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Handbook on Manufacture of Indian Kitchen Spices (Masala Powder) with Formulations, Processes and Machinery Details (3rd Revised Edition) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Food Technologists ISBN 9789381039953
Code ENI307 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1750   1750 US$ 150   150
Pages: 336 Published 2019
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Handbook on Manufacture of Indian Kitchen Spices (Masala Powder) with Formulations, Processes and Machinery Details (Chaat Masala, Sambar Masala, Pav Bhaji Masala, Garam Masala, Goda Masala, Pani Puri Masala, Kitchen King Masala, Thandai Masala Powder, Meat Masala, Rasam Powder, Kesari Milk Masala, Punjabi Chole Masala, Shahi Biryani Masala, Tea Masala Powder, Jaljeera Masala, Tandoori Masala, Fish Curry Masala, Chicken Masala, Pickle Masala, Curry Powder) 3rd Revised Edition


Spices or Masala as it is called in Hindi, may be called the “heartbeat” of an Indian kitchen. The secret ingredient that makes Indian food truly Indian is the generous use of signature spices. From ancient times of the maharaja’s, spices have added unforgettable flavours and life to Indian cuisine. Indian spices offer significant health benefits and contribute towards an individual's healthy life. There are a large number of various spices, used along with food such as Chilli (Mirchi), Turmeric (Haldi), Coriander (Dhania), Cumin (Jeera), Mustard (Rai), Fenugreek (Methi), Sesame (Til), Cardamon, Peppercorns (Kali Mirchi), Clove, Fennel (Saunf), Nutmeg and Mace etc. 

In modern times, international trade in spices and condiments have increased dramatically which could be attributed to several factors including rapid advances in transportation, permitting easy accessibility to world markets, growing demand from industrial food manufacturers of wide ranging convenience foods. As the demand for Indian spices is increasing day by day, Indian manufacturers are producing spices of high quality.

The book presents the fundamental concepts of Spices (Masala Powder) Indian Kitchen Spices product mix in a manner that new entrepreneurs can understand easily. It covers Formulation for spices i.e., Chaat Masala, Chana Masala, Sambar Masala, Pav Bhaji Masala, Garam Masala, Goda Masala, Pani Puri Masala, Kitchen King Masala, Thandai Masala Powder, Meat Masala, Rasam Powder, Kesari Milk Masala, Punjabi Chole Masala, Shahi Biryani Masala, Tea Masala Powder, Jaljeera Masala, Tandoori Masala, Fish Curry Masala, Chicken Masala, Pickle Masala, Curry Masala.

This book contains manufacturing process, Packaging and Labelling of Spices. The highlighting segments of this book are Spices Nutritional value, Special Qualities and Specifications, Cryogenic Grinding Technology, Food Safety & Quality, BIS Specifications, Quality Control, Market, Sample Production Plant Layout and Photograph of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details. It also covers Good manufacturing practices in Food Industry, Case Study for Everest and MDH Masala and Top Spice Brands of India.

This book is aimed for those who are interested in Spices business, can find the complete information about Manufacture of Indian Kitchen Spices (Masala Powder). It will be very informative and useful to consultants, new entrepreneurs, startups, technocrats, research scholars, libraries and existing units. 

 

1.    How to Start Spice Business                          

         Introduction

         Licenses and Marketing Strategies

         Wholesale Resources and Pricing

         Places to Sell and Business Account

         Basic Business Requirements

         How to Increase Revenue as a Spice Entrepreneur

         (i)   Expand Product Line

         (ii)  Internet Marketing

         (iii) PR & Thought Leadership

         Successful Business Plans for Spices Businesses

         (i)   Check Out the Competition

         (ii)  Finding a Non-Competitive Business Mentor

         (iii) Acquisitions vs. Startups

         (iv) Consider Franchising

         List of Subsidy and Schemes

         (i)   Subsidy for Sending Spices Samples Abroad

         (ii)  Subsidy for Printing Promotional Literature/Video/ Brochures

         (iii) Subsidy for Promotion of Indian Spice Brand Abroad

         (iv) Subsidy for Spices Processing in North-Eastern Region

         (v)  Subsidy for Participating in International Trade Fairs and Meetings

         Home Based Spice Business – Manufacturing Process

         (i)   Market Opportunity

         (ii)  Different Products

         (iii) Registration & License

 

   2.   Spices                                                                         

         Introduction

         Basic Uses for Spices

         List of Major Indian Spices

         Uses & Application of Spices

         Masala

         Spice Blends

         Adherence to High Spice Quality Standards

         Properties of Spices

         Major Compounds in Spices

 

   3.   Whole Spices                                                            

         Chilli (Mirch) Powder

         Turmeric (Haldi) Powder

         Coriander (Dhania) Powder

         Cumin (Jeera)

         Mustard (Rai)

         Fenugreek (Methi)

         Sesame (Til)

         Cardamom

         Peppercorns (Kali Mirchi)

         Clove

         Fennel (Saunf)

         Nutmeg and Mace

 

   4.   Nutritional Value of Different Spices         

         Anise Seed

         Allspice

         Bay leaf (Laurus Nobilis)

         Black Pepper

         Capparis Spinosa

         Caraway Seed

         Cardamom

         Cayenne Peppers (Capsicum Annuum var. Annuum)

         Cinnamon Spice (Cinnamonum Verum)

         Cloves (Sygizium Aromaticum), Ground

         Coriander Seeds (Coriander Sativum)

         Cumin Seeds (Cuminum Cyminum)

         Fennel Seed (Foeniculum Vulgare)

         Fenugreeks (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum)

         Benefits of Including Spices in Our Diet

         Culinary Uses of Spices

 

   5.   Spice Qualities and Specifications                 

         Specification of Spice-Exporting Nations

         (i)   The Indian Standards Institution

         (ii)  Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Administering Quality Control and Preshipment Inspection

         (iii) Grade Specifications for Sarawak Pepper in Malaysia

         (iv) Grading of Nutmeg in Grenada and Indonesia

         (v)  Specification of Paprika in Hungary and Spain

         (vi) Specifications of Other Exporting Nations

         Spice Quality

         A.   Insect Infestation

         (i)   Harmful Insects

         (ii)  Fumigation for Insects

         (iii) Other Ways of Exterminating Insects

         B.   Microorganisms

         (i)   Types of Microbes

         (ii)  Molds and Aflatoxin

         C.   Sterilizing or Pasteurizing Methods

         (i)   Ethylene Oxide Gas Method

         (ii)  Irradiation

         (iii) Steam Sterilization

         D.   Chemical Properties

         (i)   Pungency Standards

         (ii)  Flavor/Aroma

         (iii) Color

 

   6.   Manufacturing Process of Blend
Spices                                                                         

         Cleaning

         Drying

         Grading

         Roasting

         Pulverizing

         For Grinding the Spices Following Machines are Used

         List of Machinery Required

         Process Flow Diagram

 

   7.   Cryogenic Grinding Technology                      

         Introduction

         Market Opportunities

         Advantages

         Role of Carbon Di-oxide in Spice Processing Industry

         Fine Grinding Using Cryogenic Grinding Technology

         Fine Powders With a Big Impact

 

   8.   Formulation of Spices (Masala Powder)
Indian Kitchen Spices Product Mix                 

         Manufacture of Indian Kitchen Spices Product Mix

         Chaat Masala

         Chana Masala

         Sambar Masala

         Pav Bhaji Masala

         Garam Masala

         Goda Masala

         Pani Puri Masala

         Kitchen King Masala

         Thandai Masala Powder

         Meat Masala

         Rasam Powder

         Kesari Milk Masala

         Punjabi Chole Masala

         Shahi Biryani Masala

         Tea Masala Powder

         Jaljeera Masala

         Tandoori Masala

         Fish Curry Masala

         Chicken Masala

         Pickle Masala

         Curry Masala

 

   9.   Food Safety & Quality                                          

         General Principles of Food Safety

         (i)   General Principles to be Followed in Administration of Act

         (ii)  Hygiene and Health Requirements

         (iii) Communicable Diseases and Injuries        

         (iv) General Food Hygiene Training

         (v)  Safety during Packaging and Labelling of Foods

         Restrictions of Advertisement and Prohibition as to Unfair Trade Practices

 

10.   Quality Control                                                     

         Quality Assurance in Raw Material Supply

         Quality Assurance and Control in the Processing Plant

         (i)   Appearance and Presence of Contaminants

         (ii)  Odour and Flavour

         (iii) Moisture Content

         (iv) Control of Processing

         (i)   Washing

         (ii)  Other Cleaning Methods

         (iii) Drying

         (iv) Grinding

         (v)  Packaging and Storage of Finished Products

         1.   Acidity Measurement

         2.   Chlorine Measurement

         3.   Fill-Weight Measurement

         4.   Glass Container Measurement

         5.   Weight of Containers

         6.   Capacity of Containers

         7.   Headspace

         8.   Vacuum

         9.   Dimensions of Containers

         10. Faults in Glass

         11. Label Measurement and Quality Checks

         12. Label Faults may be Divided into Major and Minor Faults

         13. Loaf Volume Measurement

         14. Moisture Content Measurement

         15. Moisture Content Measurement: Spices

         16. Solids Content Measurement

         17. Packaging Film Measurement

         18. pH Measurement

         19. Plastic Container Measurement

         20. Salt Measurement

         21. Sieving Tests (Flours and Spices)

         22. Filth Test

         23. Sodium Benzoate Measurement

         24. Sodium Metabisulphite Measurement

         25. Starch Gelatinization Measurement (Modified ‘Falling Number’ Method)

 

11.   Packaging and Labelling of Spices                  

         Spoilage Factors

         (i)   Moisture Content

         (ii)  Loss of Aroma/Flavour

         Discolouration

         (i)   Insect Infestation

         (ii)  Microbial Contamination

         (iii) Spices Packaging Requirement

         Packaging Material Requirement

         Packaging Method and Materials for Spices

         Types of Packing

         (i)   Bulk Packaging

         (ii)  Institutional Packages

         (iii) Consumer Packages

         (iv) Composite Containers and Plastic Pouches for Whole Spices & Powders

         (v)  Spices Packed in Pouch-in-Carton

         Marking of Masala Packets

         Special Conditions for Grant of Certificate of Authorisation

 

12.   Bis Specifications

     

13.   Top 10 Spice Brands of India                              

         Everest

         MDH

         Catch

         Mothers Recipe

         Cookme

         Priya

         Pushp

         Ramdev

         Nilon’s

 

14.   Market of Spices                                                    

         The Indian Spices Industry

         Adherence to High Spice Quality Standards

         India’s Spice Parks

         Product Range in Indian Market

 

15.   Case Study for Everest Masala                        

         History

         Product

         Brand

         Achievements

         Market

 

16.   Case Study for MDH Masala                                

         History

         Products

         (i)   Ground Single Spices

         (ii)  Blended Spices

         Market

 

17.   Good Manufacturing Practices in
Food Industry                                                         

         Food Industry Standards

         GMP Practices for Food

         (i)   Design and Facilities

         (ii)  Premises and Rooms

         (iii) Internal Structures & Fittings

         (iv) Equipment

         (v)  Containers for Waste and Inedible Substances

         Facilities

         (i)    Water Supply

         (ii)   Drainage and Waste Disposal

         (iii)  Cleaning

         (iv)   Personnel Hygiene Facilities and Toilets

         (v)    Temperature Control

         (vi)   Air Quality and Ventilation

         (vii)  Lighting

         (viii) Power Back up

         (ix)   Storage

         Control of Operation   

         (i)   Time and Temperature Control

         (ii)  Control of Other Specific Process Steps

         (iii) Specifications

         Microbiological Cross Contamination

         Physical and Chemical Contamination

         Incoming Materials Requirements

         Packaging

         Water

         (i)   Water, Ice and Steam in Contact with Food

         (ii)  Water, Ice and Steam not in Contact with Food

         (iii) Water pipes & Storage Tanks

         (iv) Management and Supervision

         Documentation and Records

         Product Recall & Traceability

         Storage

         Maintenance and Sanitation

         (i)   Pest Control

         (ii)  Waste Management

         (iii) Personal Hygiene

         Quality Control 

         Transportation

         Product Information and Consumer Awareness

         Competence & Training

         Temporary/Mobile Premises, Vending Machines

 

18.   Analysis of Foods Spices and
Condiments                                                               

         Determination of Moisture (Karl Fischer Method)

         Principle

         Apparatus

         Direct Titration Method

         Back Titration

         Black Pepper

         Determination of Bulk Density (Mass /litre)

         Procedure

         Determination of Light Berries

         Reagents

         Determination of Piperine Content

         Principle

         Apparatus and Reagents

         Apparatus and Reagents

         An Alternative Method for Determination of Piperine Content by GC Method

         Reagents

         Gas Chromatography

         The GC Analysis

         Program Conditions

         Saffron (Filaments and Powder)

         Identification Test

         Determination of Extraneous Matter

         Apparatus

         Procedure

         Calculation

         Determination of Picrocrocine, Safranal and Crocine

         Apparatus

         Procedure

         Expression of Results

         Determination of Total Nitrogen

         Microscopic Examination of Spices

         Procedure

         Detection of Argemone Seeds in Mustard

         Procedure

         Detection of Mineral Oil in Black Pepper

         Procedure

         Detection of Papaya seeds in Black Pepper

         Principle

         Procedure

         Detection of Turmeric in Chillies and Coriander

         Principle

         Reagents

         Procedure

         Method for Capsaicin Content in Chilli Powder

         Capsaicinoids in Capsicums and Their Extractives by Liquid Chromatographic Method (AOAC 995.03)

         Principle

         Apparatus

         Reagents

         Extraction

         LC Determination

         Calculation

         a) UV Detection

         (b) Fluorescence Detection

         Method for Measuring Color Value in Chillies

         Apparatus and Reagents

         Determination

         Calculations

 

19.   Sample Spices Production Plant
Layout                                                                        

         Need of Plant Layout

         Workplace Types

 

20.   Suppliers of Whole Spices

     

21.   Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details

     

22.   Spice Glossary

     

23.       Spice Producing Areas

 

HOW TO START SPICE BUSINESS

Introduction

India is known as land of spices in the world. As the spice

is a mass consumption item mostly used in culinary

preparation or seasoning of food products, its internal

demand is increasing quite steadily. With changing of

lifestyle and especially with changes in food habits and the

increase of income level, the use of powdered spices has

increased. Of late, the market for ready-to-mix of spices has

grown significantly. Spices are fast moving consumable

items and have large potential. There has to be a widespread

network of dealers or retailers backed up by

advertisements in local media. The export market for Indian

spices is also growing. There is plenty of opportunity in the

spice industry and spice board of India has various schemes

to promote Indian spices.

Spices come in three forms:

• Whole

• Ground (powdered or fragmented form of the whole spice)

• Derivative, including essential oils, oleoresins, isolates,

and nutraceuticals.

Things which are important to start spice business are

listed below:-

Licenses and Marketing Strategies

• First and foremost step is to check with the applicant’s

local, state, county and zoning laws about the appropriate

licenses necessary when starting a spice business.

• Applicant need to have a specific place where they will

assemble and stock the spices they will sell for sanitary

inspection and health clearances.

Wholesale Resources and Pricing

The next step is to find wholesale spices market where

applicant can find cheaper spices and as well as the package

materials also be needed. They can look in the local telephone

directory or look online for the companies offering wholesale

of spices. As for the packaging materials, these things should

be of food-grade quality and must be designated carefully

when they purchase them. The prices of their packages must

be competitive with the gourmet products.

Places to Sell and Business Account

The grocery stores are usually not an option for this

business because most of them will require terms that many

small businesses can’t afford to accommodate. The boutique

gourmet stores can be a possible place for selling spices. We

can also choose to sell on food shows, crafty shows, and

farmers’ market or just sell exclusively online. As for the

business account, this is where applicant will deposit their

business sales money so it is important to track and also keep

any receipts so that it will be easy for them to complete tax

forms.

Basic Business Requirements

The documents required for obtaining the Certificate of

Registration as Exporter of Spices.

• Application in the prescribed Form [Form-1].

• Self attested copy of IE code certificate.

• Registration fee of Rs. 5000/- (Rupees five thousand only)

in the form of crossed Demand Draft favouring “Spices

Board”.

• Confidential Bank certificate in prescribed format in

sealed cover from your banker in support of your

account/financial status.

• Self certified/attested copy of partnership Deed/

Memorandum & Articles of Association as the case may

be [not applicable to Proprietorship firm].

• Self certified/attested copies of Sales Tax Registration

(CST/VST/VAT) certificate.

• Self attested copy of SSI certificate or the certificate issued

by the Directorate of Industries in case of Manufacturerexporter

of spices.

• Self certificate copy of PAN card.

• Passport size photo preferably with white background of

the CEO or the designated officer of your firm duly

mentioning the name of the person and the company

represented for issue of ID card.

How to Increase Revenue as a Spice Entrepreneur

Higher revenues won’t necessarily solve all of spice

entrepreneur business’s problems. But it never hurts to find

cost-effective ways to bring more cash into the company. Here

are a few tips to help maximize revenue in a fledgling spice

operation.

(i) Expand Product Line

The easiest way to expand a spice business is to expand

their product line. A lot of spice businesses carrybasics like

peppers, cloves, cumin, etc. But by increasing their line to

include hard-to-find spices like ground galangal, nigella

seeds, green cardamom and other items, you can attract a

different layer of customers to thier business and generate

additional revenue from thier existing customer base.

(ii) Internet Marketing

Since spices are easy to ship to remote locations, they

can potentially increase revenues with an aggressive online

marketing campaign. If they lack direct experience in Internet

marketing, consider hiring a professional marketing firm with

a track record of successful online marketing projects in their

portfolio.

(iii) PR & Thought Leadership

Public relations can be a low-cost way to stir up new

business for a spice company. In case they haven’t noticed,

everyone seems to be a foodie these days. Take advantage of

the food trend by using PR strategies to position themself as

the authority on spices in the regional market place.

SPICE QUALITIES AND SPECIFICATIONS

Spices are used for flavour, colour, aroma and preservation

of food or beverages. Spices may be derived from many

parts of the plant: bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves,

rhizomes, roots, seeds, stigmas and styles or the entire plant

tops. Spices are often dried and used in a processed but

complete state. Another option is to prepare extracts such

as essential oils by distilling the raw spice material (wet or

dry), or to use solvents to extract oleoresins and other

standardized products.

A spice can be defined as the dried aromatic parts of

natural plants, whose characteristics such as color and

constitution may vary depending on year of harvest and place

of harvest, among other factors. The quality of processed

spices can also vary due to differences in separation and

milling processes used. For these reasons it has been deemed

necessary to establish quality standards or specifications for

spices. Although there are no unified standards or

specifications worldwide, nations that export spices often

have their own quality standards to maintain their own

reputations, while nations importing and consuming spices

establish specifications for the purpose of consumer safety.

Specification of Spice-Exporting Nations

Most spice-exporting nations such as India have their own

exporting specifications, which also regulate the related

testing methods.

(i) The Indian Standards Institution

The Indian Standards Institution states quality standards

for 36 kinds of both unprocessed and processed spices,

ranging from major exported items such as celery, coriander,

cumin, fennel, fenugreek and turmeric to particularly Indian

such as Ajowan seed and Kokun. These specifications mainly

regulate the maximum moisture content. They include

sampling methods and testing methods.

(ii) Directorate of Marketing and Inspection,

Administering Quality Control and Preshipment

Inspection

The Government of India has prescribed standards for

almost all exported spice items and graded each item using

“Agmark” grades. The kinds of spices include unprocessed

spices such as cardamom, celery, coriander, cumin, fennel,

fenugreek, ginger, black pepper, and turmeric as well as

ground spices such as coriander, cumin, curry powder,

fennel, fenugreek, ginger, black pepper, and turmeric. Grade

specifications are established for age-old, familiar trade

names. For example, Alleppey Finger turmeric, Cochin ginger,

Malabar pepper and Sannam chilies have individual

specifications differentiating them from other turmeric,

ginger, pepper and chilies respectively. Each specification

states limits for moisture, volatile oil, total ash, acid-insoluble

ash and starch in addition to the standards for extraneous

matter necessitating inspection of spices for each chemical/

physical quality before export. For example, black pepper, one

of the most important import items, is classified into more

than 10 grades, depending upon the proportion of light

berries, harvest place (Malabar or others), moisture content,

and so on. Tellicherry black pepper in particular is classified

by size. Curry powder, a mixture of spices, is graded according

to the amount of spice or salt contained. Curry powder

containing 85% or more and less than 5% salt is graded as

“standard,” and one with 70% or more and 10% or less salt

is graded as “general.”

(iii) Grade Specifications for Sarawak Pepper in Malaysia

These specifications, introduced by the Pepper Marketing

Board, is designated for Sarawak pepper, which accounts for

more than 90% of the total pepper production of Malaysia.

The grade of black pepper is determined according to the

amount of light berries present, extraneous matter, moisture

and other characteristics. Standard Malaysian Black Pepper

No. 1 (brown label) has the highest grade, followed by Sarawak

Special Black (yellow label), Sarawak FAQ Black (black label),

Sarawak Field Black (purple label), and Sarawak Coarse Field

(gray label) with the lowest grade. There are also standards

for white pepper, in which the amount of light berries,

moisture, extraneous matter and black pepper present are

limited. White pepper is graded as follows: Standard

Malaysian White Pepper No. 1 is highest (cream label),

followed by Sarawak Special White (green label), Sarawak

White (blue label), Sarawak Field White (orange label), and

Sarawak Coarse White (gray label). In general, higher grade

black/white pepper contains less moisture and fewer light

berries as well as less extraneous matter.

(iv) Grading of Nutmeg in Grenada and Indonesia

These specifications set limits not for export purposes but

for grading nutmeg of two major origins: Indonesia and

Grenada. Nutmeg can be classified largely into “sound

Nutmeg,” which has sustained no injuries, and “substandard

Nutmeg.” Sound Nutmeg is also graded as “80s” and “110s”

according to the number of nutmeg per pound, for example,

“80s” means there are 80 pieces contained in one pound.

Substandard Nutmeg, which is exported from Indonesia, can

be shriveled and “BWP” (broken, wormy, punky).

(v) Specification of Paprika in Hungary and Spain

Spain and Hungary are among the major nations

exporting paprika since the early 20th century. Specifications

for paprika in Spain define paprika as the product obtained

by dehydrating and then grinding clean, fully ripe berries of

Capsicum annum and Capsicum longum and prohibit both

the sale and the use of biologically altered paprika. In Spain,

paprika is classified into three grades according to moisture

content, total ash, ether-soluble extract, acid-insoluble ash,

and total fiber. Extra grade paprika is produced only from

the peel (all seeds and placenta removed), Select grade allows

10% seed content, and Ordinary grade allows a 30% seed

content. In Hungary, grade and quality standards are

specified by The Hungarian Office of Standard. Paprika is

classified according to three qualities and eight grades

according to appearance, pungency and other characteristics

such as total ash and amount of ether extract. First-quality

grades are Special Paprika, Table Quality Mild Paprika

(nonpungent), Table Quality (mildly pungent) and “Hot” Table

Paprika. Second quality grades include Semi-sweet Paprika

and third quality grades include Pink (rose) Paprika and

Pungent Paprika.

Spice Quality

A. Insect Infestation

(i) Harmful Insects

Insects harmful to farm products, including spices are

usually controlled by agricultural chemicals during

cultivation. But spices can also be damaged by insects,

including mites during storage. Such pests are called “stored

grain insects.”

Of the many harmful insects, moths and beetles are most

damaging to spices. How fast the insects develop and breed

depends on the atmospheric temperature, the kind of spice

as well as the kind of insect. Red pepper and basil are among

the spices that often suffer from harmful insects during

storage; parsley, garlic and oregano do not. The cigarette

beetle and Indian meal moth are typical problem insects

found on spices. The cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne

Fabricius) is found in many areas from tropical to temperate

zones. Besides these insects, the coffee bean weevil is known

to breed on nutmeg.

(ii) Fumigation for Insects

Insects found on spices breed and multiply very quickly,

resulting in big problems unless appropriate measures are

taken in the early stages. The most common means used to

control insects in the warehouse is fumigation. The advantage

of using fumigation is that it can reach every part of the

storage warehouse and act uniformly. The chemicals most

widely used on spices for insect disinfection purposes are

methyl bromide and phosphine.

Methyl Bromide: The boiling point of methyl bromide is

3.6°C; it can be used even in winter as a fumigant. The

efficacy of this fumigant can be generally described by the

equation:

K=C×T

where

K is the fumigation efficacy

C the gas concentration, and

T the fumigation time.

The efficacy of the fumigant is enhanced by a longer

fumigation time or higher gas concentration. As for

fumigation temperature, efficacy tends to increase as the

temperature increases. The disadvantage of this fumigant is

that it is not always as effective as phosphine, especially for

pupae and eggs of some insects, in spite of its strong efficacy

against adult insects. However, it has been used in warehouse

for spices and other agricultural products for almost 50 years,

so that relatively predictable fumigation effects can be

expected. There are also some advantages to using methyl

bromide: its fumigation time is relatively short (several hours

to a couple of days) and it is relatively harmless to humans.

For these reasons it is used as fumigant for many farm

products, including spices.

FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY

Food safety is everybody’s concern and it is difficult to find

anyone who has not encountered an unpleasant moment

of foodborne illness at least once in the past year. Foodborne

illnesses may result from the consumption of food

contaminated by microbial pathogens, toxic chemicals or

radioactive materials. Employers have a responsibility to

provide a well-designed, informational training program for

employees to follow while on the job. It is important that this

training be communicated in language that all employees

understand. Practices and procedures must be translated for

all employees, no matter what language they speak. Proper

hygiene practices should be communicated prior to

employment and reaffirmed with periodic training programs.

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling,

preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent

foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that

should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards.

In this way food safety often overlaps with food defense to

prevent harm to consumers. The tracks within this line of

thought are safety between industry and the market and then

between the market and the consumer.

ISO 22000 is a standard developed by the International

Organization for Standardization dealing with food safety.

This is a general derivative of ISO 9000. ISO 22000 standard:

The ISO 22000 international standard specifies the

requirements for a food safety management system that

involves interactive communication, system management,

prerequisite programs, HACCP principles.

General Principles of Food Safety

(i) General Principles to be Followed in Administration of

Act

The Central Government, the State Governments, the

Food Authority and other agencies, as the case may be while

implementing the provisions of this Act shall be guided by

the following principles namely:-

(1) (a) endeavour to achieve an appropriate level of protection

of human life and health and the protection of

consumer’s interests including fair practices in all

kinds of food trade with reference to food safety

standards and practices.

(b) carry out risk management which shall include taking

into account the results of risk assessment and other

factors which in the opinion of the Food Authority are

relevant to the matter under consideration and where

the conditions are relevant in order to achieve the

general objectives of regulations.

(c) where in any specific circumstances, on the basis of

assessment of available information the possibility of

harmful effects on health is identified but scientific

uncertainty persists, provisional risk management

measures necessary to ensure appropriate level of

health protection may be adopted, pending further

scientific information for a more comprehensive risk

assessment.

(d) the measures adopted on the basis of clause.

(e) shall be proportionate and no more restrictive of trade

than is required to achieve appropriate level of health

protection, regard being had to technical and economic

feasibility and other factors regarded as reasonable

and proper in the matter under consideration;

(f) The measures adopted shall be reviewed within a

reasonable period of time, depending on the nature of

the risk to life or health being identified and the type

of scientific information needed to clarify the scientific

uncertainty and to conduct a more comprehensive risk

assessment.

(g) in cases where there are reasonable grounds to

suspect that a food may present a risk for human

health, then depending on the nature, seriousness and

extent of that risk, the Food Authority and the

Commissioner of Food Safety shall take appropriate

steps to inform the general public of the nature of the

risk to health, identifying to the fullest extent possible

the food or type of food, the risk that it may present,

and the measures which are taken or about to be taken

to prevent, reduce or eliminate that risk.

(h) where any food which fails to comply with food safety

requirements is part of a batch, lot or consignment of

food of the same class or description, it shall be

presumed until the contrary is proved, that all of the

food in that batch, lot or consignment fails to comply

with those requirements.

(2) The Food Authority shall, while framing regulations or

specifying standards under this Act–

(a) take into account –

(i) prevalent practices and conditions in the country

including agricultural practices and handling,

storage and transport conditions.

(ii) international standards and practices, where

international standards or practices exist or are

in the process of being formulated, unless it is of

opinion that taking into account of such prevalent

practices and conditions or international

standards or practices or any particular part

thereof would not be an effective or appropriate

means for securing the objectives of such

regulations or where there is a scientific

justification or where they would result in a

different level of protection from the one

determined as appropriate in the country.

(b) determine food standards on the basis of risk analysis

except where it is of opinion that such analysis is not

appropriate to the circumstances or the nature of the

case.

(c) undertake risk assessment based on the available

scientific evidence and in an independent, objective

and transparent manner.

(d) ensure that there is open and transparent public

consultation directly or through representative bodies

including all levels of panchayats during the

preparation, evaluation and revision of regulations,

except where it is of opinion that there is an urgency

concerning food safety or public health to make or

amend the regulations in which case such

consultation may be dispensed with : Provided that

such regulations shall be in force for not more than

six months.

(e) ensure protection of the interests of consumers and

shall provide a basis for consumers to make informed

choices in relation to the foods they consume.

(f) ensure prevention of

(i) fraudulent, deceptive or unfair trade practices

which may mislead or harm the consumer

(ii) unsafe or contaminated or sub-standard food.

PACKAGING AND LABELLING OF SPICES

Spices constitute an important group of agricultural

commodities which are considered indispensable for

culinary purposes and for flavouring food. India is known as

the “Home of Spices” and produces a large variety and

quantity of spices. As most spices grow under specific climatic

conditions, annual production level and India’s share of

spices in the world market has varied considerably in the

recent years. Although India exports spices to so many

countries in the world, of the total spices produced in the

country, only a small quantity of about 6-7% is exported. The

rest is consumed in the Indian market, as there is an

immense domestic demand. A steady increase is observed in

the export of value added spices. There is also a good scope

to increase export earnings from spice oils and oleoresins as

the global industry is increasingly leaning towards natural

flavours.

Spoilage Factors

Spices are aromatic substances of vegetable origin and

are derived from various parts of plants like leaves, bark, fruit,

flower buds, stems, roots, seeds etc. Spices are used as

condiments and seasonings and form an essential part of food

preparations as they add flavour, taste and colour. Spices