The Complete Book on Jute & Coir Products (with Cultivation & Processing) - 2nd Revised Edition ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author P. K. Chattopadhyay ISBN 9788194737988
Code ENI287 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1575   1575 US$ 43   43
Pages: 464 Published 2021
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 Days


The Complete Book on Jute & Coir Products (with Cultivation & Processing) - 2nd Revised Edition


Jute is a natural fiber popularly known as the golden fiber. It has gained its name as olden fibre due to its shiny brown colour. The fibre is affordable to all the consumers and is completely biodegradable. It is one of the cheapest and the strongest of all natural fibers and considered as fiber of the future. Jute is second only to cotton in world's production of textile fibers. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. Jute is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth.

 Coir is a versatile natural fibre extracted from mesocarp tissue, or husk of the coconut fruit Generally fibre is of golden color when cleaned after removing from coconut husk; and hence the name ” The Golden Fibre”.

 Both coir and jute are natural fibers and come from sustainable products. Coir comes from the husks of coconuts that were typically discarded. It is harvested by hand and soaked in water to soften the fibers, which are then woven together. Jute fiber comes from the stem of the jute plant and is the second most important vegetable fiber, after cotton, when it comes to production and use.


Global jute market on the basis of type, covering jute sack bags and jute shopping bags. Currently, jute sack bags dominate the market, accounting for the majority of the sales volume. Growing environmental awareness among the masses has also created an inclination toward natural and biodegradable products, like jute bags, over plastic bags. This, along with many government initiatives, is bolstering the jute industry. For instance, the Government of India has mandated the packaging of food grain and sugar in jute bags. Some of the key players operative in the market include Aarbur, Ashoka Exports, Hitaishi-KK, Howrah Mills Co. Ltd., Shree Jee International India Ltd. and Gloster Limited.

 The growing demand for eco-friendly products in the market is where coir should fast step in. It is a lightweight, soilless growing medium made from the fibers which completely renewable and considered an excellent choice for environmental sustainability. The efforts support the market expansion for coir and the Asia Pacific hopes to further increase production by streamlining the fiber collection process to meet demand.

 The Major contents of the Book are BIS Specifications, Jute: an eco-friendly opportunity for a sustainable Future, Green Marketing Of Jute and Jute Products, The Jute And Jute Textiles Industry, Jute Cultivation, Potentiality of coir for salient application, Coconut Cultivation, Scheme for the Development of Coir Production Line, Step-by Step approach to start a Coir Industry, Coir Geotextiles, Eco-friendly and natural image of coir, Jute Yarn, Sutli& Hessian Cloth, Jute Twine (Jute Rope), Gunny Bags, Jute Garments, Jute Shopping Bags, Gunny Bags (Jute Bags) Manufacturing, Handmade Paper from Jute, Environment Pollution and Effluent Treatment of Jute, Coir Fibre, Coir Pith, Biomass Charcoal Briquetting from Jute and Coir Waste, Rubberized Coir Mattresses, Coir Pith for Absorption and Recovery of Oil from Contaminated Sites, Application of Coir in Agricultural Textiles, Manufacture of Coir Corrugated Roofing Sheet, Coir Machinery Manufacturers, Plant Layout & Process Flow Sheet and Machinery, Equipment and Product Photograph.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today’s Jute &Coir Products industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the Jute & Coir Products industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of Jute & Coir Products. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.






Classification of Jute Products

1. Conventional Products

2. Speciality Products

3. Non-Traditional Products

4. Diversified Products Scheme for Modernization of Organised Jute Mills

1. Training of Workers & Supervisors

2. Machinery Development

3. Productivity Improvement & TQM Facilitation

4. Acquisition of Machinery and Plant

(Subsidy Component) Coir

A. Modernisation of Production Processes

B. Development of Machinery and


C. Product Development and Diversification

D. Development of Environment Friendly









Long-term Strategy




Green Products

Jute – A Green Product

Jute Production in India


Research Methodology

Nature of Data

Source of Data

Sampling Technique

Analysis and Findings

Manufacturing of Jute & Co-Operative

Jute Mill

Jute Products Produced Co-Operative Jute

Jute Market Development and Promotion

Challenges of Jute Marketing

Scheme for Promotion of Jute


1. Design & Development of Jute

Diversified Products

2. Scheme for helping NGOs and Women

Self-Help-Groups (WSHGs)

3. Scheme for Promotion of Jute


4. Scheme for Commercialization of


5. Scheme for Setting up of Jute Parks for

the Diversified Sector



Development and Regulatory Organizations in Jute Sector

(a) Organizations under Ministry of Textiles

Jute Manufactures Development Council (JMDC)

(b) Other Organizations supported by Ministry of Textiles in Jute Sector

International Jute Study Group (IJSG) Incentives to Jute Sector

(a) Extension of Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) Benefits to Jute Products

(b) Technology Up gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS)

(c) Jute Technology Mission Objectives of JTM are

(d) Non Plan Schemes of JMDC




Raw Jute Scenario

Botanical Description of Jute

Jute Growing Zones

Manures and Fertilizer Application


Seed Rate and Sowing

Weed Management

Top Dressing of Fertilizer

Water Management



Sowing Process of Jute

Harvesting Process of Jute Retting Practices

a. Retting Practices in India and Bangladesh

b. Retting Practices in China

c. Double Immersion/Single-Wash-Retting in China

d. Retting Practices in Indonesia

e . Retting Practices in Nepal

f. Retting Practices in Thailand

Extraction Practices

Single Stem Stripping

Stripping and Washing or Wash-Jerk-


Indian Jute Industry at a Glance

Major Producers of Jute

Jute and Mesta in the National Economy

From Jute to Diversified Products





Raw Material Availability & Traditional


Swot Analysis of Coir Products

Value Addition Present Status Through

Collaborative Project Amongst IICT & CCRI

Value Addition Prospects

Scope of the Study

Potentials of Coir as Technical Textile



Coir as Technical Textile

Use of Coir as Agrotech

Use of Coir as Buildtech

Use of Coir as Clothtech

Use of Coir as Geotech

Use of Coir as Hometech

Use of Coir as Indutech

Use of Coir as Meditech

Use of Coir as Mobiltech

Use of Coir as Oekotech (Ecotech)





Climate and Soil

Varieties of Coconut

Tall Varieties

Dwarf Varieties - Suitable for Tender


Hybrid Varieties

Planting Material

Site Selection

Time of Planting

Spacing and Systems of Planting




Coir Udyami Yojana

Scheme for the Development of Production

Infrastructure Under Coir Vikas Yojana

Skill Up gradation & Mahila Coir Yojana

Under Coir Vikas Yojana




1. Identifying the Opportunity

2. Making a Product Choice

3. Process Selection

Machinery and Equipment

4. Arranging Finance

5. Filing of Udyog Aadhaar Registration

6. Construction of Building

7. Getting the Utility Connections

8. Getting 3M’s Right







Coir Geotextiles for Strengthening Soft Soil


Application of Geotextile Separation



Use of Coirgeotextiles in Unpaved Roads

Subgrade Separation and Stabilization

Typical Solutions

Geotextile Benefits

Base Reinforcement

Coir as a Suitable Geotextile Material aor



As Filter/Drainage Layer

Strength of Subgrade

Field Installation of Geotextile

Long Term Performance of Coir Geotextile


Visual Evaluation

Coir Geotextile for Erosion Control

Universal Soil Loss Equation

Coir Geotextiles

Fuzzy Logic Results

Selection of Coir Geotextile

Coir Fibre and Its Application as Erosion

Control Mats

Mechanism of Erosion Control

Coir Geotextile for Construction of Roads

in Rural Areas


The Coir Geotextiles - Natural Solution to

Natures Problem

Historic, Economic and Political


Coir Geo Textiles for Environmental


Types of Coir Bhoovastra

1. Open Weave Coir Bhoovastra

2. Geo Rolls and Vegetation Fascines

3. Non-woven Felts

Coir Needled Felt

4. Cocologs

5. Coir Fiber Beds (Cocobeds)

6. Coir Loop Fabric

7. Coir Cell Geo Textiles

Application of Coir Geo Textiles

a) For Soil Erosion Control

Site Preparation



Vegetation & Seeding


b) Sub-base layer in Village/Rural Roads/

Reinforcement of Paved Roads

c) Application in the Waste Dumping Yards

of Mines

Coir Pith Based Cyanobacterial



Coir Pith Degradation

Cyanopith and Cyanospray

Treatment of Textile Effluent

Treatment of Tannery Effluent

Field Trials

Benefits of Coir Pith for Cyanopith and


As Production

As Biofertilizers

Organic Farming with Self-Aerated Large-

Scale Composted Coir Pith

Market of Organically Grown Food

Sustainability Factors of Organic Farming

Coir Pith

Coir Pith Composting Methods

New Method for Coir Pith Composting

Overall Biochemical Reaction of

Composting and Rate of Product Formation

Composted Coir Pith Use for Organic


Potential of Bio Composting of Coir Pith

Structure of Coir Pith

Materials and Methods

Culture Inoculum

Coir Pith and Biological Supplements

a. Azolla

Culture Conditions

Diversified Uses of Coir Pith and Coir Pith

Organic Manure (C-POM)

(a) Growing Media

(b) As Amendment

(c) As a Substitute to Peat Moss

(d) As an Organic Fertilizer

(e) As a Base for Home/Vertical/Roof


(f) As a Base for the Preparation of


Binderless Coir Wood


Materials and Methods



Drying of the Materials


Hot Pressing

Effect of Moisture

Effect of Temperature

Effect of Pressure and Cooling Under




Price and Performance of Improved


Marketing Strategy


Promotional Programmes




Weaving Integrated Unit


Uses & Applications


Manufacturing Process

Twin Cord Making

Twin Cord Softening Section

Manufacturing Process of Hessian Cloth

Process Flow Diagram

Detailed Manufacturing Process of Jute

Yarns & Other Jute Processing








Dressing and Beaming




Machinery Details and Specifications

1. Spinning Machine and Spreader



2. High Speed Automatic Electronic

Weaving Rapier Loom



3. Bale Opener





Properties of Jute

Manufacturing Process Jute Twine Cum

Gunny Bag

Basic Raw Materials Required

Basic Plant and Machineries Required


Small Qualities of Jute Goods




Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram

Machinery Details and Specifications

1. Spinning Machine



2. Twister Roller







Properties of Jute Garments

Uses of Jute Garments

Manufacturing Process of Jute Garments

Here Jute Garments Means

Basic Raw Materials Required

Basic Plant and Machinery Required

Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram

Machinery Details and Specifications

1. Weaving Machine



2. Drying Equipment



1. Sewing Machine

Quick Details





A. Modernisation of Production Processes


Properties of Jute Shopping Bags

Uses & Applications

Manufacturing Process

Raw Material Required

Plant and Machinery Required


Process Flow Diagram

Machinery Details and Specification

1. Sewing Machine

Quick Details





1. Hessian

2. Sacking

3. Canvas

Product Description

Uses and Applications

Application of Gunny Bags

1. Food Grains

2. Sugar

3. Cement

4. Fertilizers

5. Chemicals

Manufacturing Process

Inspection of Hessian Cloth

Set Making




Inspection of the Bags


Process Flow-Sheet for the Manufacture of

Gunny Bags

Machinery details and specifications

1. Sewing Machine

Quick Details






Steps of Manufacturing Process

Machinery Details and Specifications

1. Jute Chopper and Cutter

Company details

2. Hydraulic Press Machine

Company details

3. Calendaring Machine

Company details

4. Cutting Machine

Company details



Effluent Treatment Plant Equipment






Coir Fibre


Brown Fibre

White Fibre

Major Producers

Kerala Fibre

Bio-Softening and Bio-Bleaching/

Brightening of Coir Fibre

Short-Term Objective of the Softening


Long-Term Objective of the Softening


Biotechnological Process of Softening and


Enzymes Used

Preparation of Media

Molasses Broth Medium

Potato Dextrose Broth Medium

Crude Enzyme Preparation

Treatment of Dry Husk


Improvement in Softness of Dry Husk





Application of Coir Pith

Special Features of Coir-Pith

Uses of Coir Pith Blocks

Role of Our Coir Pith Blocks

Manufacturing Process of Coir Pith

Raw Materials

Harvesting and Husking




Process Flow Diagram

Machinery Details and Specifications

1. Coir Pith Baling Machine



Block Specifications

Machine Specifications

Hydraulic Power Unit

2. Coir Pith Machine


Technical Specifications


Contact Details

3. Crusher

Company Details

4. Industrial Screener


Machine Specifications

Company Details




What is Charcoal?

What can be Briquetted?

What is Biomass Charcoal Briquetting?

Biomass Charcoal Briquette Production

Raw Materials Required

Process in Manufacturing

1. Biomass collection

2. Carbonization Process

I. Briquettes Drying Stage

II. Initial Carbonization Stage

III. Comprehensive Carbonizing Stage

(temperature 300~6500C)

3. Briquetting

Steps for Manufacturing

Process Flow diagram

Machinery Details and Specifications

Company Details




Types & Structure of Coir Fibre

Uses and Applications

Properties of Coir

Physical Properties of Coir Fibre

Chemical Properties (Composition)

Advantages of Rubberized Coir Mattresses

Manufacturing Process

Embedding of Coir Fibres



1. Dispersion

2. Solution Preparation

Process Flow Diagram

Production Details of the Product

Machinery Details and Specifications

1. Coir Mattresses Machine

Key Features of Machine

Types of Different Width of Production of by


Space Required

Power Required

Contact Details







Performance Result of the Screw Press






Uses of Coir in Agricultural Textiles

Erosion Control Blankets for Controlling

Slope Erosion

Mulch Blankets

Basket Liners


Roof Greening Mats

Grow Sticks

Coco Logs

Grow Media





(1)Physical Properties of Coir Fibre

(2)Chemical Properties (Components of

Coir Fibre)

Materials and Methods for the

Manufacture of Coir Corrugated Sheets

1. Coconut Coir Non-Woven Felt

2. Woven Bamboo Mat

3. Resin

Raw Materials for Resin Manufacture



Test Methods to Assess the Quality of


4. BOPP Film as Releasing Agent

5. Preservative Chemicals

Batch Resin Reactor or Resin Kettle

1. Preparation of Phenol Formaldehyde


Flow Chart for Preparation of PF Resin

2. Preparation of Phenol Cardanol

Formaldehyde Resin

Flow Chart for Preparation of PCF Resin

Phenol-Methanol Polymerization of Resin

Consolidation of Non-Woven Coir Felt

Construction of coir and bamboo mat for

Corrugated Sheet


Significant Aspect in Manufacture of Coir

Felt Corrugated Sheet

Moisture Content of Coir Felt and Mats

PCF Resin Adhesive Formulation [for


Requirement of PCF Resin

Impact of Resin Quality

Glue Application on the Coir Felt and

Bamboo Mat

Balance and Drying of Resin Coated Mats

Assembly of Coir Felts/Mats

Hot Pressing

Dimensioning and Finishing of Coir

Corrugated Sheets

Test Performed on Coir Felt Corrugated


List of Machinery and Equipment

List of Raw Materials

Suppliers and Manufacturers of Plant


1. Automatic Corrugated Roofing Sheet


Quick Details


Company Details

2. FRP Roofing Sheets Making Machine

Quick Details


Technology Parameter

Company Details














Environmental protection today is the universal concern. The more advanced, industrialized and economically affluent countries have focused strongly on the global ecological balance and green environment adopting eco friendly methods of production, minimizing the pollution during production of fibre, fabrics, coloration, finishing as well as manufacture of garments.

When used as a source of biomass fuel, jute production helps to conserve tree cover and natural forests. Moreover, leaf and crop trash remains in the field to be recycled as organic materials, thereby reducing demand for supplementary chemical fertilizers for subsequent crops.


Jute fibre is natural fibre or also known as golden fibre. It is available in India especially in West Bengal and carries a glorious history in the packaging sector as well as in the economy of Bangladesh. Jute fibers are produced from the cultivated jute plant. Jute fibre has large use in the jute mill to produce variety of products like jute bags, jute carpet and jute blanket.

Jute is one of the most versatile fibres known to man. Raw jute fibre is obtained from two varieties of plant: Corchorus Capsularis (White jute) and Corchorus Olitorius (Tossa jute), both native to Bangladesh. It is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh and some in India, mainly Bengal.

Jute needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet climate) is offered by the monsoon climate during the monsoon season. Temperatures ranging 20º C to 40º C and relative humidity of 70% -80% are favorable for successful cultivation. Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. There are three types of jute basically white raw jute, Tossa raw jute, Mesta raw jute.


1. Training of Workers & Supervisors

Under this scheme, training programmes for the supervisors and workers for updating their knowledge and improve their skill in both processing stages and maintenance are organized in various jute mills. HRD (Human Resource Development) intervention is sought to improve the sill and update the knowledge of workers to match with the changed situation/environment.

2. Machinery Development

 One of the main bottleneck for modernization of jute industry is lack of availability state-of-the-art machinery for jute fiber. Under this scheme, Research and Development efforts as well as the transfer of technology at each stage of processing is to be intensified. For the development of new technology and high yielding machinery, a Machinery Development Centre (CJMD) is to established through PPP model. In addition, specific machinery development projects are being funded @ 75%, to be taken up through the proposed CJMD, indigenous machinery manufacturers as well as research institutions who have the credibility and required infrastructure.


 The history of Coir and its association with the state of Kerala dates back to the 19th Century. Sandwiched between the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west, Kerala is one of the most beautiful States in India. Coir fibres -Nature’s wonder fibers are extracted from the husks surrounding the coconut. It is a common experience that fibres detached from the coconut skin are quite hard to break by simple tension, hence by pulling from both sides. Excellent properties of resistance to wear and easy availability in countries, where coconut palms are widespread, have allowed coir to be employed for a variety of uses, e.g., for manufacturing toys, bags and carpets.

There are two main types of coir fibre: Brown Coir, from fully ripened coconut husks; strong and resistant to abrasion, it is used in brushes, floor mats, and upholstery padding; White Coir, from husks of coconuts harvested just before they ripen; softer and less strong, it is spun into yarn, used for ropes and mats.


Jute is one of the important fibre crops of India. India is the largest producer of jute contribut­ing 61.2 per cent of the total world production. Before independence it had monopoly in world jute production, Although its cultivation is largely confined to the eastern part of the country the fibre and goods manufacture out of it are widely used.


Raw jute crop is an important cash crop to the farmers. Cultivation of raw jute crop provides not only fibre which has industrial use, but jute stick which is used as fuel and building material by the farming community. Raw jute is produced mainly in the state of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura and Meghalaya.  


The Jute growing tracts of India are broadly grouped into eight zones on the basis of agro climate as follows:

     •  Lower Bengal- Ganga - Riverine Tract: The important Jute growing districts are Hooghly, 24 Parganas (North and South), Nadia and Murshidabad. This is mainly Olitorius tract.

     •  Maldah- Dinajpur Tract: Maldah and Dinajpur (North and South) districts are included in this zone. Both Olitoriusand Capsularis Jute are grown in this zone.

     •  North Bengal and Brahmaputra Valley New Alluvium Zone: This zone consists of Coochbehar and Jalpaiguri districts of West Bengal and Gopalpara, Kamrup and Nowgong district of Assam. It is mainly Capsularis Jute tract.


Weed Management

Hand weeding is applied twice on 20 - 25 days after sowing (DAS) and 35 - 40 DAS. Fluchloralin can be sprayed at 3 days after sowing at the rate of 1.5 kg per hectare and is followed by irrigation. Further one hand weeding can be taken up at 30 - 35 DAS.

Top Dressing of Fertilizer

Apply 10 kg of N at 20 - 25 days after first weeding and then again on 35 - 40 days after second weeding as top dressing. During periods of drought and fertilizer shortage, spray 8 kg of urea as 2 per cent urea solution (20 g urea in one litre of water) on jute foliage on 40 - 45 as well as 70 - 75 DAS.


The Ganga delta contributes more than 80% of Jute production in the world. The Ganga delta can be sub-divided into some geographical region in term of cultivation as follows:

     •  Jat area (Brahmaputra Alluvium): The Jat area comprises a part of district of Dhaka, Mymensing, Tangail and Commilla of Bangladesh. The area receives annually fresh deposit of silt carried down by flood water. Soil is acidic in nature and the texture of the soil varies from sandy loam to clay loam.

     •  District area (Ganges Alluvium): The district area comprises a part of the district Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna, Rajshahi, Pabna and Dhaka of Bangladesh and major portion of West Bengal of India. The soil of this area is slight alkaline, clay loam to light loam and gray to dark gray colour. The type of Jute grown in this area is known as district Jute and it is next to Jat Jute in order of quality. The Jute fiber grown in this region is divided into major varieties such as hard district Jute and soft district Jute.

     •  Northern area (Testa silt): The northern area comprises a part of Dinajpore, Rangpore district, East Bogra and Sirajganj of Bangladesh and some parts of West Bengal of India. The soil of this region is sandy soil with low moisture retention capacity and is slightly acidic. The northern type of Jute is inferior quality of the three commercial types.


The coconut is a benevolent tree, a nature’s gift to mankind, as it is a source of food, beverage, oilseed, fibres, timber, and health products and also associated with mystery and omen in the life of people. The coconut tree provides clothing utensils and dwellings, therefore, is an important source of earning livelihood to the people of coconut growing states, especially in the coastal areas. The coconut tree therefore, is eulogized, reverently as “Kalpavruksha” or tree of life by the people.


Coconut is grown under different soil types such as loamy, laterite, coastal sandy, alluvial, clayey and reclaimed soils of the marshy low lands. The ideal soil conditions for better growth and performance of the palm are proper drainage, good water-holding capacity and presence of water table within 3m and absence of rock or any hard substratum within 2m of the surface.


There are only two distinct varieties of coconut, the tall and the dwarf. 

The tall cultivars that are extensively grown are the West Coast Tall and East Coast Tall. The dwarf variety is shorter in stature and its life span is short as compared to the tall. Tall x Dwarf (TxD), Dwarf x Tall (DxT) are the two important hybrids.

Tall Varieties


Coconut is propagated through seedlings raised from selected seed nuts. Generally 9 to 12 month old seedlings are used for planting. Select seedlings, which have 6-8 leaves and 10-12 cm collar girth when they are 9-12 month old. Early splitting of leaves is another criterion in the selection of coconut seedling.


Seedlings can be transplanted in the beginning of the south west monsoon. If irrigation facilities are available, it is advisable to take up planting at least a month before the onset of the monsoon so that the seedlings get well established before heavy rains.


Spacing depends upon the planting system, soil type etc. In general the following spacing is recommended under different planting system in sandy and laterite soils.


Before planting the pits are filled up with top soil and powdered cow dung / compost up to a depth of 50 to 60 cm. Then take a small pit inside this, so as to accommodate the nut attached to the seedling. Plant the seedling inside this pit and fill up with soil. Press the soil well so as to avoid water stagnation. If there is chance for white-ant attack apply Sevidol 8G (5gm.) inside the small pit before planting.

In laterite areas apply 2 kg common salt per pit for improving the physical condition of the soil. Burying 25 to 30 coconut husks per pit in layers will be useful for moisture conservation.



Jute twin of different qualities and thickness are used extensively in India and Abroad. Three classes of twins are made viz. Country twin, export twin and sacking twins.

Among all jute products the production as well as exports of hessian cloth is a plain oven fabric made from the white jute of good quality weight per yard of 40" wide hessian ranges from 6 to 8.9 gms. or 170.25 to 253 gms. In the market following qualities are generally available for ready use.

It becomes a lamination of jute fabric to have more porosity than other compact fabric. Same constructive means have been devised to overcome these limitations.


Jute follows cotton in world textiles consumption. It is used in the United States chiefly in a floor covering, wrapping, & industrial fabrics rather than in clothing textiles (except for occasional high fashion items). A large percentage of the total yardage is used as wrapping & bagging material.

Jute is naturally a light tan colour & cannot be bleached because it is very reactive to chemicals & is appreciably weakened as the process. Jute is fairly absorbent. It can be dyed for decorators’ burlap in a variety of fairly dark colour but the dyes are not particularly fast to light for washing.


Jute bales (morahs) on arrival at the mill are opened by trained assorters who separate from each morah the qualities suitable for hessian, sacking warp, and sacking weft. The bundles are then removed to the batching house. For spinning yarns of high quality, barky root ends, which form c.60 % of the weight of fibres, are cut off.


The fibre and cutting are treated with a batching medium and piled for varying periods depending on the proportion of barky material present in the material. The sizes of piles vary fibres with higher proportion of bark being piled in large heaps; fibres relatively free from bark may be processed without standing in pile. This treatment softens the hard and stiff fibres and renders them suitable for subsequent processing.


The slivers from the last drawing frame are further drawn out and given a slight twist in a roving frame, in order to make them suitable for further processing without breaking. The sliver is fed to the retaining rollers at the back of the roving frame and supported in gill bars as in the drawing frame.


The bobbin of rove are taken to the spinning frame and supported in rows on iron pins near the top of the frame. The rove from each bobbin is led down to a pair of retaining rollers and thence to a pair of drawing rollers lower down. Further drafting occurs in the reach (often about 11 in) between the two pairs of rollers.


 Ply yarn, obtained by twisting two, three, or more threads of yarn, is used for sacking, sewing and a variety of other purposes. A twisting frame, similar to a spinning frame in appearance, but devoid of the drafting mechanism, is employed for twisting. Bobbins of spun yarn are placed on the hake above the frame and the threads in the required number are led through a retaining roller and flyer to a bobbin (generally 4 in. diameter and 6 in. long).

Dressing and Beaming

Warp yarn is dressed to render it smooth and stiff, and then wound on a beam.


India is at present the biggest manufacturer of jute goods. Producers of jute manufactures outside Indian are Bangladesh, U.K., West Germany, France, Belgium and Japan. U.S.A. produced jute yarn and bagging.

Jute is the bark fibre extracted from two cultivated species of Corchorus, viz. C. Capsularis Linn. (round pod jute or white jute) and C. olitorius Linn. (long pod jute or tossa jute). The former is more common and accounts for nearly 75% of the total acreage under jute; C. olitorius yields a fibre of superior spinning quality.


For preparing the fibre, the long stalks (6-12 t. Long and 0.4-0.8 in. Diam.) of plants are retted in water for 10-12 days. Root ends of the retted stalks are beaten with wooden mallets and the loosened fibre stripped off from the sticks, washed and dried in the sun. The fibre is soft with silky lusture and cream-white to reddish-brown in colour.


Fibres of higher grades are employed for spinning fine yarns. It is necessary to avoid barky material and specky fibre for spinning hessian warp and weft. Fibre of good quality with only a small proportion of barky material is used as warp for sacking material. The twill weave throws the bulk of the warp yarn on the face of the cloth and it is therefore desirable to use yarn of good colour as warp not only to impact a good appearance to the fabric, but also to ensure that designs and letters imprinted on it are easily visible.

Small Qualities of Jute Goods

Especially twines, strings and ropes – are produced on a cottage industry. The quantity of jute consumed for these purposes hardly amounts 10% of the total output.


The bobbins of rove are taken to the spinning frame and supported in rows on iron pins near the top of the frame. The rove from each bobbin is led down to a pair of retaining rollers and thence to a pair of drawing rollers lower down. Further drafting occurs in the reach (often about 11 in.) between the two pairs of rollers. From the drawing rollers the thread passes down to a flyer which rotates round a wooden bobbin upon which the yarn is wound. The degree of twist imparted to the yarn varies according to the type of yarn required. Hessian yarns and sacking warp are given 3¼ to 4 turns/in. and sacking weft 2½ to 3 turns/in.


Ply yarn, obtained by twisting two, three, or more threads of yarn, is used for sacking, sewing, and a variety of other purposes. A twisting frame, similar to a spinning frame in appearance, but devoid of the drafting mechanism, is employed for twisting.


India is a major jute producing country and it produces more than 40% of entire world’s production. Mesta and Jute products from India are in great demand domestically and are in great demand even in the European countries. Needless to say handicraft items made from Jute and Mesta are very much in vogue. Assorted varieties of bags and other products made in various weaves and blends are available in the market today.

There is variety of shopping bags available in India and throughout world. Shopping bags available in India made by paper, jute, synthetic resin base bags, leather bags etc. Plastic bags are taking the main share of shopping bags. Though there is some decline phase of plastic market in the field of shopping bag. Since there are problems in plastic bags, they are not biodegradable; it cannot be used for land filling purpose. Due to non biodegradable property of plastics it cannot be used for making shopping bag.


    1.  It is smooth enough and easy to handle.

    2.  It is strong enough to with stand load 2 Kg/cm2.

    3.  It is easily attacked by fire.


    1.  It can be used for shopping purpose.

    2.  It can be used school bags.

    3.  It can be used for transferring product from one place to another.


1. Sewing Machine

Quick Details

Machine Type: Sealing Machine

Bag Type: rice bag, seed bag, feed bag, or textile

Material: any textile, bag


     •  Portable bag closing machine

     •  Used in feed mill, garment plant, Rice factory, chemical fertilizer plant and seed plant.


Three qualities of gunny cloth were produced prior to the introduction of the mill-industry. These were goon (finely woven fabric resembling hessian, occasionally containing cotton) used as wearing apparel and sleeping mats by poor classes, and goon chat (coarse and loosely woven fabric) used for packing agricultural produce and bulkier articles.

If only food grains are counted, even then the number of gunny bags required to meet future demand would be much more than the present demand. Production of cement, sugar, fertilizers etc. is similarly increasing appreciably, which will require a manifold production of gunny bags. In case of cement bags, nylon jute bags are preferred because they are waterproof. Nylon jute gunny bags are also useful with good results for a variety of other applications.

About 95% of the production conforms to qualities for which there is a world demand. The goods produced are :-

1. Hessian

It is plain-woven fabric made from white jute of good quality and weighing 12 OZ/Yd with a normal basic width of 40".

2. Sacking

It is a heavy woven fabric, either plain or twill, weighing 12 - 20 OZ/Yd of different widths and ordinarily made lowest grades of fiber.

Product Description

Many articles need a container for its storage and transportation. Mainly food grains like wheat, rice, barley, wheat flour, sugar, gals etc. are the main items which require gunny bags. Besides - onion potatoes and other Vegetables, grass, seeds etc. are also transported in gunny bags. Not only this, there are various items where gunny bags are required for keeping them safely.

The other type of bags which are used for pitched craft bags, popularly known as “Tarpaulin paper bag” where one side of the wall is coated with asphalt, over which another piece of craft paper is attached so as to speak, an asphalt sandwich. This type of bag is quite costlier than gunny bag but the advantages of this bag is that they are water- proof and may be used where product has to be protected from moisture.

Uses and Applications

As has been stated earlier, the usages of gunny bags are to store and transport various materials like food grains, sugar, cement, fertilizers, and chemicals etc. The application can be tabulated as below:-

Application of Gunny Bags

1. Food Grains

Gunny bags are only to store and transport almost all the food grains like, wheat, rice, barley, paddy etc.

2. Sugar

Sugar is mainly transported in gunny bags.

Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing process of jute gunny bags is very simple and almost similar to the paper bags. The difference lies in the stitching of the bag instead of pasting.

Manufacturing of hessian bag includes the following steps:-

    1. Inspection of Hessian cloth.

    2.  Set making.

    3.  Marking

    4.  Cutting.

    5.  Stitching.

    6.  Inspection of the bags.

    7.  Packaging.


India has about 450 handmade paper units scattered all over India which are mainly based on cotton rags & hosiery cuttings producing nearly 50,000 tons of handmade paper& board having a turnover of Rs 250 crores. Whereas, the total quantity of paper produced is quiet significant with a total production of nearly 70 lakh tons per annum.

A handmade paper unit producing jute based paper viz., visiting card, designer fancy paper for packaging, file cover, file bag, and other utility items having installed capacity of 150 Kg per day can be set up in a shed of 5000 sqft. The unit can be profitably run as a family unit with 5-10 skilled and semiskilled labors.

An environment friendly pulping process which gives pulp having strength as high as kraft pulp and can be bleached easily, permitting the application of chlorine free bleached paper has been developed. Various steps involved in the process of handmade papermaking are described in brief:


     •  Quality of Raw Material- First and foremost the dirt content and undesired moisture in raw material should be assessed.

     •  Sorting- The raw material is sorted manually to remove any other foreign materials. It is also given a vigorous shake to remove the dust and dirt.

     •  Jute Cutter/Chopper- The shorted material should be chopped into small and uniform sized pieces.

     •  Dyes - Dyes play a very important role in handmade paper making sector. Direct dyes have the possibility of having azo group but reputed companies have stopped manufacturing dyes with azo group. To completely nullify the possibility of azo group, vegetable dyes and reactive dyes should be preferred in place of direct dyes.

     •  Sheet Formation- Dipping Method- The pulp is diluted with water and put into a masonry trough or vat. The lifting mould (mesh on a wooden frame) is then dipped into the trough, shaken evenly and lifted out with the pulp on it. The consistency of the pulp in the tank should be kept constant.

     •  Pressing- A hydraulic press is used to remove the excess water from the sheet s. Pressing reduces the bulkiness of the paper and i.e. the sheets become more compact. This improves the physical properties of the paper and facilitates drying.

     •  Calendering- The sheets are placed between metallic plates and passed through spring-loaded press to give the gloss. The calendaring load applied is different for various grades of paper. Some grades of paper such, as moon rock paper requires no load while papers such as insulation paper requires high load.

Environment Pollution and Effluent Treatment of Jute

Pollution problem is worldwide and abatement of pollution is a global problem. Many factors contribute to pollution domes and all aspects such as air, water, solid waste, heat, radiation, noise, vibration should be considered. In India, pollution is concerned mainly with air and water. There are two main sources of air pollution i.e. vehicular traffic and industry. Pollution from the transport system can be effectively minimized by timely maintenance of the engines of motorcars, trucks and buses.

Another important source of pollution is from incomplete combustion of fuels in industry.

Effluent from different industries is varied in characteristics and hence the treatment process of one need not be the same as the other.

All industries should consider the feasibility of re-using treated water in a combined effort to minimize fresh water consumption. It would be a sound policy to consider pollution abatement as an integral part of the process. Pollution control methods have centered an around the end-of-pipe solutions, such as installation of effluent treatment plant, the dust collectors and scrubbers to reduce effluents and emissions after these are generated.

Sedimentation removes a large proportion of the suspended impurities and thus clarifies it to a large extent. Only very fine suspended and colloidal solids are retained in the effluent. Chemical coagulation is useful for industrial effluent which do not respond to biological treatment and which require good clarification as pretreatment.

Secondary treatment makes the effluent extremely stable and in this stabilized condition can be safely discharged without causing pollution. The above treatment methods just described are generally applicable to most industries, but the design variables and the degrees of treatment required for each effluent differ from industry to industry.


With the expansion of the industries and the awareness of the pollution problems, considerable attention is paid for the development of equipment for the effluent treatment plants. Important equipment for the treatment of effluent is as follows:

Sedimentation is the least expensive method of removing suspended solids from any waste or other sources, for domestic/industrial, water supplies. This process removes 60 to 70% of suspended solids. 90 to 99% of settable solids and 30 to 40% of bio-chemical oxygen demand. In the sedimentation process the suspended solids in industrial effluent are separated under the influence of gravity.



Coir or Cocos - Nature’s wonder fiber is extracted from the protective husk of the Coconut. This golden fibre is spun into a breath-taking range of textured yarn and woven into a spectrum of colorful floor coverings.


The coconut palm has been eulogised as ‘Kalpavriksha’ the all giving tree in the classics of India. Its fruit is called Lakshmi Phal which is used in most of the social and religious functions in India from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, irrespective of whether the palm is grown locally or not. In the Valmiki Ramayana there are references of coconut in the Kishkindha Kanda and Aranya Kanda.


The fibrous husks are soaked in pits or in nets in a slow moving body of water to swell and soften the fibres. The long bristle fibres are separated from the shorter mattress fibres underneath the skin of the nut, a process known as wet-milling. The mattress fibres are sifted to remove dirt and other rubbish, dried in the sun and packed into bales. Some mattress fibre is allowed to retain more moisture so that it retains its elasticity for ‘twisted’ fibre production.



The immature husks are suspended in a river or water-filled pit for up to ten months. During this time micro-organisms break down the plant tissues surrounding the fibres to loosen them — a process known as retting. Segments of the husk are then beaten by hand to separate out the long fibres which are subsequently dried and cleaned.


Total world coir fibre production is 250,000 tonnes. The coir fibre industry is particularly important in some areas of the developing world. India, mainly the coastal region of Kerala State, produces 60% of the total world supply of white coir fibre. Sri Lanka produces 36% of the total world brown fibre output. Over 50% of the coir fibre produced annually throughout the world is consumed in the countries of origin, mainly India. Together India and Sri Lanka produce 90% of the 250,000 metric tons of coir produced every year.


Coir pith is an organic matter. It originates from the tropical hemisphere. All around the tropics coconuts are grown, both professionally and naturally. Especially in south-east Asia coconut oil production is widespread. For the professional oil winning companies the husk of the nut is a waste product. These coconut husks mainly exist of coir and fibres. Fibres were used in car and plane chairs, brooms, drain pipes and so called coconut mats.


     •  Activated carbon

     •  Textile industries etc.

After fungal degradation

     •  Organic fertilizer

     •  Considered as a substitute for soil

     •  Ideal soil re-conditioner, soil structure improver and soil substrate with excellent water

     •  Holding capacity. 


     •  Contains macro-nutrients — Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium

     •  Contains micro-nutrients — Calcium, Copper and magnesium

     •  Contains natural enzymes

     •  Excellent water holding capacity



     •  As A Potting Mix: Coir pith block can be used as potting medium. It can be mixed with required fertilizers and nutrients according to the type of plant to be grown

     •  For Generating Seeds: Coir dust in starter containers speeds up germination and profuse rooting of the seedlings

     •  For Tissue Cultured Plant: Wetted coir brick in poly bags encourages initial growth phase of tissue cultured plants and grafted seedlings


     •  Increased Air Porosity: Coir being fibrous in nature holds many air pockets which helps the crops to root easily and profusely. This increases the surface area of root system thereby facilitating better absorption of nutrients from soil

     •  Good Water Retention: Absorbs water rapidly and holds it for longer periods preventing desiccation of plants during hotter climates especially in tropical areas

Raw Materials

Coconut palms flower monthly. Because it takes a year for the fruit to ripen, a tree always contains fruits at 12 stages of maturity. Harvesting usually take place on a 45-60 day cycle, with each tree yielding 50-100 coconuts per year.

Fresh water is used to process brown coir, while sea water and fresh water are both used in the production of white coir. In 2000, researchers announced that adding a broth containing a certain combination of 10 anaerobic (living without oxygen) bacteria to salt water can dramatically hasten the fiber extraction process without seriously degrading product quality.


What can be Briquetted?

Almost any biomass can be briquetted. Briquetting plants set so far in India are using Saw Dust, Bamboo dust, Bagasse, Cotton Stalk, Coffee husk, Groundnut Shell, Mustard Husk/Stalk, Pine Needles, Rice Husk, Sugar Mill Waste, Jute waste, Coir pith and other wastes & residues like Castor Shell, Red Gram Stalk, Tobacco stem, Tea Waste, Sander Dust, Tree Bark, Wild Grasses & Shrubs and Sander dust etc. can be also be briquetted individually or in combination without using any binder.

What is Biomass Charcoal Briquetting?

Briquetting is the process of converting low bulk density biomass into high density and energy concentrated fuel briquettes.



A production plant has to be properly designed and engineered such that breakdowns and operational bottlenecks are minimal or thoroughly eliminated by a following proper preventive maintenance schedule.

Raw Materials Required

All biomass feeds are relatively very light with bulk densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.18 g/cc (50 to 180 kg/m³). Because of their bulky nature these are normally stored in the open. Where the location lies in heavy rain fall region, these should be stored in ground level bins which can be covered by heavy waterproof sheets or alternative, a side open shed could be provided.

Steps for Manufacturing

    1.  Material Crushing: put the raw material into crusher and crush into small pieces (diameter is about 3-5mm). We have 3 types of wood crushers respectively designed for different materials. Wood blade crush, wood hammer mill and straw crushing machine.

    2.  Drying: dry the granular material in the dryer or in the sun, till the moisture is less than 12%. For small scale charcoal briquetting plant, we suggest flash pipe dryer, while for large charcoal plant, the rotary drum dryer is the best choice.

    3.  Briquetting: briquetting is the most important process for the whole charcoal briquetting plant, our charcoal briquetting machine can meet different needs to of various scale charcoal plant.

    4.  Carbonization: at last, carbonized the briquette sticks in the carbonization furnace. There are three types of carbonization furnace for choice: Self-ignition Carbonization Furnace, Airflow Carbonization Stove and Lifting Carbonizing Furnace.


A coir mattress doesn’t mean the whole mattress is made of coir. The mattress will have all the layers that a regular mattress has such as a coil (spring) system, foams, etc. Coir’s moisture reducing and ventilation abilities give a coir mattress the feel of a cool sensation and relaxation. Coir fibre is heat and moisture resistant, has good ventilation, is moth proof and flame retardant, and is an excellent insulator.

From picking and dehusking of the coconut through fibre extraction to rug weaving and mattress production: coir production and processing is a complex process and, with current technology, most steps are labor intensive.


There are two main types of coir fibre:

     •  Brown Coir, from fully ripened coconut husks; strong and resistant to abrasion, it is used in brushes, floor mats, and upholstery padding;

     •  White Coir, from husks of coconuts harvested just before they ripen; softer and less strong, it is spun into yarn, used for ropes and mats.


A small amount is also made into twine. Pads of curled brown coir fibre, made by needle-felting (a machine technique that mats the fibres together) are shaped and cut to fill mattresses and for use in erosion control on river banks and hillsides.

The major use of white coir is in rope manufacture. Mats of woven coir fibre are made from the finer grades of bristle and white fibre using hand or mechanical looms. White coir also used to make fishing nets due to its strong resilience to salt water.

In horticulture, coir is a strongly recommended substitute for sphagnum moss because it is free of bacterial and fungal spores, and produces good results without the environmental damage caused by peat mining. Coir is also useful to deter snails from delicate plantings. Coir is also used as a growing media in intensive glasshouse horticulture.


The physical and chemical properties of coir are as follows:

Physical Properties of Coir Fibre

Coir length                       : 10-30 cms

Fibre length                     :  0.6 mm

Diameter                         : 16 micron

Density                            : 1.4 g/cc


Coir is a biodegradable organic fibre and hardest among other natural fibres. It used commercially for the manufacture of vide range of products for varies end user applications.

The fibrous material forming part of the soft mass surrounding coconut is known as coir. Coconut husk is the raw material for the coir industry wherever there is large-scale coconut cultivation.


Coir is a versatile hard fibre obtained from the husks of coconut. The Coir fibre is one of the hardest natural fibres because of its high content of lignin; Coir has advantage in different application for erosion control, reinforcement and stabilization of soil and is preferred to other natural fibres. The fibre is hygroscope, with moisture content of 10% to 12% at 65% humidity and 22% to 55% at 95% relative humidity.



Coir has the strong characteristics of retention of moisture and is preferred for the agricultural applications. It is naturally resistant to rot, moulds and moisture. Coir can be converted to coir yarn and then to woven mesh matting, which is used mainly controlling soil erosion and conditioning the soil.

Erosion Control Blankets for Controlling Slope Erosion

The natural coir material has a good application in erosion control blankets for landscaping. The mesh of woven coir matting acts as miniature dams and prevent the seeds or seedlings which used to be washed away by rain and wind and facilitating the growth .The netting breaks up run off, from heavy rains and dissipates the energy of flowing water.

Mulch Blankets

Coir can retain moisture for a long period. The coir non-woven or closely woven matting acts as a filter allowing the water to flow across its plane as well as separator. The mulch mats suppress the weeds and retains moisture in the soil, which protects the roots from winter frost and summer scorching sun.


Coir non-woven felt mats which are made in the form of rolls, filled with peat moss/coir pith composite are used for bio-rolls. Bio-rolls help in rapid growth of the roots and the natural product combination supports the development of plant.

Grow Sticks

Grow sticks are used as natural supports for plants and creepers which consist of wooden pole wrapped with the layer of coir-fibre or non-woven felt. The roots of the plant can penetrate on the pores of coir pad.

Coco Logs

Coco logs are used along stream, river, and lake banks to protect against scour. It consists of coir fiber or coir non -woven pads in the form of rolls covered with coir nets. Coco logs are kept at the edge of the bank secured by wooden pegs. Coco logs work as a brake on waves and reduces the impact of erosion. The natural product combination supports the development of plant by roots binding.


Coir fibre is obtained from the Outer layer of the fruit of Coconut tree (Cocos Nucifera L). This outer layer is called the coconut husk. The husk (exocarp) of the coconut consists of a smooth waterproof outer skin (epicarp) and fibrous zone (mesocarp). The mesocarp comprises of strands of fibro vascular bundles of coir embedded in a non fibrous paranchymatous “corky” connective tissue usually referred to as pith; which ultimately becomes coir dust.

The word ‘coir’ is derived from “kayar” which in Malayalam means a rope. The word seems to have been introduced into the European literature by Marco Polo, the Italian traveler, in 13th century.

Coir is stiff coarse fibre and is found between the husk and the outer shell of a coconut. The individual fibre cells are narrow and hollow, with thick wall made of cellulose. There are two varieties of coir:

   (I)  Brown coir extracted from a varieties ripe coconut which contains more lignin and less cellulose and are stronger but less flexible,

  (II)  White coir extracted from coconut before they are ripe, which are white or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but also weaker.

Coconut palms grow throughout the world’s tropical regions; but majority of the commercially produced coir comes from India and Sri Lanka. India produces about one-fourth of the world’s 55 billion coconuts each year, out of which only 15% of the husk fibre are actually recovered for use. India annually produces about 2, 80,000 metric tons of coir fibre.

Coir in loose mass cannot be used for manufacturing roofing sheet. It requires uniform layer of coir in the form of mat. Needled coir felt in suitable thickness was found to form required raw material for making corrugated sheet.


    1.  Coconut coir non-woven felt

    2.  Bamboo mats

    3.  Phenol Cardanol Formaldehyde or Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive

    4.  BOPP film as releasing agent

    5.  Preservative Chemicals

Significant Aspect in Manufacture of Coir Felt Corrugated Sheet

1. Coir felt: Uniformity in the coir felt is very important. Coir felt has non uniform distribution of coir and in place where density or total coir content in the felt is less, it is a vulnerable point in the corrugated sheet for water leakage.

The color of the coir determines the final color of the corrugated sheets. White coir felt looks better than the brown coir felt.

Since coir felt is porous material, it holds enormous quantity of resin during resin application by dipping. Unless excess resin is not removed by squeezing this extra resin will be waste as, this resin would be squeezed during hot pressing. Resin content of 70-100 gm/ sq ft (42% liquid) is good enough for requisite bonding.


Moisture Content of Coir Felt and Mats

Both the coir felt and bamboo mat are available in dried condition of equilibrium moisture content, further drying of the raw materials are not necessary. Moisture content of glue coated felt and mats are more important. Higher moisture content will create blister during hot pressing and very low moisture content will result in inadequate bonding. Ideal moisture content for glued coir felt is 12-14% and that of glue bamboo mat is 10 ±2%.

Glue Application on the Coir Felt and Bamboo Mat

Coir felt is first cut into desired length and checked for moisture content. If moisture is higher the felt is dried to required moisture level. Consolidated mats are dipped in CPF resin contained in a vat made of steel. It is ensured that resin wets the felts thorough and thorough. The felts are removed from the vat and kept in slanting position for some time to drain out excess resin, and then these felts are passed through glue spreader to squeeze excess resin and to bring down the resin content to desired level.


Resin coated felts and mats are dried in either a drying chamber or industrial dryers such as band dryer at a temperature of 90 ± 5°C till the moisture content comes down to 14 ± 2 percent.


NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
  • Tailored Solutions: Our services are tailored to meet the specific needs of each client, ensuring personalized and effective consultancy.

Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.