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Manufacture of Value Added Products from Rice Husk (Hull) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9789381039809
Code ENI304 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1295   1295 US$ 125   125
Pages: 208 Published 2016
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Manufacture of Value Added Products from Rice Husk (Hull) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA)
(Precipitated Silica, Activated Carbon, Cement, Electricity, Ethanol, Hardboard, Oxalic Acid, Paper, Particle Board, Rice Husk Briquettes, Rice Husk Pellet, Silicon, Sodium Silicate Projects)

Rice husk is the outermost layer of protection encasing a rice grain. Rice husk was largely considered a waste product that was often burned or dumped on landfills. Many ways are being thought for disposal of rice husk and only a small quantity of rice husk is used in agricultural field as a fertilizer, or as bedding and for stabilisation of soils. Therefore, the use of rice husk as rice husk ash is one of the most viable solution. The husk can be used for poultry farming, composting or burning. In the case of burning, it has been used as biomass to power reactors to generate thermal or electrical energy. India is a major rice producing country and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. 

The rice husk ash causes more environmental pollution and its disposal becomes a problem, hence requires attention regarding its disposal and its reuse. The ash is mainly composed of carbon and silica due to which it is used to manufacture different value added products. This book provides thorough information to utilize RHA with process pathway for economically valuable products. 

This handbook explains manufacturing process with flow diagrams of various value added products from rice husk & rice husk ash, photographs of plant & machinery with supplier’s contact details and sample plant layout & process flow sheets. The major contents of the book are rice husk, rice husk ash RHA), precipitated silica from rice husk ash, activated carbon from rice husk, cement from rice husk ash, electricity from rice husk, ethanol from rice husk, hardboard from rice husk, oxalic acid from rice husk, paper from rice husk, particle board from rice husk, rice husk briquettes, rice husk pellet, silicon from rice husk, sodium silicate from rice husk, packaging.

This book will be a mile stone for the entrepreneurs, existing units, professionals, libraries and others interested in recovery of value added products from rice husk (rice hull) & rice husk ash to explore an economic way for recycle and reuse of agricultural waste.

1. Rice Husk (Hull)                                                                    

         Composition of Rice Husk

         Properties of Rice Hull

         Use & Applications of Rice Husk

         (a) As an Industrial Fuel

         (b) Preparation of Activated Carbon

         (c) Rice Husk as a Fertilizer and Substrate

         (d) As Pet Food Fiber

         (e) Substrate for Silica and Silicon Compound

         (f) Used for Making Bricks

         (g) Rice Husk as Fireworks

         (h) Used as Pillow Stuffing

         (i) Other Uses

        Rice Husk as an Adsorbent for Heavy Metals



  2.   Rice Husk Ash (RHA)                                                    

         Physical Properties of Rice Husk Ash

         Chemical Composition of Rice Husk Ash


         Use of RHA in Several Industrial Applications

         1.  As a Replacement to Silica Fume

         2.  As an Admixture in Low Cost Concrete Block Manufacturing

         3.  As a Tundish Powder in Steel Casting Industries

         4.  Manufacturing Refractory Bricks

         5.  Control of Insect Pests in Stored Food Stuffs

         6.  In the Vulcanizing Rubber

         7.  In the Water Purification

         8.  As a Flue Gas Desulphurization Absorbent



3.   Precipitated Silica from Rice Husk Ash                         

         Typical Properties

         Physico - Chemical Characteristics of Precipitated Silica

         1. pH Value

         2. Drying Loss

         3. Ignition Loss

         4. DBP Absorption

         5. SiO2 Content

         6. SIEVE Residue

         7. Tamped Density

         Uses & Applications

         Rubber Grade Precipitated Silica

         Non Rubber Grade Precipitated Silica

         Manufacturing Process




         Process Flow Diagram



4.   Activated Carbon from Rice Husk                                  

         Forms of Activated Carbon

         Physical Characteristics

         Uses and Applications of Activated Carbon

         Manufacturing Process




5.   Cement from Rice Husk Ash                                          

        Varieties of Cement

         Uses of Cement

         Manufacturing Process

         1. Manufacture of Lime



         2. Manufacture of Burnt Rice Husk

         3. Mixing & Grinding

         4. Packing & Forwarding


6.   Electricity from Rice Husk                                             

        Procedure of Electricity Generation from Rice Husk

        Downdraft Gasification

        Purification Unit

        Turbine and Generation Unit



 7.   Ethanol from Rice Husk                                                

        Ethanol is Used

        Chemical Properties of Ethanol

        Grades of Ethanol

        Denatured Alcohol

        Absolute Alcohol

        Rectified Spirits

        Manufacturing Process

        Cellulosic Ethanol

        Purification Distillation

        Process Flow Diagram


 8.   Hardboard from Rice Husk                                            


       Uses of Hardboard



      Auto Industry

      Packaging and Other

      Manufacturing Processes


      Adhesive Preparation

      Adhesive Mixing

      Mat Formation

      Cole Pressing

      Hot Pressing

      Sanding and Finishing

      Process Flow Diagram



9.   Oxalic Acid from Rice Husk                                           

      Physical and Chemical Properties of Oxalic Acids

      Uses of Oxalic Acid

         1. Bleaching

         2. Removing Stains

         3. Removing Rusts

         4. Other Uses

         Manufacturing Process

         Process Flow Sheet



10.   Paper from Rice Husk                                                   

         Uses & Applications

         Process of Manufacture for Rice Husk

         Raw Material Storage & Preparation

         Husk Pulping

         Waste Paper Pulping

         Screening of the Pulp

         Pulp Beating & Refining

         Sizing & Loading


         Paper Making and Finishing



11.   Particle Board from Rice Husk                                       

         Advantages of Particleboard

         Uses & Applications

         Manufacturing Process of Pre Laminated Board

         Flow Sheet for Manufacturing of Pre-Liminated Particle Board

         Traditional Approach for Manufacturing Rice Husk Particleboards

         Adhesives in Particleboards

         1. Synthetic Adhesives

         Phenol-formaldehyde (PF)

         Urea-formaldehyde (UF)


         2. Natural adhesives

         Soybean Adhesive

         Starch Adhesive



  12.   Rice Husk Briquettes                                                     

         Various Types of Briquettes

         Biomass Briquettes

         Sawdust Briquettes

         Agro waste Briquettes

         Wood Briquettes

         White Coal Briquettes

         Uses of Briquettes

         Applications of Briquettes in Various Industries



13.   Rice Husk Pellet (RHP)                                                  

         Why Make Rice Husk Pellets?

         Property of Rice Husk Pellet

         Advantages of Pelletizing Rice Husk into Pellet

         a. Good to Environment

         b. Convenient

         c. High Effectiveness

         d. Wide Application

         Manufacturing Process

         a. Drying

         b. Pelletizing

         c. Cooling and Packing

         Process Flow Diagram


14.   Silicon from Rice Husk                                                  


         Physical Properties

         Chemical Properties

         Electrical Properties


         Uses of Silicon Based Products in Different Sectors

         Computers and Electronics




         Personal Care




         Food and Related Industries

         Manufacturing Process

         1. Digestion

         2. Precipitation

         3. Regeneration

         Production of Silicon

         Process Flow Diagram



15.   Sodium Silicate from Rice Husk                                    

         Sodium Silicate Physical and Chemical Properties…

         Uses of Sodium Silicate

         Properties of Sodium Silicate

         Manufacturing Process

         Safety Procedures in Handling Sodium Silicates

         Process Flow Diagram


 16.   Packaging                                                                     

         Types of Packaging Materials



         Brick Carton



         Functions of Packaging





         Package Environments

         1. Physical Environment

         2. Ambient Environment

         3. Human Environment

         Levels of Packaging

         Selection of Proper Packaging for Industrial Product

         Flexible Industrial Packaging-Paper and Plastic

         Rigid Industrial Packaging - Wooden, Metal, Plastic


         Labels for Chemical Products



17.   BIS Specifications                                                         


         Activated Carbon

         Particle Board



         Sodium Silicate

         Oxalic Acid


  18.   Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details                                             


  19.   Sample Plant Layout & Process Flow Sheets 




NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR