The Complete Book on Cold Storage, Cold Chain & Warehouse (with Controlled Atmosphere Storage & Rural Godowns) 5th Edition ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Ajay Kumar Gupta ISBN 9788195577521
Code ENI292 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1650   1650 US$ 44   44
Pages: 376 Published 2022
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 Days


A cold storage facility preserves fruits and vegetables for a longer period of time. Entrepreneurs and MSMEs in the food and beverage industry are the most likely to choose this business. Cold Storage is a one-time investment industry with a significant initial outlay. In comparison to other small firms, however, the returns are higher and on a long-term basis.

The overall average capacity utilisation in cold storage is 75%, indicating the cold chain business in India's long-term viability. Private companies own and run 92 percent of cold storage facilities in India. A cold storage warehouse can maintain your goods at the proper temperature for long periods of time. The term "cold chain" refers to the process of controlling the temperature of perishable goods from point of origin to final consumer in order to ensure quality and safety.

The global Cold Storage Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14.10 percent. The global demand for processed foods, perishable foods, and medical equipment is increasing. Increased technical innovation is another influence in the cold storage sector. Cold storage is being promoted by government legislation around the world about the safety precautions for storing temperature-sensitive food and medical products.

The book covers a wide range of subjects relating to start Cold Storage Business. It also offers information on machinery suppliers, as well as photographs of the equipment and plant layout.

A detailed guide to the Cold Storage industry and entrepreneurship. This book serves as a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about the Cold Storage Business, which is ripe for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only book on the market that covers all aspects of commercial cold storage start-up. It's a veritable feast of how-to information, from concept through equipment procurement.



         History of Cold Storage

         Efficient Cold Storage Management

         Clean and Calibrate

         Know Your Hot and Cold Spots


         Use Humidifiers

         Avoid Air Pollution

         Rotate Your Product

         Inspect the Quality of Your Product on Arrival

         Keep Score

         Selection of Location for the Cold Storage

         Cold Storage Chain

         Emergence of Cold Chain Logistics

         Providing Temperature Controlled Environments

         Refrigerated Containers

   2.   Controlled Atmosphere Storage                    

         Importance of Controlled Atmosphere

         Fruits and Vegetables Storage under CA

         Indoor Storage

         Outdoor Storage

         Harvesting Apples at Optimum Maturity

         Guidelines for Placing Apples into CA Storage

         Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Interactions on Quality of Controlled Atmosphere-stored Apples


         The Use of Cooling and Cold Storage to Stabilize and Preserve Fresh Stone Fruits

         Ethylene Concentrations in Controlled Atmosphere Storage


         Sealing Wails and Ceilings

         Wall to Floor Joints

         CA Doors

         Observation Window


   3.   Refrigeration                                                         

         Refrigerated Rail Cars

         Planning a Cold Storage

         Cold Store Capacity

         Refrigeration Plant Requirements


         Power Requirements

         Methods of Refrigeration

         Capacity Rating

         Factors Limiting Storage Life

         Cost of Freezing

         Care and Cleanliness

         Working in Cold Rooms

         Vapour Barriers

         Types of Cold Stores

         Prefabricated Cold Stores

         Layout of a Typical Cold Store

         The Drying Process of Potatoes

         The Curing Process of Potatoes

         Increasing the Temperature of the Potatoes After Storage

         Electrical Installation


         General Specifications for Refrigeration System

         Refrigeration Processes

         Thermal Insulation & Refrigeration System, Control and Safety Devices

         Refrigeration Cycles

         Types of Compressors

         Piston Compressors

         Rotary Compressors

         Screw Compressors

         Vapour Compression Cycle





         Rooms for machines, Electricals etc.

         Typical Specifications of Refrigeration System

         Vapour Absorption System

         Ammonia Refrigeration System

         Physical Properties

         Chemical Properties

         Cold Storage for Fruits and Vegetables

         Storage Conditions



         Cold Storage B.I.S Specification

         Working in Cold Rooms

         Examples of Food Processing by Refrigeration and Storage

         Meat Products

         Fishery Products

         Dairy Products

         Freezing System

         Indirect Contact Systems

         Plate Freezers

         Freezers for Liquid Foods

         Direct-Contact Systems


   4.   Food Storage Guidelines for

         Dairy Products

         Recommended Food Storage Chart

   5.   Bananas Cold Storage                                          

         Conditions of Harvesting and Putting into Store Harvesting

         Criteria of Ripeness

         Qualify Characteristics for Storage and Transport

         Method of Storage

   6.   Cold Storage Plant – Automation                    

   7.   Absorption Refrigerator                                   

         a. Transport Handling

         b. Installation of Refrigerators and Freezers

         c. Maintenance

         d. Choice of Refrigeration Equipment

             Failures Related to Absorption Refrigerators

         a. Leaks

         b. Repair of Leaks on Cooling Units

         c. Fuel Consumption

         Comparison between Vapor Compression and Absorption System




         Expansion Valve

         Difference Between Refrigeration and Heat Pump System

         Water-Lithium Bromide Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System

         Special Features of Water-Lithium Bromide Solution

   8.   Cold Chain                                                                

         Cold Chain Diagram

         Importance of Maintaining the Cold Chain

         The Effective Cold Chain

         National Centre for Cold-Chain Development

         Cold Chain Development in India-Modernization of the Infrastructure of Cold Storage of Perishables

         Growth of Cold Storage Industry

         Verification and Validation

         Components of Cold Chain

   9.   Cold Chain and Refrigeration                          

         Health Facilities in Developing Countries

         Domestic (Kitchen) and Bar Refrigerators

         Types of Cold Chain Refrigerators 

         Cold-Chain Maintenance, Repair and Replacement

         Maintenance of Equipment

         Distribution and Transport

         Estimation of Transportation

         Cold Chain and Logistics Management

         Costs of Cold Chain and Logistics Management

         Importance of Cold Chain and Vaccine Logistics Management

         Electrical Cold Chain Equipments

         Walk-in-Freezers (WIF)

         Walk-in-Coolers (WIC)

         Deep Freezer

         Cold Chain Management

         Maintenance of the Vaccine Refrigerator

         Cold Box

         Cold Boxes: Types and Usage


         Ice Manufacture

         Applications of Refrigeration in Different Food Products

         Frozen Food Properties

         Refrigerator Thermometers

         Monitoring of the Refrigerator Temperature

         Fridge Failure or Disruption of the Cold Chain

10.   Shipping Containers                                             

         Refrigerated Container 

         Shipping Container Features

         Comparison of Passive and Active System

         Transport Operations

         The Role of the Transport Operator

         Distribution Vehicles

         Air Circulation

         Dispatching Product

         Air Flow

         The Essential Data Logger

11.   The Cold-Chain Monitor                                      

         How to Use the Cold-Chain Monitor in Routine Forwarding of Vaccine Shipments

         The Vaccine Vial Monitor

         Proportion of Regional Vaccines Carrying VVMs

         Recommendations on Improving Availability and Use of VVMs



         Cold Storage Temperature Legislation

         Why Set -18°C for Thermal Stabilisation?

         Vaccine Damage

         Heat Damage

         Solar Refrigerators

         Components of Solar Refrigerator

12.   Cold Storage for Fish and Meat                      


         Uses of Ice

         Cold Storage Life of Frozen Fish

         Cold Storage for Meat

         Chilled Storage

         Parameters Considered for the Design

         Site Selection

         Storage Temperature

         Rate of Freezing

         Relative Humidity

         Calculation of Refrigeration Loads

         Material Selection

         Insulating Material

         Meat Supply Cold Chain Management

         Cold Chain in Slaughterhouse

         Air Chilling

         Immersion Chilling

         Spray Chilling

         Vacuum Chilling

13.   Warehouse                                                                

         Cold Storage Warehouse Construction

         Warehouse Cum Cold Storage

         Central Location

         Value-Adding Operation

         Need for Warehousing

         Types of Warehouses




         Advantages of Public Warehousing

         Disadvantages of Public Warehousing

         Advantages of Private Warehousing

         Disadvantages of Private Warehousing

         Sequence of Warehousing Decisions

         Determination of Storage Capacity

         Fixation of Storage Charges

         Storage Systems

         Basic Warehouse Equipment

14.   Nabard Warehousing Scheme                            

         GOI Approved Nabard Warehousing Scheme

         1. Mode of Financial Support

         2. Eligible Institutions/Entities

         3. Purpose/Activities

         4. Priority Segments

         5. Rate of Interest, Quantum of Support and Repayment Period

         6. Accreditation by WDRA

         7. Implementation Period

         Department of Storage and Marketing - Initiatives

         A. Direct Lending to State Owned Entities 

         B. Accreditation/Registration of Warehouses

         C. Capacity Building by Stakeholders

15.   Rural Godowns                                                       



         Institutional Lending 

         A. Eligible Financing Institutions

         B. Term Loan

         Pattern of Assistance


16.   Solar Powered Cold Storage                                       

         Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System

         A View of Solar PV Panels Installed

         Advantages of Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System

         Cost-Economics of the Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System

         Requirement of Cooling System

         Solar Cold Storage System Schematic

         Solar Powered Movable Cold Storage Structure for Perishables

         Solar Photovoltaic System With Power Control Unit for Cold Storage

         Use of Solar Panel & Refrigeration in Cold Storage Through Alternate Technology


         Subsidy available

         Off Grid Solar System

         On Grid Solar System

         Energy efficient Hybrid Solar System for Cold Storage in Remote Areas

         Flow Chart for Power Switching in DC Inverter Air Conditioning System

         PV Air Conditioning in Hybrid Cold Storage with Net Metering

         Flow Chart of an Operation of the DC Inverter Air Conditioning System

17.   Addresses of Plant and Machinery Suppliers        

18.   Sample Plant Layouts

                19.          Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details


NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
  • Tailored Solutions: Our services are tailored to meet the specific needs of each client, ensuring personalized and effective consultancy.

Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.