Environmental protection today is the universal concern. The more advanced, industrialized and economically affluent countries have focused strongly on the global ecological balance and green environment adopting eco friendly methods of production, minimizing the pollution during production of fibre, fabrics, coloration, finishing as well as manufacture of garments.
When used as a source of biomass fuel, jute production helps to conserve tree cover and natural forests. Moreover, leaf and crop trash remains in the field to be recycled as organic materials, thereby reducing demand for supplementary chemical fertilizers for subsequent crops.
Jute fibre is natural fibre or also known as golden fibre. It is available in India especially in West Bengal and carries a glorious history in the packaging sector as well as in the economy of Bangladesh. Jute fibers are produced from the cultivated jute plant. Jute fibre has large use in the jute mill to produce variety of products like jute bags, jute carpet and jute blanket.
Jute is one of the most versatile fibres known to man. Raw jute fibre is obtained from two varieties of plant: Corchorus Capsularis (White jute) and Corchorus Olitorius (Tossa jute), both native to Bangladesh. It is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh and some in India, mainly Bengal.
Jute needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet climate) is offered by the monsoon climate during the monsoon season. Temperatures ranging 20º C to 40º C and relative humidity of 70% -80% are favorable for successful cultivation. Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. There are three types of jute basically white raw jute, Tossa raw jute, Mesta raw jute.
SCHEME FOR MODERNIZATION OF ORGANISED JUTE MILLS
1. Training of Workers & Supervisors
Under this scheme, training programmes for the supervisors and workers for updating their knowledge and improve their skill in both processing stages and maintenance are organized in various jute mills. HRD (Human Resource Development) intervention is sought to improve the sill and update the knowledge of workers to match with the changed situation/environment.
2. Machinery Development
One of the main bottleneck for modernization of jute industry is lack of availability state-of-the-art machinery for jute fiber. Under this scheme, Research and Development efforts as well as the transfer of technology at each stage of processing is to be intensified. For the development of new technology and high yielding machinery, a Machinery Development Centre (CJMD) is to established through PPP model. In addition, specific machinery development projects are being funded @ 75%, to be taken up through the proposed CJMD, indigenous machinery manufacturers as well as research institutions who have the credibility and required infrastructure.
The history of Coir and its association with the state of Kerala dates back to the 19th Century. Sandwiched between the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west, Kerala is one of the most beautiful States in India. Coir fibres -Nature’s wonder fibers are extracted from the husks surrounding the coconut. It is a common experience that fibres detached from the coconut skin are quite hard to break by simple tension, hence by pulling from both sides. Excellent properties of resistance to wear and easy availability in countries, where coconut palms are widespread, have allowed coir to be employed for a variety of uses, e.g., for manufacturing toys, bags and carpets.
There are two main types of coir fibre: Brown Coir, from fully ripened coconut husks; strong and resistant to abrasion, it is used in brushes, floor mats, and upholstery padding; White Coir, from husks of coconuts harvested just before they ripen; softer and less strong, it is spun into yarn, used for ropes and mats.
Jute is one of the important fibre crops of India. India is the largest producer of jute contributing 61.2 per cent of the total world production. Before independence it had monopoly in world jute production, Although its cultivation is largely confined to the eastern part of the country the fibre and goods manufacture out of it are widely used.
RAW JUTE SCENARIO
Raw jute crop is an important cash crop to the farmers. Cultivation of raw jute crop provides not only fibre which has industrial use, but jute stick which is used as fuel and building material by the farming community. Raw jute is produced mainly in the state of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura and Meghalaya.
JUTE GROWING ZONES
The Jute growing tracts of India are broadly grouped into eight zones on the basis of agro climate as follows:
• Lower Bengal- Ganga - Riverine Tract: The important Jute growing districts are Hooghly, 24 Parganas (North and South), Nadia and Murshidabad. This is mainly Olitorius tract.
• Maldah- Dinajpur Tract: Maldah and Dinajpur (North and South) districts are included in this zone. Both Olitoriusand Capsularis Jute are grown in this zone.
• North Bengal and Brahmaputra Valley New Alluvium Zone: This zone consists of Coochbehar and Jalpaiguri districts of West Bengal and Gopalpara, Kamrup and Nowgong district of Assam. It is mainly Capsularis Jute tract.
Hand weeding is applied twice on 20 - 25 days after sowing (DAS) and 35 - 40 DAS. Fluchloralin can be sprayed at 3 days after sowing at the rate of 1.5 kg per hectare and is followed by irrigation. Further one hand weeding can be taken up at 30 - 35 DAS.
Top Dressing of Fertilizer
Apply 10 kg of N at 20 - 25 days after first weeding and then again on 35 - 40 days after second weeding as top dressing. During periods of drought and fertilizer shortage, spray 8 kg of urea as 2 per cent urea solution (20 g urea in one litre of water) on jute foliage on 40 - 45 as well as 70 - 75 DAS.
MAJOR PRODUCERS OF JUTE
The Ganga delta contributes more than 80% of Jute production in the world. The Ganga delta can be sub-divided into some geographical region in term of cultivation as follows:
• Jat area (Brahmaputra Alluvium): The Jat area comprises a part of district of Dhaka, Mymensing, Tangail and Commilla of Bangladesh. The area receives annually fresh deposit of silt carried down by flood water. Soil is acidic in nature and the texture of the soil varies from sandy loam to clay loam.
• District area (Ganges Alluvium): The district area comprises a part of the district Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna, Rajshahi, Pabna and Dhaka of Bangladesh and major portion of West Bengal of India. The soil of this area is slight alkaline, clay loam to light loam and gray to dark gray colour. The type of Jute grown in this area is known as district Jute and it is next to Jat Jute in order of quality. The Jute fiber grown in this region is divided into major varieties such as hard district Jute and soft district Jute.
• Northern area (Testa silt): The northern area comprises a part of Dinajpore, Rangpore district, East Bogra and Sirajganj of Bangladesh and some parts of West Bengal of India. The soil of this region is sandy soil with low moisture retention capacity and is slightly acidic. The northern type of Jute is inferior quality of the three commercial types.
The coconut is a benevolent tree, a nature’s gift to mankind, as it is a source of food, beverage, oilseed, fibres, timber, and health products and also associated with mystery and omen in the life of people. The coconut tree provides clothing utensils and dwellings, therefore, is an important source of earning livelihood to the people of coconut growing states, especially in the coastal areas. The coconut tree therefore, is eulogized, reverently as “Kalpavruksha” or tree of life by the people.
CLIMATE AND SOIL
Coconut is grown under different soil types such as loamy, laterite, coastal sandy, alluvial, clayey and reclaimed soils of the marshy low lands. The ideal soil conditions for better growth and performance of the palm are proper drainage, good water-holding capacity and presence of water table within 3m and absence of rock or any hard substratum within 2m of the surface.
VARIETIES OF COCONUT
There are only two distinct varieties of coconut, the tall and the dwarf.
The tall cultivars that are extensively grown are the West Coast Tall and East Coast Tall. The dwarf variety is shorter in stature and its life span is short as compared to the tall. Tall x Dwarf (TxD), Dwarf x Tall (DxT) are the two important hybrids.
Coconut is propagated through seedlings raised from selected seed nuts. Generally 9 to 12 month old seedlings are used for planting. Select seedlings, which have 6-8 leaves and 10-12 cm collar girth when they are 9-12 month old. Early splitting of leaves is another criterion in the selection of coconut seedling.
TIME OF PLANTING
Seedlings can be transplanted in the beginning of the south west monsoon. If irrigation facilities are available, it is advisable to take up planting at least a month before the onset of the monsoon so that the seedlings get well established before heavy rains.
SPACING AND SYSTEMS OF PLANTING
Spacing depends upon the planting system, soil type etc. In general the following spacing is recommended under different planting system in sandy and laterite soils.
Before planting the pits are filled up with top soil and powdered cow dung / compost up to a depth of 50 to 60 cm. Then take a small pit inside this, so as to accommodate the nut attached to the seedling. Plant the seedling inside this pit and fill up with soil. Press the soil well so as to avoid water stagnation. If there is chance for white-ant attack apply Sevidol 8G (5gm.) inside the small pit before planting.
In laterite areas apply 2 kg common salt per pit for improving the physical condition of the soil. Burying 25 to 30 coconut husks per pit in layers will be useful for moisture conservation.
JUTE YARN, JUTE SUTLI & HESSIAN CLOTH
WEAVING INTEGRATED UNIT
Jute twin of different qualities and thickness are used extensively in India and Abroad. Three classes of twins are made viz. Country twin, export twin and sacking twins.
Among all jute products the production as well as exports of hessian cloth is a plain oven fabric made from the white jute of good quality weight per yard of 40" wide hessian ranges from 6 to 8.9 gms. or 170.25 to 253 gms. In the market following qualities are generally available for ready use.
It becomes a lamination of jute fabric to have more porosity than other compact fabric. Same constructive means have been devised to overcome these limitations.
USES & APPLICATIONS
Jute follows cotton in world textiles consumption. It is used in the United States chiefly in a floor covering, wrapping, & industrial fabrics rather than in clothing textiles (except for occasional high fashion items). A large percentage of the total yardage is used as wrapping & bagging material.
Jute is naturally a light tan colour & cannot be bleached because it is very reactive to chemicals & is appreciably weakened as the process. Jute is fairly absorbent. It can be dyed for decorators’ burlap in a variety of fairly dark colour but the dyes are not particularly fast to light for washing.
DETAILED MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF JUTE YARNS & OTHER JUTE PROCESSING
Jute bales (morahs) on arrival at the mill are opened by trained assorters who separate from each morah the qualities suitable for hessian, sacking warp, and sacking weft. The bundles are then removed to the batching house. For spinning yarns of high quality, barky root ends, which form c.60 % of the weight of fibres, are cut off.
The fibre and cutting are treated with a batching medium and piled for varying periods depending on the proportion of barky material present in the material. The sizes of piles vary fibres with higher proportion of bark being piled in large heaps; fibres relatively free from bark may be processed without standing in pile. This treatment softens the hard and stiff fibres and renders them suitable for subsequent processing.
The slivers from the last drawing frame are further drawn out and given a slight twist in a roving frame, in order to make them suitable for further processing without breaking. The sliver is fed to the retaining rollers at the back of the roving frame and supported in gill bars as in the drawing frame.
The bobbin of rove are taken to the spinning frame and supported in rows on iron pins near the top of the frame. The rove from each bobbin is led down to a pair of retaining rollers and thence to a pair of drawing rollers lower down. Further drafting occurs in the reach (often about 11 in) between the two pairs of rollers.
Ply yarn, obtained by twisting two, three, or more threads of yarn, is used for sacking, sewing and a variety of other purposes. A twisting frame, similar to a spinning frame in appearance, but devoid of the drafting mechanism, is employed for twisting. Bobbins of spun yarn are placed on the hake above the frame and the threads in the required number are led through a retaining roller and flyer to a bobbin (generally 4 in. diameter and 6 in. long).
Dressing and Beaming
Warp yarn is dressed to render it smooth and stiff, and then wound on a beam.
JUTE TWINE (JUTE ROPE), GUNNY BAGS
India is at present the biggest manufacturer of jute goods. Producers of jute manufactures outside Indian are Bangladesh, U.K., West Germany, France, Belgium and Japan. U.S.A. produced jute yarn and bagging.
Jute is the bark fibre extracted from two cultivated species of Corchorus, viz. C. Capsularis Linn. (round pod jute or white jute) and C. olitorius Linn. (long pod jute or tossa jute). The former is more common and accounts for nearly 75% of the total acreage under jute; C. olitorius yields a fibre of superior spinning quality.
PROPERTIES OF JUTE
For preparing the fibre, the long stalks (6-12 t. Long and 0.4-0.8 in. Diam.) of plants are retted in water for 10-12 days. Root ends of the retted stalks are beaten with wooden mallets and the loosened fibre stripped off from the sticks, washed and dried in the sun. The fibre is soft with silky lusture and cream-white to reddish-brown in colour.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS JUTE TWINE CUM GUNNY BAG
Fibres of higher grades are employed for spinning fine yarns. It is necessary to avoid barky material and specky fibre for spinning hessian warp and weft. Fibre of good quality with only a small proportion of barky material is used as warp for sacking material. The twill weave throws the bulk of the warp yarn on the face of the cloth and it is therefore desirable to use yarn of good colour as warp not only to impact a good appearance to the fabric, but also to ensure that designs and letters imprinted on it are easily visible.
Small Qualities of Jute Goods
Especially twines, strings and ropes – are produced on a cottage industry. The quantity of jute consumed for these purposes hardly amounts 10% of the total output.
The bobbins of rove are taken to the spinning frame and supported in rows on iron pins near the top of the frame. The rove from each bobbin is led down to a pair of retaining rollers and thence to a pair of drawing rollers lower down. Further drafting occurs in the reach (often about 11 in.) between the two pairs of rollers. From the drawing rollers the thread passes down to a flyer which rotates round a wooden bobbin upon which the yarn is wound. The degree of twist imparted to the yarn varies according to the type of yarn required. Hessian yarns and sacking warp are given 3¼ to 4 turns/in. and sacking weft 2½ to 3 turns/in.
Ply yarn, obtained by twisting two, three, or more threads of yarn, is used for sacking, sewing, and a variety of other purposes. A twisting frame, similar to a spinning frame in appearance, but devoid of the drafting mechanism, is employed for twisting.
JUTE SHOPPING BAGS
India is a major jute producing country and it produces more than 40% of entire world’s production. Mesta and Jute products from India are in great demand domestically and are in great demand even in the European countries. Needless to say handicraft items made from Jute and Mesta are very much in vogue. Assorted varieties of bags and other products made in various weaves and blends are available in the market today.
There is variety of shopping bags available in India and throughout world. Shopping bags available in India made by paper, jute, synthetic resin base bags, leather bags etc. Plastic bags are taking the main share of shopping bags. Though there is some decline phase of plastic market in the field of shopping bag. Since there are problems in plastic bags, they are not biodegradable; it cannot be used for land filling purpose. Due to non biodegradable property of plastics it cannot be used for making shopping bag.
PROPERTIES OF JUTE SHOPPING BAGS
1. It is smooth enough and easy to handle.
2. It is strong enough to with stand load 2 Kg/cm2.
3. It is easily attacked by fire.
USES & APPLICATIONS
1. It can be used for shopping purpose.
2. It can be used school bags.
3. It can be used for transferring product from one place to another.
MACHINERY DETAILS AND SPECIFICATION
1. Sewing Machine
Machine Type: Sealing Machine
Bag Type: rice bag, seed bag, feed bag, or textile
Material: any textile, bag
• Portable bag closing machine
• Used in feed mill, garment plant, Rice factory, chemical fertilizer plant and seed plant.
GUNNY BAGS (JUTE BAGS) MANUFACTURING
Three qualities of gunny cloth were produced prior to the introduction of the mill-industry. These were goon (finely woven fabric resembling hessian, occasionally containing cotton) used as wearing apparel and sleeping mats by poor classes, and goon chat (coarse and loosely woven fabric) used for packing agricultural produce and bulkier articles.
If only food grains are counted, even then the number of gunny bags required to meet future demand would be much more than the present demand. Production of cement, sugar, fertilizers etc. is similarly increasing appreciably, which will require a manifold production of gunny bags. In case of cement bags, nylon jute bags are preferred because they are waterproof. Nylon jute gunny bags are also useful with good results for a variety of other applications.
About 95% of the production conforms to qualities for which there is a world demand. The goods produced are :-
It is plain-woven fabric made from white jute of good quality and weighing 12 OZ/Yd with a normal basic width of 40".
It is a heavy woven fabric, either plain or twill, weighing 12 - 20 OZ/Yd of different widths and ordinarily made lowest grades of fiber.
Many articles need a container for its storage and transportation. Mainly food grains like wheat, rice, barley, wheat flour, sugar, gals etc. are the main items which require gunny bags. Besides - onion potatoes and other Vegetables, grass, seeds etc. are also transported in gunny bags. Not only this, there are various items where gunny bags are required for keeping them safely.
The other type of bags which are used for pitched craft bags, popularly known as “Tarpaulin paper bag” where one side of the wall is coated with asphalt, over which another piece of craft paper is attached so as to speak, an asphalt sandwich. This type of bag is quite costlier than gunny bag but the advantages of this bag is that they are water- proof and may be used where product has to be protected from moisture.
Uses and Applications
As has been stated earlier, the usages of gunny bags are to store and transport various materials like food grains, sugar, cement, fertilizers, and chemicals etc. The application can be tabulated as below:-
Application of Gunny Bags
1. Food Grains
Gunny bags are only to store and transport almost all the food grains like, wheat, rice, barley, paddy etc.
Sugar is mainly transported in gunny bags.
Manufacturing process of jute gunny bags is very simple and almost similar to the paper bags. The difference lies in the stitching of the bag instead of pasting.
Manufacturing of hessian bag includes the following steps:-
1. Inspection of Hessian cloth.
2. Set making.
6. Inspection of the bags.
HANDMADE PAPER FROM JUTE
India has about 450 handmade paper units scattered all over India which are mainly based on cotton rags & hosiery cuttings producing nearly 50,000 tons of handmade paper& board having a turnover of Rs 250 crores. Whereas, the total quantity of paper produced is quiet significant with a total production of nearly 70 lakh tons per annum.
A handmade paper unit producing jute based paper viz., visiting card, designer fancy paper for packaging, file cover, file bag, and other utility items having installed capacity of 150 Kg per day can be set up in a shed of 5000 sqft. The unit can be profitably run as a family unit with 5-10 skilled and semiskilled labors.
An environment friendly pulping process which gives pulp having strength as high as kraft pulp and can be bleached easily, permitting the application of chlorine free bleached paper has been developed. Various steps involved in the process of handmade papermaking are described in brief:
STEPS OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS
• Quality of Raw Material- First and foremost the dirt content and undesired moisture in raw material should be assessed.
• Sorting- The raw material is sorted manually to remove any other foreign materials. It is also given a vigorous shake to remove the dust and dirt.
• Jute Cutter/Chopper- The shorted material should be chopped into small and uniform sized pieces.
• Dyes - Dyes play a very important role in handmade paper making sector. Direct dyes have the possibility of having azo group but reputed companies have stopped manufacturing dyes with azo group. To completely nullify the possibility of azo group, vegetable dyes and reactive dyes should be preferred in place of direct dyes.
• Sheet Formation- Dipping Method- The pulp is diluted with water and put into a masonry trough or vat. The lifting mould (mesh on a wooden frame) is then dipped into the trough, shaken evenly and lifted out with the pulp on it. The consistency of the pulp in the tank should be kept constant.
• Pressing- A hydraulic press is used to remove the excess water from the sheet s. Pressing reduces the bulkiness of the paper and i.e. the sheets become more compact. This improves the physical properties of the paper and facilitates drying.
• Calendering- The sheets are placed between metallic plates and passed through spring-loaded press to give the gloss. The calendaring load applied is different for various grades of paper. Some grades of paper such, as moon rock paper requires no load while papers such as insulation paper requires high load.
Environment Pollution and Effluent Treatment of Jute
Pollution problem is worldwide and abatement of pollution is a global problem. Many factors contribute to pollution domes and all aspects such as air, water, solid waste, heat, radiation, noise, vibration should be considered. In India, pollution is concerned mainly with air and water. There are two main sources of air pollution i.e. vehicular traffic and industry. Pollution from the transport system can be effectively minimized by timely maintenance of the engines of motorcars, trucks and buses.
Another important source of pollution is from incomplete combustion of fuels in industry.
Effluent from different industries is varied in characteristics and hence the treatment process of one need not be the same as the other.
All industries should consider the feasibility of re-using treated water in a combined effort to minimize fresh water consumption. It would be a sound policy to consider pollution abatement as an integral part of the process. Pollution control methods have centered an around the end-of-pipe solutions, such as installation of effluent treatment plant, the dust collectors and scrubbers to reduce effluents and emissions after these are generated.
Sedimentation removes a large proportion of the suspended impurities and thus clarifies it to a large extent. Only very fine suspended and colloidal solids are retained in the effluent. Chemical coagulation is useful for industrial effluent which do not respond to biological treatment and which require good clarification as pretreatment.
Secondary treatment makes the effluent extremely stable and in this stabilized condition can be safely discharged without causing pollution. The above treatment methods just described are generally applicable to most industries, but the design variables and the degrees of treatment required for each effluent differ from industry to industry.
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT EQUIPMENT
With the expansion of the industries and the awareness of the pollution problems, considerable attention is paid for the development of equipment for the effluent treatment plants. Important equipment for the treatment of effluent is as follows:
Sedimentation is the least expensive method of removing suspended solids from any waste or other sources, for domestic/industrial, water supplies. This process removes 60 to 70% of suspended solids. 90 to 99% of settable solids and 30 to 40% of bio-chemical oxygen demand. In the sedimentation process the suspended solids in industrial effluent are separated under the influence of gravity.
Coir or Cocos - Nature’s wonder fiber is extracted from the protective husk of the Coconut. This golden fibre is spun into a breath-taking range of textured yarn and woven into a spectrum of colorful floor coverings.
The coconut palm has been eulogised as ‘Kalpavriksha’ the all giving tree in the classics of India. Its fruit is called Lakshmi Phal which is used in most of the social and religious functions in India from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, irrespective of whether the palm is grown locally or not. In the Valmiki Ramayana there are references of coconut in the Kishkindha Kanda and Aranya Kanda.
The fibrous husks are soaked in pits or in nets in a slow moving body of water to swell and soften the fibres. The long bristle fibres are separated from the shorter mattress fibres underneath the skin of the nut, a process known as wet-milling. The mattress fibres are sifted to remove dirt and other rubbish, dried in the sun and packed into bales. Some mattress fibre is allowed to retain more moisture so that it retains its elasticity for ‘twisted’ fibre production.
The immature husks are suspended in a river or water-filled pit for up to ten months. During this time micro-organisms break down the plant tissues surrounding the fibres to loosen them — a process known as retting. Segments of the husk are then beaten by hand to separate out the long fibres which are subsequently dried and cleaned.
Total world coir fibre production is 250,000 tonnes. The coir fibre industry is particularly important in some areas of the developing world. India, mainly the coastal region of Kerala State, produces 60% of the total world supply of white coir fibre. Sri Lanka produces 36% of the total world brown fibre output. Over 50% of the coir fibre produced annually throughout the world is consumed in the countries of origin, mainly India. Together India and Sri Lanka produce 90% of the 250,000 metric tons of coir produced every year.
Coir pith is an organic matter. It originates from the tropical hemisphere. All around the tropics coconuts are grown, both professionally and naturally. Especially in south-east Asia coconut oil production is widespread. For the professional oil winning companies the husk of the nut is a waste product. These coconut husks mainly exist of coir and fibres. Fibres were used in car and plane chairs, brooms, drain pipes and so called coconut mats.
APPLICATION OF COIR PITH
• Activated carbon
• Textile industries etc.
After fungal degradation
• Organic fertilizer
• Considered as a substitute for soil
• Ideal soil re-conditioner, soil structure improver and soil substrate with excellent water
• Holding capacity.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF COIR-PITH
• Contains macro-nutrients — Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium
• Contains micro-nutrients — Calcium, Copper and magnesium
• Contains natural enzymes
• Excellent water holding capacity
USES OF COIR PITH BLOCKS
• As A Potting Mix: Coir pith block can be used as potting medium. It can be mixed with required fertilizers and nutrients according to the type of plant to be grown
• For Generating Seeds: Coir dust in starter containers speeds up germination and profuse rooting of the seedlings
• For Tissue Cultured Plant: Wetted coir brick in poly bags encourages initial growth phase of tissue cultured plants and grafted seedlings
ROLE OF OUR COIR PITH BLOCKS
• Increased Air Porosity: Coir being fibrous in nature holds many air pockets which helps the crops to root easily and profusely. This increases the surface area of root system thereby facilitating better absorption of nutrients from soil
• Good Water Retention: Absorbs water rapidly and holds it for longer periods preventing desiccation of plants during hotter climates especially in tropical areas
Coconut palms flower monthly. Because it takes a year for the fruit to ripen, a tree always contains fruits at 12 stages of maturity. Harvesting usually take place on a 45-60 day cycle, with each tree yielding 50-100 coconuts per year.
Fresh water is used to process brown coir, while sea water and fresh water are both used in the production of white coir. In 2000, researchers announced that adding a broth containing a certain combination of 10 anaerobic (living without oxygen) bacteria to salt water can dramatically hasten the fiber extraction process without seriously degrading product quality.
BIOMASS CHARCOAL BRIQUETTING FROM JUTE AND COIR WASTE
What can be Briquetted?
Almost any biomass can be briquetted. Briquetting plants set so far in India are using Saw Dust, Bamboo dust, Bagasse, Cotton Stalk, Coffee husk, Groundnut Shell, Mustard Husk/Stalk, Pine Needles, Rice Husk, Sugar Mill Waste, Jute waste, Coir pith and other wastes & residues like Castor Shell, Red Gram Stalk, Tobacco stem, Tea Waste, Sander Dust, Tree Bark, Wild Grasses & Shrubs and Sander dust etc. can be also be briquetted individually or in combination without using any binder.
What is Biomass Charcoal Briquetting?
Briquetting is the process of converting low bulk density biomass into high density and energy concentrated fuel briquettes.
BIOMASS CHARCOAL BRIQUETTE PRODUCTION
A production plant has to be properly designed and engineered such that breakdowns and operational bottlenecks are minimal or thoroughly eliminated by a following proper preventive maintenance schedule.
Raw Materials Required
All biomass feeds are relatively very light with bulk densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.18 g/cc (50 to 180 kg/m³). Because of their bulky nature these are normally stored in the open. Where the location lies in heavy rain fall region, these should be stored in ground level bins which can be covered by heavy waterproof sheets or alternative, a side open shed could be provided.
Steps for Manufacturing
1. Material Crushing: put the raw material into crusher and crush into small pieces (diameter is about 3-5mm). We have 3 types of wood crushers respectively designed for different materials. Wood blade crush, wood hammer mill and straw crushing machine.
2. Drying: dry the granular material in the dryer or in the sun, till the moisture is less than 12%. For small scale charcoal briquetting plant, we suggest flash pipe dryer, while for large charcoal plant, the rotary drum dryer is the best choice.
3. Briquetting: briquetting is the most important process for the whole charcoal briquetting plant, our charcoal briquetting machine can meet different needs to of various scale charcoal plant.
4. Carbonization: at last, carbonized the briquette sticks in the carbonization furnace. There are three types of carbonization furnace for choice: Self-ignition Carbonization Furnace, Airflow Carbonization Stove and Lifting Carbonizing Furnace.
RUBBERIZED COIR MATTRESSES
A coir mattress doesn’t mean the whole mattress is made of coir. The mattress will have all the layers that a regular mattress has such as a coil (spring) system, foams, etc. Coir’s moisture reducing and ventilation abilities give a coir mattress the feel of a cool sensation and relaxation. Coir fibre is heat and moisture resistant, has good ventilation, is moth proof and flame retardant, and is an excellent insulator.
From picking and dehusking of the coconut through fibre extraction to rug weaving and mattress production: coir production and processing is a complex process and, with current technology, most steps are labor intensive.
TYPES & STRUCTURE OF COIR FIBRE
There are two main types of coir fibre:
• Brown Coir, from fully ripened coconut husks; strong and resistant to abrasion, it is used in brushes, floor mats, and upholstery padding;
• White Coir, from husks of coconuts harvested just before they ripen; softer and less strong, it is spun into yarn, used for ropes and mats.
USES AND APPLICATIONS
A small amount is also made into twine. Pads of curled brown coir fibre, made by needle-felting (a machine technique that mats the fibres together) are shaped and cut to fill mattresses and for use in erosion control on river banks and hillsides.
The major use of white coir is in rope manufacture. Mats of woven coir fibre are made from the finer grades of bristle and white fibre using hand or mechanical looms. White coir also used to make fishing nets due to its strong resilience to salt water.
In horticulture, coir is a strongly recommended substitute for sphagnum moss because it is free of bacterial and fungal spores, and produces good results without the environmental damage caused by peat mining. Coir is also useful to deter snails from delicate plantings. Coir is also used as a growing media in intensive glasshouse horticulture.
PROPERTIES OF COIR
The physical and chemical properties of coir are as follows:
Physical Properties of Coir Fibre
Coir length : 10-30 cms
Fibre length : 0.6 mm
Diameter : 16 micron
Density : 1.4 g/cc
APPLICATION OF COIR IN AGRICULTURAL TEXTILES
Coir is a biodegradable organic fibre and hardest among other natural fibres. It used commercially for the manufacture of vide range of products for varies end user applications.
The fibrous material forming part of the soft mass surrounding coconut is known as coir. Coconut husk is the raw material for the coir industry wherever there is large-scale coconut cultivation.
Coir is a versatile hard fibre obtained from the husks of coconut. The Coir fibre is one of the hardest natural fibres because of its high content of lignin; Coir has advantage in different application for erosion control, reinforcement and stabilization of soil and is preferred to other natural fibres. The fibre is hygroscope, with moisture content of 10% to 12% at 65% humidity and 22% to 55% at 95% relative humidity.
USES OF COIR IN AGRICULTURAL TEXTILES
Coir has the strong characteristics of retention of moisture and is preferred for the agricultural applications. It is naturally resistant to rot, moulds and moisture. Coir can be converted to coir yarn and then to woven mesh matting, which is used mainly controlling soil erosion and conditioning the soil.
Erosion Control Blankets for Controlling Slope Erosion
The natural coir material has a good application in erosion control blankets for landscaping. The mesh of woven coir matting acts as miniature dams and prevent the seeds or seedlings which used to be washed away by rain and wind and facilitating the growth .The netting breaks up run off, from heavy rains and dissipates the energy of flowing water.
Coir can retain moisture for a long period. The coir non-woven or closely woven matting acts as a filter allowing the water to flow across its plane as well as separator. The mulch mats suppress the weeds and retains moisture in the soil, which protects the roots from winter frost and summer scorching sun.
Coir non-woven felt mats which are made in the form of rolls, filled with peat moss/coir pith composite are used for bio-rolls. Bio-rolls help in rapid growth of the roots and the natural product combination supports the development of plant.
Grow sticks are used as natural supports for plants and creepers which consist of wooden pole wrapped with the layer of coir-fibre or non-woven felt. The roots of the plant can penetrate on the pores of coir pad.
Coco logs are used along stream, river, and lake banks to protect against scour. It consists of coir fiber or coir non -woven pads in the form of rolls covered with coir nets. Coco logs are kept at the edge of the bank secured by wooden pegs. Coco logs work as a brake on waves and reduces the impact of erosion. The natural product combination supports the development of plant by roots binding.
MANUFACTURE OF COIR CORRUGATED ROOFING SHEET
Coir fibre is obtained from the Outer layer of the fruit of Coconut tree (Cocos Nucifera L). This outer layer is called the coconut husk. The husk (exocarp) of the coconut consists of a smooth waterproof outer skin (epicarp) and fibrous zone (mesocarp). The mesocarp comprises of strands of fibro vascular bundles of coir embedded in a non fibrous paranchymatous “corky” connective tissue usually referred to as pith; which ultimately becomes coir dust.
The word ‘coir’ is derived from “kayar” which in Malayalam means a rope. The word seems to have been introduced into the European literature by Marco Polo, the Italian traveler, in 13th century.
Coir is stiff coarse fibre and is found between the husk and the outer shell of a coconut. The individual fibre cells are narrow and hollow, with thick wall made of cellulose. There are two varieties of coir:
(I) Brown coir extracted from a varieties ripe coconut which contains more lignin and less cellulose and are stronger but less flexible,
(II) White coir extracted from coconut before they are ripe, which are white or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but also weaker.
Coconut palms grow throughout the world’s tropical regions; but majority of the commercially produced coir comes from India and Sri Lanka. India produces about one-fourth of the world’s 55 billion coconuts each year, out of which only 15% of the husk fibre are actually recovered for use. India annually produces about 2, 80,000 metric tons of coir fibre.
Coir in loose mass cannot be used for manufacturing roofing sheet. It requires uniform layer of coir in the form of mat. Needled coir felt in suitable thickness was found to form required raw material for making corrugated sheet.
MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF COIR CORRUGATED SHEETS
1. Coconut coir non-woven felt
2. Bamboo mats
3. Phenol Cardanol Formaldehyde or Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive
4. BOPP film as releasing agent
5. Preservative Chemicals
Significant Aspect in Manufacture of Coir Felt Corrugated Sheet
1. Coir felt: Uniformity in the coir felt is very important. Coir felt has non uniform distribution of coir and in place where density or total coir content in the felt is less, it is a vulnerable point in the corrugated sheet for water leakage.
The color of the coir determines the final color of the corrugated sheets. White coir felt looks better than the brown coir felt.
Since coir felt is porous material, it holds enormous quantity of resin during resin application by dipping. Unless excess resin is not removed by squeezing this extra resin will be waste as, this resin would be squeezed during hot pressing. Resin content of 70-100 gm/ sq ft (42% liquid) is good enough for requisite bonding.
Moisture Content of Coir Felt and Mats
Both the coir felt and bamboo mat are available in dried condition of equilibrium moisture content, further drying of the raw materials are not necessary. Moisture content of glue coated felt and mats are more important. Higher moisture content will create blister during hot pressing and very low moisture content will result in inadequate bonding. Ideal moisture content for glued coir felt is 12-14% and that of glue bamboo mat is 10 ±2%.
Glue Application on the Coir Felt and Bamboo Mat
Coir felt is first cut into desired length and checked for moisture content. If moisture is higher the felt is dried to required moisture level. Consolidated mats are dipped in CPF resin contained in a vat made of steel. It is ensured that resin wets the felts thorough and thorough. The felts are removed from the vat and kept in slanting position for some time to drain out excess resin, and then these felts are passed through glue spreader to squeeze excess resin and to bring down the resin content to desired level.
BALANCE AND DRYING OF RESIN COATED MATS
Resin coated felts and mats are dried in either a drying chamber or industrial dryers such as band dryer at a temperature of 90 ± 5°C till the moisture content comes down to 14 ± 2 percent.