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The Complete Technology Book on Pesticides, Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides with Formulae & Processes ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author H. Panda ISBN 8186623728
Code ENI79 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1100   1100 US$ 100   100
Pages: 706 Published 2003
Publisher National Institute of Industrial Research
Usually Ships within 5 days

Pesticides, Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides are used in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, commercial centres and houses for the pest control. India's pesticide industry is the largest in Asia and the twelfth largest in the world and it has grown by 7.6 per cent during the last 20 years. During last 35 years, consumption of these products has increased manifold and industries are coming up throughout the world due to its increasing demand. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. The insecticide usage is high in India because weeding is done manually in India and tropical climate of India which leads to greater incidences of insect infestations. Insecticides have a higher market share in India contrary to the global market where herbicides and fungicides have higher market shares. 

This book majorly deals with specification of pesticides, fungicides, permeability of liquid fumigants through polyethylene, insecticidal properties of deoxygenated and chlorinated shark liver oil, methods of determining chemical and physical properties, spectroscopic methods for determining the purity of products. This book also contains formulae, manufacturing process, infrared and ultraviolet spectra of seventy six pesticides and so on.

The book contains formulae, processes of different types of pesticides, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. This book will serve as a guide to research scientists, industrialists, policy makers and students.

1. Specification of Pesticides

2. Fungicides

3. Pesticides and Insecticides

4. Insecticides

5. Fungicides

6. Herbicides

7. Fumigants

8. Permeability of Liquid Fumigants Through Polyethylene

9. Insecticidal Properties of Deoxygenated and Chlorinated Shark Liver Oil

10. Manufacture of Malathion

11. A New Design of Insecticide Testing Chamber

12. Tricalcium Phosphate as an Insecticide

13. Pesticidal Minerals

14. Pest Control by Sex Attractants

15. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Seventy-Six Pesticides

16. Standards on Pesticides and Pest Control Equipment

17. List of Dealers/Agents Dealing with Pesticides / Insecticides / Fungicides / Herbicides


Permeability of Liquid Fumigants Through Polyethylene


Polyethylene films are used as fumigation sheets for bagged commodities, soil treatments, and disinfesting buildings. They have been used as laminates with other flexible packaging materials for dispensing volatile disinfectants. Data are available on the permeability of volatile chemicals through polyethylene films. Loss of methyl bromide (MB) through polyetheylene vinyl films and synthetic rubbers or materials coated with them have been reported. Elaborate apparatuses have been employed by various workers to test permeability have used a metal jar with a flanged mouth. The liquid, of which the vapour permeability is to be tested, is placed in the jar and the material to be tested is clamped on to the flanged portion using a brass ring. Loss in weight due to vapour loss is determined by periodical weighings. Evaluate organic vapour transmission of films using two 125 mm. crystallizing dishes one inverted on top of the other with the test film sandwiched between the two. Methyl furoate is kept in a glass vessel suspended from the top chamber. The lower vessel contains potassium hydroxide. The methyl furoate passing through the film gets saponified to the potassium salt of furoic acid which is determined by spectrophotometer. Some use a stainless steel permeability cell connected to a high vacuum system and determine the permeability constants. Constants for ethylene oxide and methyl bromide have been determined this way. But no easy and quick method is available for routine screening of materials for use as fumigation sheets. An attempt made to develop a simple and rapid method of screening polyethylene films is reported.

Materials and Methods

Technical grades of ethylene dibromide (EDB), ethyl formate (EF) and chloropicrin (CP) were employed as test fumigants. All these three chemicals are liquids at ordinary temperatures. Low and high density polyethylene films from 0.001 to 0.01 in. thickness (100 to 1.000 gauge) were tested in pouch form.

Two experiments were done for carrying the fumigants. (i) Sealed thin glass ampoules containing 5 ml. (10.860) of EDB and having a constriction for easy breakage were rolled inside blotting paper. The open ends of the paper were folded-in and boss-stitched. These were placed inside polyethylene pouches and heat sealed. The average film area enclosed by the seams was 86 sq. cms. for the entire pouch, (ii) EDB, EF and CP absorbed to saturation points in asbestos discs of 2.4 cm. diameter and 0.2 cm. thickness were placed inside pouches of polyethylene and sealed. The average area exposed to vapours was 36 sq. cms. within the scams. This method can be used as an alternative one where ampouling of fumigants may offer difficulties.

The fumigant vapours were at saturation concentration in the atmosphere of all the pouches.

Measurement of Transmission

After noting the initial weight in a Mettier balance, the pouches containing the EDB in glass ampoules were given enough pressure to break the glass ampoule at the constriction inside, taking care not to damage the film material. This operation released the EDB liquid on to the blotting paper which absorbed the liquid and started desorbing to the film surface from where absorption and diffusion to the outer surface started. The pouches were weighed at the end of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 minutes from the time the ampoule was fractured and the loss in weight recorded. The progressive loss in weight was plotted against time on a graph paper (Fig. 1). The experiments were done at 25°C. The weight losses were also noted at the end of 24 hours and are expressed as per cent loss over the quantity initially ampouled (Table-l).

In the case of pouches containing the asbestos discs saturated with EDB, FE and CP the initial weight was noted as soon as the seals were made and weighed progressively as before. The transmission was observed at 30°C (room temperature) and 37°C in a constant temperature room. The loss of vapours is expressed as gms. of fumigant per square meter in one hour (Table-II], after a constant rate of loss was recorded.

Table 1: Loss of EDB from polyethylene pouches in 24 hrs. at 25ºC

Film Type Gauge Loss (% )
Low density 100 100
do 150 98
do 200 95
do 300 79
do 400 77
do 500 62
do 600 37
High-Density 200 36
do 450 16
do 1100 3

Table 2: Transmission of fumigants through polyethylene pouches at 30°C and 37ºC.

<td colspan='2' align='center'>Vapour Loss: gms/sq, meter in one hour[td Colspan=2 align center]Low Density (Guages) <td colspan='2' align='center'>High Density (Guages)<td colspan='2' align='center'>300ºC<td colspan='2' align='center'>600ºC<td colspan='2' align='center'>200ºC<td colspan='2' align='center'>450ºC

  30 37 30 37 30 37 30 37
dibromide 22.3 37.0 13.5 17.0 9.0 16.2 11.0 21.0
Ethyl formate 17.0 22.0 5.0 7.5 29.4 37.0 6.1 11.0
Chloropicrin 24.2 34.0 3.1 8.0 7.0 12.5 3.5 6.5

Results and Discussion

The progressive losses in weight plotted against time showed a linear relationship (Fig. 1) with most gauges of films tested with EDB in glass ampoule. The lines showing transmission rates became more horizontal as gauge increased. The black variety of polythylene film was not better than its transparent counterpart. Very rapid transmission rates were recorded at the lower gauges (100-300) and the linear relationship was disturbed, probably due to quicker saturation and desorption from the thinner cross-section of the films. The high density films showed much lower transmission rates at comparable gauges. The 200 gauge high density film lost only 127 mg of vapour compared to 629 mg. by its low density counterpart. In other words a 200 gauge high density film was approximately 5 times more efficient than a 200 gauge low density film. The figures for loss of EDB in 24 hrs. (Table l) show that loss of vapours ranged from 100% in 100 gauge to 37% in 600 gauge in the low density series. In the high density series the gauges of 450 and 1100 showed remarkable resistance to vapour loss showing only 16% and 30% respectively.

In tests at temperatures of 30º and 37°C with EDB, EF and CP absorbed in asbestos discs the transmission through the pouches increased with temperature, as expected. Between EDB, EF and CP the transmission was more with EDB probably due to its greater affinity for polyethylene. Better vapour retention was shown by the high density polyethylenes.


The study has also shown that the low density polyethylene sheets transmit fumigant vapours at a high rate. The thickness of films recommended for fumigation are 400-500. Even methyl bromide fumigations are done under polyethylene sheets. This fumigant which has much more affinity for polyethylene and a very high vapour pressure (182-1- mm Hg. at 25ºC) would escape at a faster rate at temperatures obtaining in India, though at cooler climates this may not be a so apparent. The high density polyethylene, offers scope for use as gas-proof sheet in fumigation due to very low rates of transmission.

The EDB in glass ampoules packed in polythylene could be used for small-scale fumigations after breaking the ampoule by pressure. Even methylbromide dissolved in ethylene dibromide could be ampouled and dispensed this way to have a more insecticidal and penetrating fumigant for pest control operations. Controlled transmission of vapours could be obtained by varying the thickness (gauge) of the film. Contact of liquid fumigants with men and material could be avoided. The work reported is also useful in working with the problem of in-package fumigation for the selection of proper packaging materials.





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And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

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• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR