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The Complete Book on Cold Storage, Cold Chain & Warehouse (with Controlled Atmosphere Storage & Rural Godowns) 2nd Edition ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 978-93-81039-66-3
Code ENI292 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1350   1350 US$ 125   125
Pages: 328 Published 2016
Usually Ships within 5 Days

India is an agricultural-based economy and is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. Fruits & vegetables, being perishable in nature require certain techniques of preservation for retaining the quality and extend the self-life of the production. The estimated annual production of fruits and vegetables in the country is about 130 million tonnes. The cold storage & cold chain facilities are the prime infrastructural component for such perishable commodities. 

Cold storage is a temperature – controlled supply chain network, with storage and distribution activities carried out in a manner such that the temperature of a product is maintained in a specified range, needed to keep it fresh and edible for a much longer period than in normal ambient conditions. A cold chain can be managed by a quality management system generally called as warehouse management.  India’s warehousing requirement is expected to grow at an annual average rate of 9%. The Indian Government focus on incentivizing the manufacturing sector is the key to growth of warehousing. With the growth of the domestic manufacturing and retail segments, the demand for efficient warehouse management service has improved. Investment in warehouse can provide an opportunity of realizing returns in the range of 12%-20% per annum to investors willing to explore this sector. 

The current scenario reveals that there is a tremendous scope for the development of cold chain facilities. The Cold Chain industry is recognized as a sunrise sector in India and is expected to offer significant opportunities in the near future. Developing an integrated supply chain, including cold chain can save up to 300 billion annually and at the same time reduce the wastage of perishable horticulture produce. 

This handbook is designed to provide a thorough understanding and analysis of the cold chain industry and warehouse management. Also it contains addresses of plant & machinery suppliers with their photographs. The major content of the book are Controlled Atmosphere Storage, Types of Cold Storage, Thermal insulation & Refrigeration System, Refrigeration, Food Storage Guidelines for Consumers, Bananas Cold Storage, Cold Storage Plant- Automation, Absorption Refrigerator, Cold Chain, Growth of Cold Storage Industry, Cold Chain and Refrigeration, Shipping Containers, Cold Chain Monitor, Warehouse, NABARD Warehousing Scheme, Rural Godowns. 

It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, food technologists, those studying and researching in this important area.




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History of Cold Storage
Efficient Cold Storage Management
Clean and Calibrate 
Know Your Hot and Cold Spots
Use Humidifiers
Avoid Air Pollution
Rotate Your Product
Inspect the Quality of Your Product on Arrival
Keep Score 
Selection of Location for the Cold Storage
Cold Storage Chain
Emergence of Cold Chain Logistics
Providing Temperature Controlled Environments
Refrigerated Containers

Importance of Controlled Atmosphere
Fruits and Vegetables Storage under CA
Indoor Storage
Outdoor Storage
Harvesting Apples at Optimum Maturity
Guidelines for Placing Apples into CA Storage
Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Interactions on Quality of Controlled Atmosphere-stored Apples
The Use of Cooling and Cold Storage to Stabilize and Preserve Fresh Stone Fruits
Ethylene Concentrations in Controlled Atmosphere Storage
Sealing Wails and Ceilings
Wall to Floor Joints
CA Doors
Observation Window

Refrigerated Rail Cars
Planning a Cold Storage
Cold Store Capacity
Refrigeration Plant Requirements
Power Requirements
Methods of Refrigeration
Capacity Rating
Factors Limiting Storage Life
Cost of Freezing
Care and Cleanliness
Working in Cold Rooms
Vapour Barriers
Types of Cold Stores
Prefabricated Cold Stores
Layout of a Typical Cold Store
The Drying Process of Potatoes
The Curing Process of Potatoes
Increasing the Temperature of the Potatoes After Storage
Electrical Installation
General Specifications for Refrigeration System
Refrigeration Processes
Thermal Insulation & Refrigeration System, Control and Safety Devices
Refrigeration Cycles
Types of Compressors
Piston Compressors
Rotary Compressors
Screw Compressors
Vapour Compression Cycle
Rooms for machines, Electricals etc.
Typical Specifications of Refrigeration System
Vapour Absorption System
Ammonia Refrigeration System
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Cold Storage for Fruits and Vegetables
Storage Conditions
Cold Storage B.I.S Specification
Working in Cold Rooms
Examples of Food Processing by Refrigeration and Storage
Meat Products
Fishery Products
Dairy Products
Freezing System
Indirect Contact Systems
Plate Freezers
Freezers for Liquid Foods
Direct-Contact Systems

Dairy Products
Recommended Food Storage Chart

Conditions of Harvesting and Putting into Store Harvesting
Criteria of Ripeness
Qualify Characteristics for Storage and Transport
Method of Storage


a. Transport Handling 
b. Installation of Refrigerators and Freezers
c. Maintenance
d. Choice of Refrigeration Equipment
Failures Related to Absorption Refrigerators
a. Leaks
b. Repair of Leaks on Cooling Units
c. Fuel Consumption
Comparison between Vapor Compression and Absorption System
Expansion Valve
Difference Between Refrigeration and Heat Pump System
Water-Lithium Bromide Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System
Special Features of Water-Lithium Bromide Solution

Cold Chain Diagram
Importance of Maintaining the Cold Chain
The Effective Cold Chain
National Centre for Cold-Chain Development
Cold Chain Development in India-Modernization of the Infrastructure of Cold Storage of Perishables
Growth of Cold Storage Industry
Verification and Validation
Components of Cold Chain

Health Facilities in Developing Countries 
Domestic (Kitchen) and Bar Refrigerators
Types of Cold Chain Refrigerators 
Cold-Chain Maintenance, Repair and Replacement
Maintenance of Equipment
Distribution and Transport
Estimation of Transportation
Cold Chain and Logistics Management
Costs of Cold Chain and Logistics Management
Importance of Cold Chain and Vaccine Logistics Management
Electrical Cold Chain Equipments
Walk-in-Freezers (WIF)
Walk-in-Coolers (WIC)
Deep Freezer
Cold Chain Management
Maintenance of the Vaccine Refrigerator
Cold Box
Cold Boxes: Types and Usage
Ice Manufacture
Applications of Refrigeration in Different Food Products
Frozen Food Properties
Refrigerator Thermometers
Monitoring of the Refrigerator Temperature
Fridge Failure or Disruption of the Cold Chain

Refrigerated Container 
Shipping Container Features
Comparison of Passive and Active System
Transport Operations
The Role of the Transport Operator
Distribution Vehicles
Air Circulation
Dispatching Product 
Air Flow
The Essential Data Logger

How to Use the Cold-Chain Monitor in Routine Forwarding of Vaccine Shipments
The Vaccine Vial Monitor
Proportion of Regional Vaccines Carrying VVMs
Recommendations on Improving Availability and Use of VVMs
Cold Storage Temperature Legislation
Why Set -18°C for Thermal Stabilisation?
Vaccine Damage
Heat Damage
Solar Refrigerators
Components of Solar Refrigerator

Cold Storage Warehouse Construction
Warehouse Cum Cold Storage
Central Location
Value-Adding Operation
Need for Warehousing
Types of Warehouses
Advantages of Public Warehousing
Disadvantages of Public Warehousing
Advantages of Private Warehousing
Disadvantages of Private Warehousing
Sequence of Warehousing Decisions
Determination of Storage Capacity 
Fixation of Storage Charges
Storage Systems
Basic Warehouse Equipment

GOI Approved Nabard Warehousing Scheme
1. Mode of Financial Support
2. Eligible Institutions/Entities
3. Purpose/Activities
4. Priority Segments
5. Rate of Interest, Quantum of Support and Repayment Period
6. Accreditation by WDRA
7. Implementation Period
Department of Storage and Marketing - Initiatives
A. Direct Lending to State Owned Entities 
B. Accreditation/Registration of Warehouses
C. Capacity Building by Stakeholders

Institutional Lending 
A. Eligible Financing Institutions
B. Term Loan
Pattern of Assistance





NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR