The Complete Book on Cold Storage, Cold Chain & Warehouse (with Controlled Atmosphere Storage & Rural Godowns) 5th Edition ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Ajay Kumar Gupta ISBN 9788195577521
Code ENI292 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1650   1650 US$ 44   44
Pages: 376 Published 2022
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 Days


A cold storage facility preserves fruits and vegetables for a longer period of time. Entrepreneurs and MSMEs in the food and beverage industry are the most likely to choose this business. Cold Storage is a one-time investment industry with a significant initial outlay. In comparison to other small firms, however, the returns are higher and on a long-term basis.

The overall average capacity utilisation in cold storage is 75%, indicating the cold chain business in India's long-term viability. Private companies own and run 92 percent of cold storage facilities in India. A cold storage warehouse can maintain your goods at the proper temperature for long periods of time. The term "cold chain" refers to the process of controlling the temperature of perishable goods from point of origin to final consumer in order to ensure quality and safety.

The global Cold Storage Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14.10 percent. The global demand for processed foods, perishable foods, and medical equipment is increasing. Increased technical innovation is another influence in the cold storage sector. Cold storage is being promoted by government legislation around the world about the safety precautions for storing temperature-sensitive food and medical products.

The book covers a wide range of subjects relating to start Cold Storage Business. It also offers information on machinery suppliers, as well as photographs of the equipment and plant layout.

A detailed guide to the Cold Storage industry and entrepreneurship. This book serves as a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about the Cold Storage Business, which is ripe for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only book on the market that covers all aspects of commercial cold storage start-up. It's a veritable feast of how-to information, from concept through equipment procurement.



         History of Cold Storage

         Efficient Cold Storage Management

         Clean and Calibrate

         Know Your Hot and Cold Spots


         Use Humidifiers

         Avoid Air Pollution

         Rotate Your Product

         Inspect the Quality of Your Product on Arrival

         Keep Score

         Selection of Location for the Cold Storage

         Cold Storage Chain

         Emergence of Cold Chain Logistics

         Providing Temperature Controlled Environments

         Refrigerated Containers

   2.   Controlled Atmosphere Storage                    

         Importance of Controlled Atmosphere

         Fruits and Vegetables Storage under CA

         Indoor Storage

         Outdoor Storage

         Harvesting Apples at Optimum Maturity

         Guidelines for Placing Apples into CA Storage

         Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Interactions on Quality of Controlled Atmosphere-stored Apples


         The Use of Cooling and Cold Storage to Stabilize and Preserve Fresh Stone Fruits

         Ethylene Concentrations in Controlled Atmosphere Storage


         Sealing Wails and Ceilings

         Wall to Floor Joints

         CA Doors

         Observation Window


   3.   Refrigeration                                                         

         Refrigerated Rail Cars

         Planning a Cold Storage

         Cold Store Capacity

         Refrigeration Plant Requirements


         Power Requirements

         Methods of Refrigeration

         Capacity Rating

         Factors Limiting Storage Life

         Cost of Freezing

         Care and Cleanliness

         Working in Cold Rooms

         Vapour Barriers

         Types of Cold Stores

         Prefabricated Cold Stores

         Layout of a Typical Cold Store

         The Drying Process of Potatoes

         The Curing Process of Potatoes

         Increasing the Temperature of the Potatoes After Storage

         Electrical Installation


         General Specifications for Refrigeration System

         Refrigeration Processes

         Thermal Insulation & Refrigeration System, Control and Safety Devices

         Refrigeration Cycles

         Types of Compressors

         Piston Compressors

         Rotary Compressors

         Screw Compressors

         Vapour Compression Cycle





         Rooms for machines, Electricals etc.

         Typical Specifications of Refrigeration System

         Vapour Absorption System

         Ammonia Refrigeration System

         Physical Properties

         Chemical Properties

         Cold Storage for Fruits and Vegetables

         Storage Conditions



         Cold Storage B.I.S Specification

         Working in Cold Rooms

         Examples of Food Processing by Refrigeration and Storage

         Meat Products

         Fishery Products

         Dairy Products

         Freezing System

         Indirect Contact Systems

         Plate Freezers

         Freezers for Liquid Foods

         Direct-Contact Systems


   4.   Food Storage Guidelines for

         Dairy Products

         Recommended Food Storage Chart

   5.   Bananas Cold Storage                                          

         Conditions of Harvesting and Putting into Store Harvesting

         Criteria of Ripeness

         Qualify Characteristics for Storage and Transport

         Method of Storage

   6.   Cold Storage Plant – Automation                    

   7.   Absorption Refrigerator                                   

         a. Transport Handling

         b. Installation of Refrigerators and Freezers

         c. Maintenance

         d. Choice of Refrigeration Equipment

             Failures Related to Absorption Refrigerators

         a. Leaks

         b. Repair of Leaks on Cooling Units

         c. Fuel Consumption

         Comparison between Vapor Compression and Absorption System




         Expansion Valve

         Difference Between Refrigeration and Heat Pump System

         Water-Lithium Bromide Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System

         Special Features of Water-Lithium Bromide Solution

   8.   Cold Chain                                                                

         Cold Chain Diagram

         Importance of Maintaining the Cold Chain

         The Effective Cold Chain

         National Centre for Cold-Chain Development

         Cold Chain Development in India-Modernization of the Infrastructure of Cold Storage of Perishables

         Growth of Cold Storage Industry

         Verification and Validation

         Components of Cold Chain

   9.   Cold Chain and Refrigeration                          

         Health Facilities in Developing Countries

         Domestic (Kitchen) and Bar Refrigerators

         Types of Cold Chain Refrigerators 

         Cold-Chain Maintenance, Repair and Replacement

         Maintenance of Equipment

         Distribution and Transport

         Estimation of Transportation

         Cold Chain and Logistics Management

         Costs of Cold Chain and Logistics Management

         Importance of Cold Chain and Vaccine Logistics Management

         Electrical Cold Chain Equipments

         Walk-in-Freezers (WIF)

         Walk-in-Coolers (WIC)

         Deep Freezer

         Cold Chain Management

         Maintenance of the Vaccine Refrigerator

         Cold Box

         Cold Boxes: Types and Usage


         Ice Manufacture

         Applications of Refrigeration in Different Food Products

         Frozen Food Properties

         Refrigerator Thermometers

         Monitoring of the Refrigerator Temperature

         Fridge Failure or Disruption of the Cold Chain

10.   Shipping Containers                                             

         Refrigerated Container 

         Shipping Container Features

         Comparison of Passive and Active System

         Transport Operations

         The Role of the Transport Operator

         Distribution Vehicles

         Air Circulation

         Dispatching Product

         Air Flow

         The Essential Data Logger

11.   The Cold-Chain Monitor                                      

         How to Use the Cold-Chain Monitor in Routine Forwarding of Vaccine Shipments

         The Vaccine Vial Monitor

         Proportion of Regional Vaccines Carrying VVMs

         Recommendations on Improving Availability and Use of VVMs



         Cold Storage Temperature Legislation

         Why Set -18°C for Thermal Stabilisation?

         Vaccine Damage

         Heat Damage

         Solar Refrigerators

         Components of Solar Refrigerator

12.   Cold Storage for Fish and Meat                      


         Uses of Ice

         Cold Storage Life of Frozen Fish

         Cold Storage for Meat

         Chilled Storage

         Parameters Considered for the Design

         Site Selection

         Storage Temperature

         Rate of Freezing

         Relative Humidity

         Calculation of Refrigeration Loads

         Material Selection

         Insulating Material

         Meat Supply Cold Chain Management

         Cold Chain in Slaughterhouse

         Air Chilling

         Immersion Chilling

         Spray Chilling

         Vacuum Chilling

13.   Warehouse                                                                

         Cold Storage Warehouse Construction

         Warehouse Cum Cold Storage

         Central Location

         Value-Adding Operation

         Need for Warehousing

         Types of Warehouses




         Advantages of Public Warehousing

         Disadvantages of Public Warehousing

         Advantages of Private Warehousing

         Disadvantages of Private Warehousing

         Sequence of Warehousing Decisions

         Determination of Storage Capacity

         Fixation of Storage Charges

         Storage Systems

         Basic Warehouse Equipment

14.   Nabard Warehousing Scheme                            

         GOI Approved Nabard Warehousing Scheme

         1. Mode of Financial Support

         2. Eligible Institutions/Entities

         3. Purpose/Activities

         4. Priority Segments

         5. Rate of Interest, Quantum of Support and Repayment Period

         6. Accreditation by WDRA

         7. Implementation Period

         Department of Storage and Marketing - Initiatives

         A. Direct Lending to State Owned Entities 

         B. Accreditation/Registration of Warehouses

         C. Capacity Building by Stakeholders

15.   Rural Godowns                                                       



         Institutional Lending 

         A. Eligible Financing Institutions

         B. Term Loan

         Pattern of Assistance


16.   Solar Powered Cold Storage                                       

         Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System

         A View of Solar PV Panels Installed

         Advantages of Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System

         Cost-Economics of the Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System

         Requirement of Cooling System

         Solar Cold Storage System Schematic

         Solar Powered Movable Cold Storage Structure for Perishables

         Solar Photovoltaic System With Power Control Unit for Cold Storage

         Use of Solar Panel & Refrigeration in Cold Storage Through Alternate Technology


         Subsidy available

         Off Grid Solar System

         On Grid Solar System

         Energy efficient Hybrid Solar System for Cold Storage in Remote Areas

         Flow Chart for Power Switching in DC Inverter Air Conditioning System

         PV Air Conditioning in Hybrid Cold Storage with Net Metering

         Flow Chart of an Operation of the DC Inverter Air Conditioning System

17.   Addresses of Plant and Machinery Suppliers        

18.   Sample Plant Layouts

                19.          Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details



NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR