Handbook on Herbal Medicines (Ayurveda Cream, Oil, Pain Balm, Tablet, Herbal Capsules, Churna, Syrup, Medicines with Composition, Rasa Preparations with Production Process, Machinery, Equipment Details and Factory Layout)2nd edition ( New Arrival ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author H Panda ISBN 978-81-7833-091-4
Code ENI36 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1675   1675 US$ 41   41
Pages: 544 Published 2024
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days


Handbook on Herbal Medicines

(Ayurveda Cream, Oil, Pain Balm, Tablet, Herbal Capsules, Churna, Syrup, Medicines with Composition, Rasa Preparations with Production Process, Machinery, Equipment Details and Factory Layout)

About the Book

Herbal medicines, sometimes referred to as herbal remedies or botanical medicine, have a long history of use spanning centuries as a natural approach to addressing various health conditions. These treatments are derived from plants and their components, such as leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and seeds. Herbal medicines leverage the therapeutic properties found in nature to promote general health and well-being. One of the key advantages of herbal medicines is their holistic approach to health. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs that often target specific symptoms, herbal remedies aim to treat the underlying cause of the ailment by addressing the body as a whole. This integrative approach focuses on supporting the body's innate healing mechanisms and restoring balance.


The Herbal Medicine Market Size was valued at USD 148.5 Billion and is projected to grow from USD 165.13 Billion to USD 386.07 Billion in coming years, exhibiting a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.20%. The demand for herbal medicinal goods has grown as people become more aware of allopathic medications' side effects and the advantages of using them instead. The expanding population, coupled with an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, is another market driver impacting market growth.


The market of herbal medicines will rise due to consumer preferences for natural and herbal goods. Natural goods like herbal medications and health supplements are popular among young people and those close to retirement. As a result, healthcare spending has changed as more senior citizens use herbal medications to maintain their active lifestyles. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 80% of the world's population consults traditional health practitioners for plant-based medicines, as they believe that products labeled as 'natural' are safe to consume and do not have any side effects on their health.


The primary content of the book consists Herbal Plant Based Medicine, Herbal Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals, Potential Value-Added Products of Herbal Plants, Manufacturing of Ayurveda Cream, Oil, Pain Balm, Tablet, Herbal Capsules, Churna and Syrup.  Rasa Preparations, Medicine for Gastrointestinal Tract, Impotency,  Central Nervous System, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Genitourinary Disorders, Respiratory System, Skin, Women Care, Infection & Infestation, General Disease, Endocrinology Medicines, Nutritional Medicines, Cardiovascular Medications, Packaging of Herbal Medicine, Factory Layouts, Machinery, Equipment Details & photographs with Suppliers Contact Details.


This publication is a useful guide, thoroughly covering every important aspect of herbal medicine. It's set to be a go-to resource for professionals and budding entrepreneurs in this domain, providing an exhaustive insight into herbal medicine. The content is also immensely useful for consultants, entrepreneurs, start-ups, technocrats, research scholars, educational institutions, and established businesses. It presents a clear, step-by-step guide, leading from the foundational concepts to the stages of acquiring equipment.











1.    Introduction

        1.1        Herbal Medicine

        1.2        Benefits of Herbal Medicine 

        1.3        Poly Herbal

        1.4        Efficacy

        1.5        Secondary Metabolites

        1.6        Health Benefits of Herbal Medicines

        1.7        Reasons for the Upsurge in the Use of Herbal Medicine

                     1.7.1       Personal Preferences for Herbal Medicine

                     1.7.2       Perception of Safety

                     1.7.3       Easy Accessibility

                     1.7.4       Low Cost

                     1.7.5       Efficacy of Treatments

                     1.7.6       As the Last Resort

        1.8        Manufacturing Process

                     1.8.1       Raw Material Collection

                               Identification and Authentication

                               Sustainable Harvesting


                     1.8.2       Preliminary Processing


                               Sorting and Grading


                     1.8.3       Extraction




                               Solvent Extraction

                     1.8.4       Concentration and Refinement



                     1.8.5       Formulation

                     1.8.6       Quality Control

                               Potency Testing

                               Purity Testing

                               Stability Testing

                     1.8.7       Packaging

                     1.8.8       Labeling

                     1.8.9       Distribution

                     1.8.10     Conclusion

        1.9        Standardization and Regulation

2.    How to Start Herbal Medicine Business

3.    Why to Start a Herbal Medicine Business

        3.1        Growing Demand for Natural Alternatives

        3.2        Aligning with Holistic Health Trends

        3.3        Environmental Sustainability

        3.4        The Diverse Range of Products

        3.5        Cultural Resonance

        3.6        Low Entry Barriers

        3.7        Opportunities for Education and Community Building

        3.8        Profit Potential

        3.9        Personal Fulfillment

        3.10     Flexibility in Business Model

4.    Herbal Medicine Market

        4.1        The Growing Popularity of Herbal Medicine

        4.2        Market Overview

        4.3        Challenges and Concerns

        4.4        Future Prospects

        4.5        Herbal Medicine and Sustainable Practices

        4.6        The Role of Regulation and Standardization

        4.7        Global Market Dynamics

        4.8        The Impact of Modern Research

        4.9        Consumer Education and Empowerment

        4.10     The Future of the Herbal Medicine Market

        4.11     Challenges and Opportunities in Herbal Medicine

        4.12     The Role of Scientific Research in Herbal Medicine

        4.13     Consumer Education and Empowerment in Herbal Medicine

        4.14     Conclusion

5.    Machinery and Equipment Used in Herbal Plant Based Medicine Production

        5.1        Harvesting Equipment

        5.2        Drying Equipment

        5.3        Grinding and Milling Machinery

        5.4        Extraction Equipment

        5.5        Mixing and Blending Machinery

        5.6        Tablet Presses and Capsule Filling Machines

        5.7        Filtration and Separation Equipment

        5.8        Distillation Apparatus

        5.9        Packaging and Labeling Machinery

        5.10     Quality Control and Testing Equipment

        5.11     Waste Management Systems

        5.12     Automation and Control Systems

        5.13     Cleanroom Facilities

        5.14     Conclusion

6.    Herbal Plant Based Medicine Production

        6.1        Selection of Medicinal Plants

        6.2        Cultivation

        6.3        Harvesting

        6.4        Drying

        6.5        Extraction

        6.6        Quality Control

        6.7        Formulation

        6.8        Packaging and Distribution

        6.9        Regulatory Compliance

        6.10     Research and Development

        6.11     Sustainability

        6.12     Education and Awareness

        6.13     Integration with Conventional Medicine

        6.14     Challenges and Future Prospects

        6.15     Embracing Cultural Diversity

        6.16     Public Awareness and Education

        6.17     Integration into Healthcare

        6.18     Collaboration and Research

        6.19     Sustainable Practices

        6.20     Holistic Well-Being

        6.21     The Power of Prevention

        6.22     Bridging the Gap

        6.23     Global Exchange of Knowledge

        6.24     Herbal Medicine in a Changing World

        6.25     Your Role in the Plant-Based Medicine Revolution


7. Herbal Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals Production

        7.1        Production Process

        7.2        Feasibility and Techno-Economic Viability Study

        7.3        Why Invest in this Manufacturing Industry

        7.4        Market Analysis

        7.5        SWOT Analysis

        7.6        Profitability Analysis

        7.7        Global Expansion and Localization

        7.8        Supply Chain

        7.9        Branding and Marketing

        7.10     Regulatory Changes and Industry Compliance

        7.11     Technological Innovation

        7.12     Competitor Analysis

        7.13     Future Opportunities

        7.14     Global Expansion and Localization

        7.15     Supply Chain Optimization

        7.16     Branding Strategies

        7.17     Regulatory Compliance

        7.18     Technological Advancements

        7.19     Benefit of Herbal Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals

8.    Potential Value-Added Products of Herbal Plants

        8.1        Herbal Extracts

                     8.1.1       Benefits of Herbal Extracts

                     8.1.2       Examples of Herbal Extracts

        8.2        Essential Oils

                     8.2.1       Benefits of Essential Oils

                     8.2.2       Examples of Essential Oils

        8.3        Dietary Supplements

                     8.3.1       Benefits of Plant-Based Dietary Supplements

                     8.3.2       Examples of Plant-Based Dietary Supplements

        8.4        Herbal Teas

                     8.4.1       Benefits of Herbal Teas

                     8.4.2       Examples of Herbal Teas

        8.5        Natural Cosmetics and Skincare Products

                     8.5.1       Benefits of Natural Cosmetics and Skincare Products

                     8.5.2       Examples of Plant-Based Skincare Ingredients

        8.6        Natural Cleaning Products

                     8.6.1       Benefits of Natural Cleaning Products

                     8.6.2       Examples of Plant-Based Cleaning Ingredients

        8.7        Plant-Based Pharmaceuticals

                     8.7.1       Benefits of Plant-Based Pharmaceuticals

                     8.7.2       Examples of Plant-Based Pharmaceuticals

        8.8        Plant-Based Agriculture

                     8.8.1       Benefits of Plant-Based Agriculture

                     8.8.2       Examples of Medicinal Plants in Agriculture

        8.9        Research and Development

                     8.9.1       Research Areas in Plant-Based Medicine

                     8.9.2       Promising Research Findings

        8.10     Challenges and Considerations

        8.11     Conclusion

9.    Ayurveda Cream Manufacturing Process

        9.1        Benefits of Ayurveda Cream

        9.2        Manufacturing Process

                     9.2.1       Raw Material Collection

                     9.2.2       Herb Purification and Processing

                     9.2.3       Preparation of the Base Oil

                     9.2.4       Cream Formation

                     9.2.5       Addition of Preservatives

                     9.2.6       Cooling and Setting

                     9.2.7       Quality Control

                     9.2.8       Packaging

                     9.2.9       Storage and Dispatch

        9.3        Conclusion

10.  How to Start Ayurveda Cream Manufacturing Business

11.  Description of Plant Layout-Ayurveda Cream Production

12.  Ayurveda Oil Manufacturing Process

        12.1     Benefits of Ayurvedic Oils

        12.2     Manufacturing Process

                     12.2.1     Selection of Raw Materials

                     12.2.2     Preparation of the Herb

                     12.2.3     Mixing the Base Oil and Herb

                     12.2.4     Boiling and Cooking

                     12.2.5     Filtration

                     12.2.6     Aging or Maturation

                     12.2.7     Packaging and Storage

                     12.2.8     Conclusion

13.  How to Start Ayurveda Oil Manufacturing Business

14.  Description of Plant Layout-Ayurveda Oil Production

15.  Ayurvedic Pain Balm Manufacturing Process

        15.1     Origins and Philosophy

        15.2     Benefits of Ayurvedic Balms

                     15.2.1     Natural Ingredients

                     15.2.2     Pain Relief

                     15.2.3     Anti-inflammatory Properties

                     15.2.4     Skin Healing

                     15.2.5     Relaxation and Stress Relief

                     15.2.6     Reduced Side Effects

                     15.2.7     Enhances Blood Circulation

        15.3     Manufacturing Process

                     15.3.1     Raw Materials Used

                     15.3.2     Sourcing of Raw Materials

                     15.3.3     Pre-Processing of Raw Materials

                     15.3.4     Extraction Process

                     15.3.5     Mixing and Formulation

                     15.3.6     Testing

                     15.3.7     Packaging

                     15.3.8     Storage and Distribution

                     15.3.9     Conclusion

16.  How to Start Ayurvedic Pain Balm Manufacturing Business

17.  Description of Plant Layout-Ayurvedic Pain Balm Production

18.  Ayurvedic Tablet Making Process

        18.1     Intricacies of Ingredients

                     18.1.1     Herbs

                     18.1.2     Bhasmas

        18.2     Significance of Ayurvedic Tablets

                     18.2.1     Holistic Healing

                     18.2.2     Digestive Fire (Agni)

                     18.2.3     Dosha Balancing

        18.3     Modern Applications and Challenges

                     18.3.1     Integration with Modern Medicine

                     18.3.2     Quality Assurance and Standardization

                     18.3.3     Sustainability

                     18.3.4     Globalization

                     18.3.5     Education and Awareness

        18.4     Manufacturing Process

                     18.4.1     Selection of Ingredients

                     18.4.2     Preparation of Ingredients

                     18.4.3     Blending of Ingredients

                     18.4.4     Formation of Tablets

                     18.4.5     Drying

                     18.4.6     Coating (Optional)

                     18.4.7     Packaging

                     18.4.8     Labeling

                     18.4.9     Storage

                     18.4.10   Quality Control & Testing

        18.5     Conclusion

19.  How to Start Herbal Tablet Manufacturing Business

20.  Description of Plant Layout-Ayurvedic Tablet Making Process

21.  Herbal Capsules Manufacturing Process

        21.1     Advantages of Herbal Capsules

        21.2     Manufacturing Process

                     21.2.1     Raw Material

                     21.2.2     Drying and Storage

                     21.2.3     Size Reduction

                     21.2.4     Extraction

                     21.2.5     Concentration and Drying

                     21.2.6     Blending and Granulation

                     21.2.7     Encapsulation

                     21.2.8     Quality Control

                     21.2.9     Packaging

                     21.2.10   Labeling and Distribution

        21.3     Conclusion

22.  How to Start Herbal Capsules Manufacturing Business

23.  Description of Plant Layout-Herbal Capsule Manufacturing Process

24.  Herbal Churna Manufacturing Process

        24.1     Benefits of Herbal Churna

                     24.1.1     Holistic Health

                     24.1.2     Customization

                     24.1.3     Natural and Safe

                     24.1.4     Versatility

                     24.1.5     Preventive and Curative

        24.2     Manufacturing Process

                     24.2.1     Raw Material Sourcing

                             Identification and Selection


                             Quality Check

                     24.2.2     Pre-Processing





                     24.2.3     Grinding

                             Initial Grinding

                             Fine Grinding

                             Sieve Analysis

                     24.2.4     Blending

                     24.2.5     Packaging


                             Packaging Material Selection

                             Filling and Sealing

                     24.2.6     Quality Control and Assurance


                             Batch Numbering

                     24.2.7     Distribution

        24.3     Conclusion

25.  How to Start Herbal Churna Manufacturing Business

26.  Description of Plant Layout-Herbal Churna ProductioN

27.  Herbal Syrup Manufacturing Process

        27.1     Historical Context

        27.2     Composition of Herbal Syrups

        27.3     Benefits and Uses

                     27.3.1     Elderberry Syrup

                     27.3.2     Ginger Syrup

                     27.3.3     Chamomile Syrup

        27.4     Syrup Making Process

                     27.4.1     Selection of Raw Materials

                     27.4.2     Cleaning and Sorting

                     27.4.3     Extraction

                     27.4.4     Filtration

                     27.4.5     Concentration

                     27.4.6     Addition of Preservatives

                     27.4.7     Sweetening

                     27.4.8     Testing and Quality Control

                     27.4.9     Bottling and Packaging

                     27.4.10   Storage and Distribution

        27.5     Challenges in Herbal Syrup Manufacturing

                     27.5.1     Standardization

                     27.5.2     Regulation and Quality Control

                     27.5.3     Preservation without Compromising Efficacy

28.  How to Start Herbal Syrup Manufacturing Business

29.  Description of Plant Layout-Herbal Syrup Production

30.  Rasa Preparations

        30.1     Groups of Medicines in Rasa-Ratna-Samucchaya

                     30.1.1     Maharasa

                     30.1.2     Uparasa

                     30.1.3     Sadharan Rasa

                     30.1.4     Ratna-Uparatna

                     30.1.5     Dhatu

                     30.1.6     Kandavisha (Poisonous Herbs)

                     30.1.7     Upavisha (Poisonous Herbs)

        30.2     Fascial Paralysis (Due to Polio)

                     30.2.1     Drugs for Polio

31.  Impotency

        31.1     Uttaravasti an Ultimate Treatment for ED and Unorgasm

                     31.1.1     Yoga for Uttarvasti

32.  Medicine for Gastrointestinal Tract

        32.1     Antacid

        32.2     Anti Diarrhoeal

        32.3     Anthelmintics

        32.4     Anti-Ulcer

        32.5     Anti Emetics

        32.6     Appetite Stimulant

        32.7     Colorectal Preparations

        32.8     Enzymes and Carminatives

        32.9     Gastric Disorders

        32.10   Hepato Biliary Preparations

        32.11   Laxatives

33.  Cardiovascular Medications

        33.1     Anti Anginal Drugs

        33.2     Anti-Hypertensive

        33.3     Anti-Coagulants and Haemostatics

        33.4     Cardiac Disorders

34.  Medicine for Central Nervous System

        34.1     Analgesics

        34.2     Antipyretic

        34.3     Memory Boosters

        34.4     Anti Convulsants

        34.5     C.N.S. Stimulants

        34.6     Sedatives & Tranquilisers

35.  Medicine for Musculoskeletal Disorders

        35.1     Antiinflammatory

        35.2     Topical Analgesics

        35.3     Musculo Skeletal Drugs

        35.4     Neuro Muscular Drugs

36.  Medicine for Genitourinary Disorders

        36.1     Urinary Anti-Infectives

        36.2     Diuretics

        36.3     Uterine Anti-Infective

        36.4     Menstrual Cycle Related Disorders

        36.5     Uterine Sedative

        36.6     Sexual Stimulants

        36.7     Benign Prostate Hypertrophy

37.  Medicine for Respiratory System

        37.1     Anti Asthmatics

        37.2     Expectorants, Mucolytics & Decongestants

        37.3     Respiratory Tract Infections

38.  Medicine for Skin

        38.1     Drugs for Skin Allergy

        38.2     Anti Allergic

        38.3     Drugs for Psoriasis

        38.4     Anti Fungal

        38.5     Drugs for Acne Vulgaris

        38.6     Pigmentation Disorders

        38.7     Topical Soothing Agents

        38.8     Miscellaneous Preparations

39.  Nutritional Medicines

        39.1     Haematinics and Haematipoietics

        39.2     Tonics

        39.3     Immunomodulators

        39.4     Anti Obesity Drugs

40.  Medicines for Women Care

        40.1     Antenatal

        40.2     Postnatal

41.  Medicines for Infection & Infestation

        41.1     Anti Malarial and Anti Filarial

        41.2     Anti-Viral Anti-Infective

42.  Endocrinology Medicines

        42.1     Oral Hypoglycaemics

        42.2     Fertility Agents

        42.3     Goitre

43.  Medicines for General Disease

        43.1     Dental

        43.2     Eye

        43.3     E.N.T. & Oropharynx

        43.4     Hair & Scalp

        43.5     Paediatric Preparations

        43.6     Makkala Abhyanjana

44.  Packaging of Herbal Medicine

        44.1     Selection of Materials

        44.2     Preservation from Environmental Factors

        44.3     Vacuum Sealing and Air-tight Containers

        44.4     Incorporation of Desiccants

        44.5     Safety Seals

        44.6     Labeling

        44.7     Child-Resistant Packaging

        44.8     Packaging for Different Dosage Forms

        44.9     Sustainable Packaging

        44.10   Testing

        44.11   Automation in Packaging

        44.12   Conclusion

        44.13   Importance of Herbal Medicine Packaging

                     44.13.1   Protection from External Factors

                     44.13.2   Information and Branding

                     44.13.3   Safety and Tamper Evidence

                     44.13.4   Sustainable Use

45.  Guidelines from WHO on Good Manufacturing
Practices (GMP) for Herbal Medicines

        45.1     Introduction

        45.2     General

        45.3     Glossary

        45.4     Quality Assurance in the Manufacture of Herbal Medicines

        45.5     Good Manufacturing Practice for Herbal Medicines

        45.6     Sanitation and Hygiene

        45.7     Qualification and Validation

        45.8     Complaints

        45.9     Product Recalls

        45.10   Contract Production and Analysis

        45.11   Self-Inspection

        45.12   Personnel

        45.13   Training

        45.14   Personal Hygiene

        45.15   Premises

                     45.15.1   Storage Areas

                     45.15.2   Production Areas

        45.16   Equipment

        45.17   Materials

                     45.17.1   Recommendation Examples and Standards

        45.18   Documentation

                     45.18.1   Specifications

                     45.18.2   Herbal Materials

                     45.18.3   Finished Herbal Products

                     45.18.4   Herbal Preparations

                     45.18.5   Processing Instructions

        45.19   Good Practices in Production

                     45.19.1   Selection of the First Production Step Covered by these Guidelines

                     45.19.2   General Considerations

                     45.19.3   Mixing of Batches and Blending

        45.20   Good Practices in Quality Control

                     45.20.1   General

                     45.20.2   Sampling

                     45.20.3   Testing

                     45.20.4   Stability Studies

                     45.20.5   Packaging Materials and Labelling

46.  ISO Standards

47.  Factory Layout and Process Flow Chart & Diagram

48.  Photographs of Plant and Machinery with Suppliers
Contact Details

      Homogenizer Stirrer

      Herbs Chopping Machine (Shredder)

      Automatic Plastic/Laminated Tube Filling & Sealing Machine

      FBD Machine

      Root Washing Machine

      Cream Mixer

      Colloid Mill

      Raw Herbs Grinder

      Oral Syrup Filling Line

      Wet Grinder

      Leaf Crushing Extruder

      Automatic Rotary Bottle Washing Machine -Glass and PP Bottles

      Reaction Vessel

      Powder Filling Machine

      Double Cone Blender Herbal Machinery

      High Efficiency Tablet Film Coating Machine

      Cold Form Alu - Alu Blister Packing Machine

      Bottle Labelling Machine

      Vibratory Screening Machine

      Mass Mixer Machine

      Automatic Capsule Filling Machine

      Pulverizer Machine

      Ayurvedic Pills Cutting Machine

      Rapid Mixer Granulator

      Spray Dryer






Summary: Clearance of HbsAg from the serum of Hepatitis B patient by the judicious application of "Arogyavardini Rasa" and a tablet containing "Bhumyamalaki" has been studied in this case. This combination has considerably reduced the clearance time and re-established the Liver function with complications. Hence this has opened an alternative vista for the management of Hepatitis B. 'Hepatitis B' and 'HbsAg+ve' are the much familiar and honyfying words among the public and medical fraternity now a days. Hence an attempt has been made to treat the 'HbsAg+ve' patient through Ayurvedic medicines.


Liver is the largest organ in the human body with wide range of integrated functions. This vital organ is the soft target for many pathogens. Viruses are one among them. These viruses causes both morphological and physiological changes in the Liver. The process of change may be slow or rapid, leading to various clinical manifestations. HBV is one of the dangerous virus which cause severe alterations in the liver and some times leads to death. This is the only hepedna virus which cause infection in humans. They enter the hepatocytes of liver and replicate to cause hepatitis which is a diffuse microinflammatory disease, where in liver parenchymal cells face the wrath of the virus. Depending upon the severity of the infection and clinical features, person is treated either at O. P. D. or I. P. D. Faliure of clearance and virus from the serum is mainly due is lack of an adequate immune response.

Materials & Methods

A serologically confirmed HbsAg strongly positive (++++) case has been referred for the management through Ayurvedic medicines. The management of "Hepatitis B" cases is mainly supportive and aimed at speedy regeneration of damaged hepatocytes, inhibition of the vital replication and stimulating immune system to produce an adequate immune response. Clinical features such as Icterus, Anorexia (Aruchi), Dark urine & stools (Raktapeeta Shakruth, mootra), yellow tint of Sclerae, loss of appetite (Agni sada), Debility (dourbalya). Skin rashes (Kandu, twak vikara) are taken as parameters. L. F. T. value and serological clearance/presence of HbsAg are taken as prime evidence of assess the progress of the disease.

Notes from history

The probable mode of infection as per history was a blood transfusion done about four months prior to the manifestation of clinical features, when the patient underwent a surgery for urinary calculus.

Signs & symptoms

The presenting signs and symptoms were icterus, fever, loss of appetite, debility, dark urine and stools, yellow tints of sclerae, joint pain and pruritis since ten days and liver was slightly palpable on examination. Ultrasonography report has favoured slight hepato-splenomegaly.


  1. Arogyavardhini Rasa, one tablet three times a day after food.
  2. Two tablets "Bhumyamalaki" three times a day after food.

Medication should be continued till HbsAg becomes negative in serum. Later tablet of 'Bhumyamalaki' three times a day after food may be given as prophylaxis for one to three months.


Patient was advised to take Laghu Aahara, more Dravyapadartha. Phalarasa (fruit juices), boiled vegetables and diet more of carbohydrate and moderate quantity of proteins.

Discussion & Conclusion

This combination of drugs has proved once again the supremacy of Ayurvedic drugs in hepatoprotective activity, and also given reassurence to the suffering humanity against HBV. Some of the other factors in the management of HBV are protecting other persons who came in close contact with infected person viz. wife/husband, children and relatives through vaccination. Usually patients needs counselling and reassurance along drug therapy.

Patient recovered rapidly during first two months of treatment, and became very weakly positive from the strongly positive. At the end of the third month patient become HbsAg negative which was confirmed by two different laboratories. " Better the immunity of the persons faster the recovery and clearance". One important factor observed during the treatment was no complications Patient well tolerated the medication.

This study has suggested that this combination of drugs has a definite role in the play in providing adequate immune response against HbsAg. Since study sample is too small, this needs further evolution.




Bronchitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases, significantly seen in the tropical areas. Bronchiolitis, acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis/bronchial asthma bronchiectesis and bronchial fibrosis are the progressive advanced stages of a pathological stage characterised by dyspnoea (krichra swasa) cough with or without expectoration (ardra kasa or shushka kasa), and wheeze (Ghur ghurayana with thamaha pravesha).

In Ayuvedic texts, the symptoms and sings of bronchial asthma has been described under the title Tamaka swasa a variety of swasa (respiratory disorder). Acharya Caraka has described five varieties of swasa namely Mahaswasa, Urdhwa Swasa, Chinna Swasa, Thamaka Swasa and Prathamaka Swasa.

The etio-pathological and clinical features of Thamaka shwasa corelated with that of the Bronchitis/Bronchial ashtma. The present study is a documentation of 60 cases of well established Bronchial asthma and its management through an integrated approach. It comprises of the selective line of treatments and drugs of modern systems of medicine Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy. The present study is a record of cases and their management over a period of 10 years.

Materials and Methods

  1. Selection of patients: Patients with complaints of difficult breathing, cough with or without expectoration and wheezing who visited 'Sumana Arogya dhama' were treated according to the requirement through an integrated approach of different systems of medicine and drugs. Patients were subjected for a thorough clinical examination and findings were recorded in a specific case proforma. Patients were also investigated with relative and equired Biochemical, Haematological, Microbiological and Roentogenographical procedures. All the dates were analysed by giving due importance to the differential diagnosis and the final diagnosis of Bronchial asthma was arrived. Cases were divided in to two groups for the convenience of treatment namely Acute asthmatics and Chronic Asthmatics based on the history, symptoms and sings. Cases between the age group of 4 to 40 years were selected for the study. Both female and male; adults and children were randomly selected. The cases selected were Bronchial asthmatic and were free from the associated diseases, such as Pneumonia, Cardiac problems, Pulmonary kochs, Emphysema, Corpulmonale and also Diabetes mellitus and Congenital deformities. The Acute and severe stage Bronchial asthma was managed with modern line of treatment, and the chronic stage of Bronchial asthma was treated with the alternative lines of treatment which included administration of 'Vardhamana pippali rasayana yogi' as aushadha (Medicine). Dietary restrictions (Ahara), practises such as Yoga, Pranayama, Honey pulling, Fasting etc., (Vihara) and meditation (Vichara) with an objective of preventing relapse by regulating the whole immune system.

  2. Vardhamana pipplai Rasayana yoga
    This is a course of administration of pippali (Piper lomgu) in the prescribed quantity for a prescribed period by altering the dosage in and ascending and descending order described by Acharya Charaka in the third chapter of chikitsasthana known as Kara Prachithiyam Rasayana pada. According to the texts, fruits of pippali should be administered over a period of twenty days, beginning with 10 fruits on the day one; increasing 10 fruits every day upto the 10th day and later decreasing with same number till it reaches to ten on 20th day. This dose is for people who have good tolerance (uthama Mathra). The author has recommended to start with 6 fruits and 3 fruits of pippali for people having moderate and low tolerance (Madhyama and Alpa matra) respectively. It has been adviced to administer pippali in the form of kshira paka. Acharaya charaka has attributed immunostimulants, growth promoting, geriatric, strength promoting, vitalizing, vivifying, rejuvenating, lifespan increasing and memory boosting pharmacological actions and therapeutic effects to pippali. In the present study a slight modification has been done from the classical 'Vardhamana pippali Rasayana yoga' of Charaka with regard to the ingredients, dosage and duration of the course of treatment by keeping in view the specific purpose of providing relief and specific immunity among Bronchial asthmatics. Tolerance of the patients and convenience of administration. Pippali was administered along with 2.5 gm, turmeric rhizome powder (Curcuma longa) 2.5 gm. liquorice root powder (Glycerrhiza glabra) one fruit of cordamom (Elettaria cordamomum) and sufficient quantity of Jaggery in the form of medicated milk (Kshira paka). The treatment course was start with six fruits of pippali on day one and increased one fruit every day upto 24th day and later decreased by one fruit of pippali a day till the number reached six, completing one Mandala (48 days) and administration of 900 fruits of pippali in a course. However, the quantity of turmeric, liquorice and cordamom were kept constant but the quantity of Jaggery was altered and adjusted depending upon the number of fruits of pippali, the needs of individual patients. Children below the age of 12 years were administered half the dose of Adults.


Management of Bronchial asthma through an Integrated approach comprises of the following:

Medicine (Ausadha)

Patients with acute bronchial asthma and severe chronic bronchila asthma were treated and managed with the conservative line of treatment depending upon the severity of disease and response of the patients. The line of treatment and drugs included the following:

  1. Broncho-dilators: Theophylline, Salbutamol, Terbutaline sulphate, Amino phylline, Adrenaline, Ephedrine hydrochloride, Kanakasava, Vasakarista. Mruthasanjeevini sura, Shwasa kuthara, Shwasananda.
  2. Antibiotics: Penicillin, Amoxycillin, Tetracycline, Pefloxacin, Cepholosporins, Septilin.
  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti Allergic/Steroids: Betamethasone, Dexamethadsone, Prednisolone, Hydrocortisone, Trimacinaline aceta manide (Oral, Parenteral and Aerosal form).
  4. Anti-histamines: Cetrizine di-hydrochloride, Phenaramine maleate, Chloro phenaramine maleate Haridra kanda Karpuradi churna, Gorochanadi vati, Kasturyadi vati.
  5. Mucolytics: Bromhexine hydrochloride, Taleesadi curna, Dasamula katutrayadi kasaya, Balajeerakadi kasaya and Gudapippali.
  6. Expectorants: Ammonium chloride, Ginaphansein, Pushkaramulasava, seems to be rendering the same. This is seen based on the percentage of cure, no relapse and less significant relapse even after an year.

Diet restrictions, practises such as pranayama, yoga, meditation, listening to music etc., help in quality of mental and physical health by improving both physical and mental resistance. Honey pulling is like oil pulling (which is being practised widely) is administrated with an objective of easy expectoration of sputum and mucolysis.


Since no particular system of medicine has been able to provide total cure for Bronchial asthma which has been revealed in the various studies, it is advisable to augment all the good and beneficial factors from the available different systems of medicine with an objective of establishing Asthmatic free society. This conclusion is very much in accordance with the slogan of Holistic medicine and also the Rigveda 'Anobhadhraha kanthavoyantha vishwathaha'-'Let noble thoughts come to us from every side.' Because we are interested in Lokaha samasthaha sukhinobhavanthu sarvesanthu niramayaha.' 'Let the entire world remain in pleasure and happiness and let there be a society free from all sorts of diseases.'





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            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


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                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

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                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

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        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

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  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

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  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR