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Manufacture of Thinners & Solvents (Properties, Uses, Production, Formulation with Machinery Details) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9789381039830
Code ENI306 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1575   1575 US$ 150   150
Pages: 232 Published 2017
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Solvents are defined as chemicals compound that are introduced during manufacture of the paint itself and before packaging, in order to maintain all components of the paint in a liquid / viscous state such as we know it. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid or a gas. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes.

Thinners are defined as chemical compounds that are introduced into the paint prior to application, in order to modify the viscosity and other properties related to the rate of curing that may affect the functionality and aesthetics of the final layer painting.Paint thinner, a solvent used in painting and decorating, for thinning oil-based paint and cleaning brushes. A Thinner may be a single solvent or a combination of solvent types. Often, specific thinners are required by the manufacturer of a coating to prevent damage to coating properties that may occur when an inappropriate thinner is used.

Solvents (for cleaning up or softening) and Thinners (for diluting or extending) are useful not only in painting but in other areas such as Wooden Furniture industry, Automobile industry, Ink industry, Rubber industry.

As the paint industry is a major consumer of Thinners & Solvents, and is expanding at a tremendous speed, it is very obvious that the demand of thinners, too, will increase tremendously. The paints & coatings accounts for the largest share in the aliphatic hydrocarbon Thinners & Solvents market. It is also projected to be the fastest-growing application of the aliphatic hydrocarbon Thinners and Solvents market.

The book contains Properties, Uses, manufacturing of Thinners & Solventsand providing information regarding thinner formulation. It also covers raw material suppliers, photographs of plant & Machinery with supplier’s contact details. Some of the fundamentals of the book are thinner in Paint Industry, Health and Safety Measures of Chemicals, Pollution Control, Waste Disposal of Hazardous Chemicals and Storage, Labelling and Packaging of Chemicals etc. 

It will be a standard reference book for professionals and entrepreneurs. Those who are interested in this field can find the complete information from manufacture to final uses of Solvents and Thinners. It will be very helpful to consultants, new entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars, libraries and existing units. 

1. Solvents

Classification of Solvents

Boiling Points

Rates of Evaporation


Industrial Applications


Chemical Composition

  I.  Organic Solvents

 II.  Inorganic Solvents

Chemical Structure

Behavior Toward Magdala Red


2. Application of Solvents

3. Properties of Solvents


Molecular Weight

Boiling Point

Freezing Point


Liquid Expansion Coefficient

Surface Tension and Absolute Viscosity

Flash Point and Explosive Limits

Autoignition Temperature

Electrical Conductivity

Immediate Danger to Life and Health

4. Environmental, Health and Safety Regulation


Explosive Peroxide Formation

Health Effects

Ways Solvents Can Enter Your Body



What Are the Warning Signs? 

Acute Poisoning

What to Do

Chronic Poisoning After Years of Repeated Exposures, the Typical Later Effects are

What to Do

How Solvents Affect the Skin 

What to Do

How Much Exposure is Bad for You?

Environmental Contamination

Duties of Employers and Employees

Material Safety Data 



5. Manufacturing Process of Solvent

6. Uses of Solvent in Various Industries

Adhesives and Sealants

Common Use of Adhesive in Various Industry


Common Use of Sealants in Various Industry





Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) 

Methylene Chloride 



Mineral Spirits


Linseed Oil 

Asphalt Compounding


Biotransformation Using Solvent-Tolerant Microorganisms

Solvent-Resistant Microorganisms

Process of Solvent Toxicity for Microorganisms

Choice of Solvent for Enzymatic Reaction in Organic Solvent

Low Water Systems

Classification of Organic Solvents

 (1) Water-Miscible Organic Solvents

 (2) Water-Immiscible Organic Solvents

 (3) Water-Insoluble Organic Solvents

Classification of Solvents Commonly Used for Enzymatic Reactions in Organic Media

Properties of Enzymes Affected by Organic Solvents

Thermal Stability (Half-Life), t1/2 

Specificity and Selectivity, Kcat/Km

Coil Coating

Cosmetics and Personal Care Products

Electronic Industry

Cleaning in Electronics Manufacturing

Factors Affecting Cleaning

Dry Cleaning

Drycleaning Solvents

Petroleum Drycleaning Solvents

Dry Cleaning Processes

Solvent Storage Tanks


Process of Cleaning 

Textile Finishing



Antistatic Finishing

Fabricated Metal Products

Machining Operations 

Metal Parts Cleaning and Stripping

Solvent Cleaning

Aqueous (Alkaline and Acid) Cleaning and Stripping

Abrasive Cleaning and Stripping

Water Cleaning

Waste Streams 

Food Industry

Mechanical Extraction

Solvent Extraction

The Solvent Extraction Process

Flow diagram of Oilseed Extraction Process

Review of Solvents Studied for Extraction Efficiency

Iron Steel Industry 

List of Solvents Releases from the Iron and Steel Industry 

Uses of Solvent in Ship Industry

Cleaning Operations Using Organic Solvents 

Pulp and Paper

Printing Industry 

Pharmaceutical Industry


7. Solvent Recycling, Removal and Degradation


Process Description and Emissions

General Processes in Solvent Recycling Operations

Solvent Recycling Operations

Solvent Storage

Solvent Handling

Initial Treatment

Typical Fixed-Bed Activated Carbon Solvent Recycling System

Distillation and Purification

Distillation Process for Solvent Recycling


Equipment Leaks

Emission Estimation Techniques: Acceptable Reliability and Uncertainty

Direct Measurement

Mass Balance

Engineering Calculations

Emission Factors


8. Solvents Market

Industrial Solvent Market

Green Solvent and Bio-Solvents Market


9. Thinners


Uses of Thinners

Types of Thinner Used in industries 

Types of Thinner Based on the Paint with which it is Mixed


10. Manufacturing Process

Thinner Formulation


11. Formulation of Thinners

Epoxy Thinner

Composition of Ingredients

Handling and Storage 

Physical and Chemical Properties 

Paint Thinner

Composition of Thinner

Handling and Storage 

Precautions to Be Taken in Handling

Precautions to be Taken in Storing

Physical and Chemical Properties 

Acrylic Thinner

Composition/Information on Ingredients

Handling and Storage

Physical and Chemical Properties

Varnish Thinner

Composition/Information on Ingredients 

Handling and Storage 

Handling Precautions

Incompatible Materials

Storage Conditions

Physical and Chemical Properties 


12. Thinner in Paint Industry

Odorless Paint Thinner

Requirements of the Thinners

Functions of the Thinners

Properties of Paint Thinner

Solvents Used as Paint Thinners Include

Other Solvents Sometimes Used in the Production of Paint Thinners Include


13. Health and Safety Measures of Chemicals

Health Hazards

Solvents – Thinners

How to Control Health Hazards

Environmental Control

Use Appropriate Personal Protection 


Eye and Hearing Protection

Protective Clothing

Handling and Storage

Accidental Release Measures


Spill or Leak

Do Not Get Water Inside Containers

Fire and Explosion Hazards

Things to Do and Not to do Before Mixing Thinner in Paint

Material Safety Data Sheet

What is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)?

What is the Purpose of an MSDS?

What information is on the MSDS?

Reactivity Data

Why is an MSDS Hard to Read?

When Would We Use an MSDS?

Hazard Communication Standard



14. Pollution Control

Environmental Concerns

Pollution Caused by Thinner

Major Emissions 

Impacts on Human Health and Environment

What is Pollution Prevention? 

Methods for Reducing the Pollution


15. Waste Disposal of Hazardous Chemicals and Storage

General Requirements for Storage of Chemicals

Prohibited and Restricted Hazardous Chemicals

Exposure Standards

Identifying Hazards

Hazardous Chemicals Generated or Manufactured in the Workplace 

Segregate Incompatibles 

Segregate Families 

Flammable Liquid Storage

Classifications of Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Flammable Liquids

Combustible Liquids

Corrosive Storage

Transporting Chemicals

Hazardous Waste Disposal

General Requirements for Waste Disposal

Standard of Containers

Containers to be Resistant to the Contents

Containers should be in Good Condition

Containers to be Securely Closed

No Mixing of Incompatible Wastes in a Container

Sufficient Air Space in Containers When Storing Liquid Wastes

Disposal of Paint Related Materials

Hazardous Waste Minimization

Process Level Impacts


16. B.I.S. Specifications of Solvents and Thinners




17. Labelling and Packaging of Chemicals


General Requirements of Labelling and Packaging in Accordance with the Chemical Labelling & Packaging (CLP) Regulation

General Labelling Rules 

Elements of the CLP Hazard Label 

CLP Labelling Requirements Versus Discretion of the Supplier

Classification of Hazardous Substance/Mixtures

Updating the Hazard Label 

Labelling of Workplace Chemicals 

Hazard Labels for Supply and Transport Outer and Inner Packaging Classified for Supply but not for Transport

Outer and Inner Packaging Classified for Both Transport and Supply

Single Packaging Classified Under Both Supply and Transport 

CLP Rules on Packaging of Substances and Mixtures

Child-Resistant Fastening and Tactile Warnings of Danger

Child-Resistant Fastening (CRF) 

Tactile Warning of Danger (TWD) 

Hazard Pictograms

Shape, Colour and Dimensions

Precedence Rules

Blank Pictograms 

Signal Words 

Hazard Statements 

Precautionary Statements

Codes for Hazard and Precautionary Statements  

Code Ranges of Hazard and Precautionary Statements Under CLP

Guidance on Particular Aspects of CLP Hazard Labelling 

Further Aspects to Consider for the CLP Hazard Label

Size of the Label and of the Label Elements

Minimum Dimensions of Labels and Pictograms Under CLP 

18. Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details  




NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR