and inside panels through a process known as reaction injection molding, or RIM. The two
liquid precursors of polyurethane are a multifunctional isocyanate and a prepolymer, a low-molecularweight
polyether or polyester bearing a multiplicity of reactive end-groups such as hydroxyl, amine, or
amide. In the presence of a catalyst such as a tin soap, the two reactants rapidly form a network joined
mainly by urethane groups. The reaction takes place so rapidly that the two precursors have to be
combined in a special mixing head and immediately introduced into the mold. However, once in the
mold, the product requires very little pressure to fill and conform to the mold—especially since a small
amount of gas is evolved in the injection process, expanding the polymer volume and reducing
resistance to flow. The low molding pressures allow relatively lightweight and inexpensive molds to be
used, even when large items such as bumper assemblies or refrigerator doors are formed.
A first success in recycling of plastics is Vinyloop, a recycling process and an approach of the
industry to separate PVC from other materials through a process of dissolution, filtration and separation
of contaminations. A solvent is used in a closed loop to elute PVC from the waste. This makes it possible
to recycle composite structure PVC waste which normally is being incinerated or put in a landfill.
Vinyloop-based recycled PVC's primary energy demand is 46 percent lower than conventional produced
PVC. The global warming potential is 39 percent lower. This is why the use of recycled material leads to
a significant better ecological footprint. This process was used after the Olympic Games in London 2012.
Parts of temporary Buildings like the Water Polo Arena or the Royal Artillery Barracks were recycled.
This way, the PVC Policy could be fulfilled which says that no PVC waste should be left after the games.
Plastics and Polymers Industry in India
During the past 40–50 years, foamed polymers have found increasing importance in the world
market place due to the unique characteristics and properties they provide when compared to solid
plastics. While most thermosets and thermoplastics can be made in a foamed or cellular structure under
certain conditions, the materials known as polyurethanes have become predominant for many
applications in this field. Through the proper selection of the starting materials, foamed polyurethanes
can range in characteristics from extremely soft, resilient cushioning products to very tough and rigid
structural members. As varied as the products are, so too are the machines and processes used to
produce them. Certain other systems, such as polyureas, are also processed with the same equipment
as polyurethanes. The word polyurethane is somewhat misleading since, unlike most plastics, the final
product is not made by polymerizing a monomer. Instead, the products contain a number of
polyurethane groups in a complex structure that is controlled by the choice of starting materials and the
Commercial products are manufactured by the reactions of two liquids: isocyanate (NCO)
compounds and polyol (polyoxyalkalene) components, in the presence of catalysts and processing aids.
Basic isocyanate chemistry has been available for more than 100 years, but it was not used commercially
until the mid-1930s. During World War II, German polyurethane developments centered on products to
replace scarce materials. The major products were rigid foams and cast elastomers. Following the war,
the technology was exploited by the United States, and rapid advances were made in the development
of products and processes.
There are four major polyurethane foam manufacturers in New Zealand. This article is based on
the process used by Dunlop Flexible Foam in Auckland, although all manufacturers use a similar process.
Dunlop has been using a continuous process since 1985, and has a daily capacity of more the 15 tonnes
of polyurethane foam.
FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM
Flexible polyurethane foam is used as cushioning for a variety of consumer and commercial
products, including bedding, furniture, automotive interiors, carpet underlay and packaging. Flexible
foam can be created in almost any variety of shapes and firmness. It is light, durable, supportive and
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) offers a myriad of physical property combinations and
processing applications. It is highly elastic, flexible and resistant to abrasion, impact and weather. TPUs
can be colored or fabricated in a wide variety of methods and their use can increase a product's overall
Some polyurethane materials can be vulnerable to damage from heat, light, atmospheric
contaminants, and chlorine. For this reason, stabilizers are added to protect the polymer. One type of
stabilizer that protects against light degradation is a UV screener called hydroxybenzotriazole. To
protect against oxidation reactions, antioxidants are used. Various antioxidants are available such as
monomeric and polymeric hindered phenols. Compounds which inhibit discoloration caused by
atmospheric pollutants may also be added. These are typically materials with tertiary amine
functionality that can interact with the oxides of nitrogen in air pollution. For certain applications, ant
mildew additives are added to the polyurethane product. After the polymers are formed and removed
from the reaction vessels, they are naturally white. Therefore, colorants may be added to change their
aesthetic appearance. Common covalent compounds for polyurethane fibers are dispersed and acid
PVC Wires & Cables
The generation, transmission, and distribution of power involve electrical facilities, apparatus,
and components, to carry the electrical energy from its generating site to where it is utilized. An
important part of this power system is the cable system that is used exclusively to carry power from the
main substations to secondary substations at load centers. Low-voltage cable is used to distribute power
from the load centers to utilization equipment in conduits and ducts, even though other methods such
as cable trays, direct burial for outdoor applications, and aerial cable are used. Electrical, mechanical,
and environmental considerations are the main factors in selecting and applying cable systems for
distribution and utilization of electrical power.
Previously rubber insulated cables were in vogue but their life used to be short. Now days in the
field of insulated cables PVC cables have occupied an important place and in fact these are most
popular. Various types of PVC cables are available, e.g., cables for control, signaling, instrumentation,
rural electrification and house wiring, communication as well as for use in wires, automobiles, T.V.
electric welding etc.
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) COMPOUNDS
PVC and polyethylene are the two main polymer types used for wire and cable insulation, with
PVC comprising about 2/3 of the insulation used for building wiring. Several grades of compounds are
detailed in these standards for both insulation and sheathing requirements. PVC compounds are
thermoplastic by nature and consequently are designed to operate within a prescribed temperature
range. Grades of PVC can therefore be selected to suit particular environment temperatures, with the
maximum conductor temperature for heat resisting grade PVC being 900C and the lowest operating
temperature grade PVC below minus 300C.
USES & APPLICATION
PVC wires & cables are used in home appliance, house wiring, T.V, VCR control panel, power
distribution & secondary transmissions etc. The main use of PVC wires & cables are in house wiring.
Since as the name suggests it’s used everywhere, where electricity is to be carried from one point to
another with safety.
Domestic cables & wires used extensively. These types of cable are used in house wiring, wiring
of T.V, Video & Control panel circuits. These types of wires are used where temporary wiring for
domestic use is necessary.
Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork & Cutlery Items (Spoon)
In the modern busy and first growing life, there is essentially require disposable dishes, knife,
fork and cuttlery items. It should be manufactured by using low valued hygenic raw material for
manufacturing of disposable dishes, knife, fork and cuttlery items. Mostly used raw material is used
engineered thermoplastic or special grade papers or wooden material or aluminium coated paper as
raw material. Plenty of raw materials are available in India. Plant and machineries, which is required for
manufacturing of the above mentioned products are also available indigenously in our country. There is
few technical expert available in this field who can provide total manufacturing process technology.
Annual market growth of these products is 5%. It can be assumed that there will be increase in busy life
in near future and demand growth will be increased proportionately. There are few organised
manufacturer available in India who are supplying their products in the Indian market as well as they are
exporting to neighboring countries. There is very negligible amount of environment pollution arises in
this product which can be controlled by proper treatment. As a whole this project is good one. New
entrepreneur may enter in this field of manufacturing will be successful.
Properties of Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork and Cutlery Items
1. It should be light enough and low cost items.
2. It should be hygenic and should not support of microbial growth.
3. It may be washable.
4. It should not melt below 80°C.
Properties of Disposable Dishes, Knife, Fork and Cutlery Items
1. It should be light enough and low cost items.
2. It should be hygenic and should not support of microbial growth.
3. It may be washable.
4. It should not melt below 80°C.
Thermocol Cups, Glass and Plates
"Foam" is generally known everywhere but in fact its' meaning is so wide. According to
translation "Foam" means, "expand" or "blow". Herewith we concern "Foam" as the expanded plastics.
There are many kinds of plastics in the world, any plastics when react with the Blowing Agent will
become "Foam" which generally called "Foam Plastics".
There are two kinds of Polystyrene Foams:
· Expandable Polystyrene / EPS usually use as packaging for many kind of products such as
television, electrical appliances, helmet, ice box, sheet foam and block foam for road
· Polystyrene Paper / PSP so called Extruded Polystyrene / XPS which use to produce food tray
and food box.
Thermocol has a particular characteristic: it gives the hand a sentation of velvety softness not
experienced in contact with traditional types of plastic. Until recently Thermocol has been employed
almost exclusively in the packing and thermoacustic isolation sectors; utilizing new processes and
sophisticated equipment has been possible to create containers for foods with a perfect retention of
Thermocol is formed by the synthesizing of spherical particles consisting of air (at a rate of 98%)
contained within an infinite number of hollow cells. These cells, forming a structure of pellets fused
together, give consistency and rigidity to the final product.
USES & APPLICATIONS
Any product of any shape or size may be packaged in expanded polystyrene. The following only
touches on the possibilities in both the industrial and food packaging sectors using thermocol.
Foamed plastics materials have achieved a high degree for importance in the plastic industry.
Foams can be made soft and flexible to hard and rigid. Expanded polystyrene is one of such foams. It
may be used such as thermal insulation material; acoustic treatments shock protective packaging, etc.
Its properties can be varied widely in manufacture to meet both general and specific demands.
Custom-molded thermocol interior packaging has been highly effective in protecting sensitive
electronic components, consumer goods and office equipment; its mold ability allows interior packaging
components to hold products snugly in place. High insulating properties and moisture resistance have
made thermocol a popular choice in the food packaging, medical and pharmaceutical industries.
Thermocol is also used to protect a myriad of other products used for component assembly, during
internal distribution and storage and delivery to the end user.
Disposable Plastic Cups, Plates & Glasses
The plastic industry in India plays a very important and key role in Industrializations. A wide
spectrum of plastics and articles manufactured by the industry has touched the life of every Indian in
many ways through consumer plastics. Now we have entered into another era of plastic consumer
goods continuously replacing the traditional items. The disposable plastic cups are manufactured by
thermoforming technique. They are fast replacing conventional cups. Ice-cream and other dairy
products are packed in disposable cups. Besides Ice-cream industry, hotels, restaurants, canteens etc.
have been increasingly using disposable cups as against conventional glass-wares or ceramic cups.
Disposable cups are mainly used for food items and are made out of polypropylene or polystyrene
sheets. Sheets having thickness 0.35mm to 18mm are used for these items in thermoforming machine.
Disposable cups, glasses, plates and spoons are used in daily life nowadays. In addition to be
used at home these are largely used during at parties and other functions.
The use of disposable items is increasing day by day because of better hygenic conditions, low
cost, easy usability and impressive appearance. Plastic cups are largely used for tea, juices, coffee and
Thermoformed disposables are generally used for Tea, Water and Packing of Beverages etc.
These Thermoform shapes are created from a process where a sheet of plastic is heated and vacuumed
on top of a model or die. The die can be made up from variety of materials. There are different
industries using thermoformed cups and trays like:
APPLICATION OF THERMOFORMING TECHNIQUE
Thermoforming technique is applied to a wide variety of thermoplastic materials such as
polystyrene, polyesters, ABS, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Main applications are in industrial,
automotive and packaging sectors.
In industrial sector major applications consist construction, transportation and refrigeration
industries. Auto headliners, fender wells, overhead panels, door panels, refrigerator liners, freezer
panels, mould liners, casting inserts etc. are typical parts.
The largest application of thermoformed products is in packaging field. Articles like trays, cups,
cartons, fast food disposables and carryouts, disposable tableware, caps and containers, various types of
foodstuffs are packed in thermoformed products.
Wood Plastic Composite (WPC)
Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and
thermoplastic(s) (includes PE, PP, PVC etc.).Chemical additives seem practically "invisible" (except
mineral fillers and pigments, if added) in the composite structure. They provide for integration of
polymer and wood flour (powder) while facilitating optimal processing conditions. In addition to wood
fiber and plastic, WPCs can also contain other lingo-cellulosic and/or inorganic filler materials. WPCs are
a subset of a larger category of materials called natural fiber plastic composites (NFPCs), which may
contain no cellulose-based fiber fillers such as pulp fibers, peanut hulls, bamboo, and straw, dig estate,
Wood plastic composites (WPCs) are roughly 50:50 mixtures of thermoplastic polymers and
small wood particles. The wood and thermoplastics are usually compounded above the melting
temperature of the thermoplastic polymers and then further processed to make various WPC products.
WPC can be manufactured in a variety of colors, shapes and sizes, and with different surface textures.
Depending on the processing method, WPCs can be formed into almost any shape and thus are used for
a wide variety of applications, including windows, door frames, interior panels in cars, railings, fences,
landscaping timbers, cladding and siding, park benches, molding and furniture.
Wood plastic composite is good to solve the problem arises in the environment. There is scope
of use agricultural waste product. In this case we will use waste polypropylene or polyethylene, or it may
be used virgin polypropylene or polyethylene, waste wood floor. Rice husk, plastic additives like (DOP,
DBP etc.). There are different percentages of raw material used for the production of pallets decking,
outdoor furniture like park bench, windows and door shutter frames etc. This product is manufactured
by using automatic imported machineries or by using indigenous machines.
Wood-plastic composites exhibit hybrid properties of wood and plastic. In general, adding wood
to a thermoplastic matrix increases the mechanical properties and thermal stability when compared to
the solid thermoplastics. Conversely, the thermoplastic component can present moisture barriers to the
wood elements, decreasing the water adsorption and swelling characteristics as compared to wood and
traditional wood composites.
· It may be fire proof.
· It is waterproof, comparative light, high strength, and long self-life.
· It can be stored in the room at room temperature
· It is comparatively low-density product.
· It has smooth body; there are very rare cases of rough surfaces available.
· The presence of wood in a plastic matrix can result in a stiffer and lower-cost material than if
plastic alone was used.
· Also, the compression properties (resistance to crushing) for most WPCs are superior to that of
wood loaded perpendicular to the grain.
• The plastic in the product is not subject to water absorption or biological attack, so the WPC can
have lower maintenance requirements than solid wood.
• WPC lumber will not warp, splinter or check.
• WPCs are also potentially recyclable, because recovered material can be melted and reformed.
• WPCs may be identified as sustainable materials, due to the wood particles predominately being
a byproduct of sawmill and other wood-processing waste streams, and because much of the
plastic is derived from consumer and industrial recycling efforts.
• WPCs offer great flexibility in the shapes and colors of the materials produced.
Pet Bottle Recycling
Polyethylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used
in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and
engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. It may also be referred to by the brand
name Dacron; in Britain, Terylene; or, in Russia and former Soviet Union, Lavsan. The majority of the
world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for
about 30% of global demand. In the context of textile applications, PET is referred to by its common
name, polyester, whereas the acronym PETis generally used in relation to packaging. Polyester makes up
about 18% of world polymer production and is the third-most-produced polymer; polyethylene (PE)
and polypropylene (PP) are first and second, respectively.
PET consists of polymerized units of the monomer ethylene terephthalate, with repeating
C10H8O4 units. PET is commonly recycled, and has the number 1 as its recycling symbol.
PET-bottles contribute increasingly to the generation of waste and litter especially in developing
countries. One-way discarded PET-bottles have a negative impact on the environments because they:
· Waste resources
· Pollute soil, rivers, coastal areas
· Pollute the air when burned
· Consume a lot of landfill site space
· Get scattered and make the environment look untidy.
140 Detailed Project Profiles on Hi-Tech Plastic
USES & APPLICATIONS
Because PET is an excellent water and moisture barrier material, plastic bottles made from PET
are widely used for soft drinks. For certain specialty bottles, such as those designated for beer
containment, PET sandwiches an additional polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) layer to further reduce its oxygen
Biaxially oriented PET film can be aluminized by evaporating a thin film of metal onto it to
reduce its permeability, and to make it reflective and opaque (MPET). These properties are useful in
many applications, including flexible food packaging and thermal insulation such as "space blankets".
Because of its high mechanical strength, PET film is often used in tape applications, such as the carrier
for magnetic tape or backing for pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes. It is used to make the fabric polar
Modernization of Pet Bottle
· The National Recycling Coalition cites PET as one of the top materials for food containers
because it is 100% recyclable.
· Recycling of PET bottles is strongly encouraged because PET can be turned back into new
containers, as well as fleece coats, clothing, pillows, carpets and a variety of other consumer
· Modern PET bottles are not only recyclable but also use fewer Resources than ever before. In
many cases, bottles also require less energy and generate fewer greenhouse gas emissions than
other popular packaging alternatives, such as glass and aluminium.
PVC Flex Banner (Front Lit, Backlit & Vinyl)
PVC Flex is best to all Digital printer specially designed for Indian market. Due to stable chemical
character and excellent ink absorbency, PVC Flex will bring wonderful digital printing images for large
format picture advertisements. In virtue of the high classic quality and best sales service, nowadays PVC
Flex is playing an important role in signage & Banner Advertising industry.
Large format digital printing flex media, PVC sheeting for digital printing like front lit flex in
various gsm 260 gsm, 280 gsm, 300 gsm, 320 gsm, 340 gsm and 440 gsm and back lit flex in 550 gsm and
610 gsm and also we have vinyl, star flex type media.
PVC flex is made out of PVC and fabric raw material, specially designed for solvent printing
industry. It is suitable for indoor and outdoor printing used in billboard, display, banners and exhibition
Flex is a sheet of polythene widely used to deliver high quality digital print for outdoor hoardings
and banner, mainly printed by large color plotters in CMYK mode. These prints are efficient, Low-cost
and durable substitutes of hand painted hoarding and hand written banner.
TYPES OF PVC FLEX
Frontlit Flex & Backlit Flex
Laminated Backlit flex products are widely used for indoor and outdoor advertisement. Its
surface has fine ink absorption which is compatible for all solvent-based printers such as Vutek, Nur,
Scitex, etc. With special treatment, the products have a good property of anti-microbial and anti-aging.
Backlit flex is a good translucent media material design for backlit displays which perform a high
printing quality while printing a single strike image. Its certain finishing treatment makes ideal
· Glossy surface,
· White substrate finishing for large format digital printing,
· Pure white translucent substrates for backlit displays,
· Applicable to Vutek, Scitex, Nur, Infinity, Flora, etc.
· Weather resistant (anti-UV, anti rain and frost resistant)
PVC, PE, PP and PS are general purpose plastics. The features of the particular plastic are
determined by its chemical composition and type of molecular structure (molecular formation:
crystalline/amorphous structure) PVC has an amorphous structure with polar chlorine atoms in the
molecular structure. Having chlorine atoms and the amorphous molecular structure are inseparably
related. Although plastics seem very similar in the context of daily use, PVC has completely different
features in terms of performance and functions compared with olefin plastics which have only carbon
and hydrogen atoms in their molecular structures.
Chemical stability is a common feature among substances containing halogens such as chlorine
and fluorine. This applies to PVC resins, which furthermore possess fire retarding properties, durability,
and oil/chemical resistance.
Fire Retarding Properties
PVC has inherently superior fire retarding properties due to its chlorine content, even in the
absence of fire retardants. For example, the ignition temperature of PVC is as high as 455°C, and is a
material with less risk for fire incidents since it is not ignited easily furthermore, the heat released in
burning is considerably lower with PVC, when compared with those for PE and PP. PVC therefore
contributes much less to spreading fire to nearby materials even while burning. Therefore, PVC is very
suitable for safety reasons in products close to people’s daily lives.
Formulating PVC Products
Before PVC can be made into products, it has to be combined with a range of special additives.
The essential additives for all PVC materials are stabilizers and lubricants; in the case of flexible PVC,
Plasticizers are also incorporated. Other additives, which may be used, include fillers, processing aids,
impact modifiers and pigments. Additives will influence or determine the mechanical properties, light
and thermal stability, colour, clarity and electrical properties of the product. Once the additives have
been selected, they are mixed with the polymer in a process called compounding. One method uses an
intensive high-speed mixer that intimately blends all the ingredients. The result is a powder, known as a
‘dry blend’, which is then fed into the processing equipment.
A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible,
resilient and easier to handle.
Early examples of Plasticizers include water to soften clay and oils to plasticise pitch for
waterproofing ancient boats. There are more than 300 different types of Plasticizers of which about 50-
100 are in commercial use. The most commonly used are phthalates and adipates.
PVC is basically rigid at normal temperature. This is due to the short distances between the
molecules since there are strong pulling forces between them (intermolecular forces). When heated, the
energies of molecular motions become greater than the intermolecular forces, which widen molecular
distances, resulting in softening of the resin. When plasticizers are added to PVC at this stage, the
plasticizer molecules make their way between the PVC molecules and prevent the PVC polymer
molecules from coming closer with each other. Consequently the polymer molecules are kept apart
even at normal temperature and softness is maintained. This is the role of Plasticizers and such process
is technically called plasticizing.
PVC polymer molecules have positive and negative polarities inside, while plasticizer molecules
also have such polar and non-polar parts. The PVC polymer molecules and the plasticizer molecules are
electrically attracted to each other, and the non-polar parts widen the distance among the polymer
molecules to keep softness. PVC products, which are softened by Plasticizers, are called soft (flexible)
PVC products. In Europe, about 30 % of the total PVC resin production is used for flexible PVC products.