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The Complete Book on Waste Treatment Technologies (Industrial, Biomedical, Water, Electronic, Municipal, Household, Kitchen, Farm Animal, Dairy, Poultry, Meat, Fish & Sea Food Industry Waste) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Prof. Dr. Mahendra Pal ISBN 9789381039670
Code ENI293 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1675   1675 US$ 150   150
Pages: 592 Published 2015
Usually Ships within 5 days

The Complete Book on Waste Treatment Technologies (Industrial, Biomedical, Water, Electronic, Municipal, Household, Kitchen, Farm Animal, Dairy, Poultry, Meat, Fish & Sea Food Industry Waste)

About the Book

Waste management is a global problem that continues to increase with rapid industrialization, population growth, and economic development. As the world hurtles towards the urban future, the amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is growing very fast. Waste includes any solid material or material that is suspended dissolved or transported in water or deposited on land. Wastes are generally classified into solid, liquid, & gaseous and are broadly classified as household waste; municipal waste; commercial and non-hazardous industrial wastes; e- waste, hazardous (toxic) industrial wastes; construction and demolition waste; health care wastes – waste generated in health care facilities (e.g. hospitals, medical research facilities); human and animal wastes; and incinerator wastes.

In the recent years, modern society has become more responsible when it comes to waste management. The fast industrialization, urbanization, modern technology, and rapidly growing population in India have posed a serious challenge to the waste management. In India, per capita generation rate of municipal solid waste ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 kg/day. At present, the daily generation rate in South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific combined is approximately 1.0 million tons per day.

The current scenario reveals that there is a tremendous scope for the development of waste treatment technologies and is expected to offer significant opportunities in the near future. Sustainability of waste management is the key for providing an effective service that can satisfy the need of end users. Solid Waste Management sector in India has become a very lucrative sector for investors. With a growing urgency for efficient waste management in many cities, there will be more and more employment opportunities in the sector. The participation of different sectors, roll of Government and private organization is important for better management of waste.


This book describes the various waste treatment technologies like; Physical treatment techniques, biological treatment techniques, anaerobic lagoon techniques etc.


It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, students, teachers, researchers, administrators, and planners of various disciplines who are directly or indirectly involved in the waste management.


About the Author


Dr. Mahendra Pal born on April 10, 1946 in Delhi, and obtained B. V. Sc. and A. H., M.V. P. H., Ph. D. and D. Sc. in 1969, 1975, 1981 and 1998,respectively.  Prof. Pal worked at Massey University, Palmerstone, New Zealand (1984), Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (1985-1986), and Tokyo University, Japan (1989-1990). Prof. Pal has acted as Advisor of over 68 students for D.V.M., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degree both in India, and Ethiopia. He has served in Veterinary and Medical institutes, and published over 475papers in national and international journals. Prof. Pal has published many papers in collaboration with the scientists of Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, USA, Nepal and Ethiopia. He has authored seven books including "Zoonoses" and "Veterinary and Medical Mycology" which are highly appreciated by veterinary and medical scientists. Prof. Pal has developed sunflower seed medium (Pal's medium) in 1980, “PHOL” (Pal, Hasegawa, Ono, Lee) stain, in 1990, “Narayan” stain in 1998 and “APRM” medium in 2015, which are proved very useful for the study of fungi. Prof. Pal is credited to elucidate the etiologic significance of Cryptococcus neformans for the first time with mastitis of goat (1975) and buffalo (1980), Nocardia asteroides in corneal unlcer of cattle (1982), Apergillus fumigatus in keratitis of buffalo calf (1983), Candida tropicalis in human lung empyema (1987), Fusarium solani in corneal ulcer of buffalo (1992) and Trichophyton verrucosum in dermatitis of barking deer (1993).  Prof.Pal established for the first time the prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans in the environment of New Zealand, Nepal, and Djibouti. He described for the first time the etiologic role of Candida albicans, and Trichophyton verrucosum in mastitis and dermatitis of camel, respectively in Ethiopia. Prof. Pal is serving as Honorary Member/Associate Editor of nine online journals. His papers are frequently cited as reference by many academicians in their papers, reviews, books, and monographs.  Prof .Pal has started M.V.Sc. and Veterinary Public Health at Veterinary College, Anand, India. He is also an instrumental to start Veterinary Public Health at Addis Ababa University for the first time in Ethiopia. Prof. Pal is a recipient of several awards, including "Jawaharlal Nehru Award", "Distinguished Teacher Award", and “Life Time Achievement Award." Presently, he is working as Professor of Veterinary Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.



A. Livestock Farm Wastes
Current Methods for Disposal of Livestock Mortalities
Future of Livestock Mortality Disposal
Novel Disposal Methods
Carcass Storage and Bioreduction Methods
Reasons for Concern
Pollution Potential of Farm Animal Wastes
Magnitude of the Problem
Properties of Animal Wastes
Physical Properties
Chemical and Biological Properties
Fertilizer Value
Handling of Farm Animal Wastes
Storage of Farm Animal Wastes
Treatment of Farm Animal Wastes
Physical Treatment
Chemical Treatment
Biological Treatment
Anaerobic Digestion
Lagoon Treatment
Aerobic Treatment
Economics of Farm Animal Waste Treatment
B. Biomedical Wastes
Classification of Biomedical Waste
Handling, Storage, and Transportation of Healthcare Waste
On-site Collection, Transport, and Storage of Waste
On-site Transport
Off-site Transportation of Waste
Special Packaging Requirements for Off-site Transport
Handling, Storage, and Transportation of Healthcare Waste
Biomedical Waste Treatment
Incineration Technology
Non-Incineration Technology
Microwave Irradiation
Chemical Methods
Selection of Suitable Treatment Technology
Common Treatment Facility
Mobile Treatment/Disposal System
C. Industrial Wastes
Description of Important Industrial Solid Waste
Coal Ash
Integrated Iron and Steel Plant Slag
Red Mud
Lime Mud
Waste Sludge and Residues
Potential Reuse of Solid Wastes
Prevention-A Waste Minimization Approach
Inventory Management and Improved Operations
Modification of Equipment
Production Process Changes
Recycling and Reuse
Waste Management at Source
Collection and Transport of Industrial Wastes
Storage and Transportation
Disposal of Industrial Solid Waste
Health Consequences of Poor Industrial Waste Disposal
Waste Segregation
Combined Treatment Facilities
Waste Reduction Techniques
Benefits of Cleaner Production
Industrial Hazardous Wastes
Industrial Nonhazardous Wastes
Radioactive Wastes
D. Abattoir Wastes
Sources of Waste in Red Meat Abattoirs
Best Management Practices
Existing Methods for Disposal of Meat Production Waste
Rendering Industry
Recent Events Affecting the Rendering Industry
Dead Stock Collection, Transportation and Receiving
Dead Stock Collectors and Receivers
Anaerobic Digestion of Protein Rich Substrate
Co-digestion Plant Design and Operation
E. Household/Kitchen Wastes
Disposal of Household Hazardous Waste
Disposal Problems
Disposal Problems in the Trash
Disposal Problems on the Ground
Disposal Problems in Storm Sewers
Worm Composting
F. Municipal Wastes
Anaerobic Digestion Process
Various AD Systems
Important Operating Parameters in AD Process
Waste Composition/Volatile Solids (VS)
pH Level
Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio (C/N)
Total Solids Content (TS) / Organic Loading Rate (OLR)
Retention (or Residence) Time
Biogas Composition
Development and Present Status of AD Technology
Historical Background
Types of AD Systems
Single Stage Process
Single Stage Low Solids (SSLS) Process
Single Stage High Solids (SSHS) Process
Multi-stage Process
Multi-stage Low Solids Process
Multi-stage High Solids Process
Batch Reactors
G. Dairy Industries Wastes:
Sources of Wastes
Waste Characteristics
Treatment of Dairy Wastes
Checking of Dairy Effluent
Preventive Attitudes
Waste Management Issues for Dairy Processors
Cheese Making
Whey Condensing
Shell and Tube Condensers
Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR)
Ultra Filtration
Reverse Osmosis
Waste Water Treatment Options
Aerated Lagoons
Activated Sludge
Sequencing Batch Reactors
Biological Tower
Spray Irrigation
Ridge and Furrow Systems
Absorption Ponds
Hauling and Land Application
WPDES Permit Issuance
Surface Water Effluent Limits
Land Application of Waste Water
Phosphorus Limitations
Chloride Limitations
Aerated Lagoon Treatment Systems
Winter Spreading of Waste
H. Fish and Seafood Processing Unit’s Wastes
Liquid Effluent
Solid Waste
Other Waste Components
Waste Management
Typical Waste Treatment Scenario
Data on Receiving Environment
Biologically Activated Rock Phosphate Fertilizer
Fish Processing Waste Disposal Practices and Options
Waste Water Characteristics
I. Poultry Farm Waste
Options and Considerations for Poultry Waste Management
Animal Refeeding
Bioenergy Production
Dead Birds Disposal:
J. Electronic Wastes
E-waste in India
Impacts of E-wastes
Impacts of Informal Recycling
Status of E-waste Management in India
E-waste Management Strategies
Electronic Waste Items List
Electronic Wastes: A Rising Global Phenomenon
Electronic Wastes: The Environmental and Human Rights Dimensions
Regulatory Responses to the Electronic Waste Phenomenon
K. Other Wastes
Construction Waste Management
Eliminating Waste
Minimizing Waste
Reusing Materials
Federal Regulations
Project Level-enhancing Project Value and Performance
Organization Level-stewardship of Corporate Values and Priorities
Disposition Level-management of Diversion and Disposal
Construction and Demolition Wastes
Best Management Practices
Collection and Hauling
Containerization and Transport
Prevalence of Common Materials
1. Waste Management Planning
2. Facility Design
3. Construction Contract Requirements
4. Jobsite Waste Reduction
Emerging Issues
Plastic Waste and Its Disposal
Radioactive Waste and Their Environmentally Sound Management
Manual Loading of Waste
Loading of Waste Through Front End Loader and Trucks
Garbage Loaded in Open Trucks Causing Nuisance
Measures to be Taken to Improve the System
Steps to be Taken to Meet the Above Objectives
Transportation of Construction Waste and Debris
Waste Disposal Management
Waste Types that Should not to be Incinerated
Pharmaceutical Disposal
Management of Municipal Solid Waste in India
Waste Management: Global Perspective
Waste Generation
Development Trends for Waste and Wastewater
Global Overview of Waste Management
Landfill CH4: Regional Trends
Wastewater and Human Sewage CH4 and N2O: Regional Trends
CO2 From Waste Incineration
Waste Management and GHG-Mitigation Technologies
CH4 Management at Landfills
Incineration and Other Thermal Processes for Waste-to-energy
Biological Treatment Including Composting, Anaerobic Digestion, and Mechanical
Waste Reduction, Re-use and Recycling
Wastewater and Sludge Treatment
Waste Management and Mitigation Costs and Potentials
Fluorinated Gases: End-of-life Issues, Data and Trends in the Waste Sector
Air Quality Issues: NMVOCs and Combustion Emissions
Reducing Landfill CH4 Emissions
Incineration and Other Thermal Processes for Waste-to-energy
Waste Minimization, Re-use and Recycling
Policies and Measures on Fluorinated Gases
Municipal Solid Waste Management
Wastewater Management
Disposal of Fallen Animals in the Field/Forest
Rendering Industry
Recent Events Affecting the Rendering Industry
Deadstock Collection, Transportation and Receiving
Coxiella Burnetii
Aeromonas Hydrophila
Bacillus Anthracis
Clostridium Perfringens
Escherichia Coli
Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae
Francisella Tularensis
Leptospira Species
Listeria Monocytogenes
Mycotic Agents
Parasites (Protozoans and Helminths)
Balantidium Coli
Cryptosporidium Parvum
Other Organism
Faecal Indicator Organisms
Manure Solids Waste
Dry Techniques: Composting
Manure Slurry Treatment Techniques
Physical Treatment Techniques
Biological Treatment Techniques
Anaerobic Lagoon Treatment
Multiple Lagoon Systems
Aerated Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds
Anaerobic Digestion
Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion
Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion
Aerobic Digestion
Mesophilic Aerobic Digestion
Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion
Activated Sludge
Constructed Wetlands
Overland Flow
Disinfection and Chemical Treatments
Chlorine Dioxide
Ultraviolet Light (UV) Irradiation
Lime Stabilization
Animal Waste Disposal or Recycling Options
Land Application
Spray Fields
Microbial Detection Analysis Techniques
On-farm Verification of Microbial Reduction by Corrective Measures
Real-time Measurement Techniques
Public Health Hazards due to Wastes
Hazardous Substances Associated with Waste Management
Impact of Waste Management Practices on Health
Individual Pollutants
Health Effects in Communities
Control of Hazards
Safe Work Practices
PPE Hazard Assessment and Training
Systems to Track Hazard Correction
Emergency Preparation
Emergency Preparedness
Current Scenario and Future Challenges of Municipal Solid Waste Management in India



NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR