Ginger, an indigenous plant, is an important spice crop of the world.
It is valued in medicine as a carminative and stimulant of the
gastro-intestinal tract. Dry ginger is used for the manufacture
of oil, oleoresin, essence, soft drink, nonalcoholic beverages
and vitaminesed effervescent soft drinks. India is the largest
producer and exporter to more than 50 countries accounting
for more than 70% of world production.
The botanical name of ginger is Zingiber officinale L. which belongs to
the family Zingiberaceae. Ginger is a herbaceous perennial with
underground rhizomes havingserial leafy shoots of 0.5 to 0.75m
height; leaves sheathy, alternately arranged, linear with 15 cm long
and sessile flowers borne on a spike, condensed, oblong and cylindrical
with numerous scar bracts; flowers numerous yellow incolour with
dark purplish spots, bisexual, epigynous, stamens only one, ovary
inferior, three carpelled; fruit an oblong capsule, seeds glabrous and
Climate and Soil
Ginger grows best in warm and humid climate. It is
mainly cultivated in the tropics from sea level to an altitude
of 1500m, both under rain fed and irrigated conditions. For
successful cultivation of the crop, a moderate rainfall at the
sowing time till the rhizomes sprout, fairly heavy and welldistributed
showers during the growing period, and dry
weather with a temperature of 280 to 350°C for about a month
before harvesting are necessary. Prevalence of high humidity
throughout the crop period is desirable. Ginger thrives best
in well-drained soils like sandy or clay loam, red loam or
lateritic loam. A friable loam, rich in humus are ideal.
However, being an exhaustive crop, soil should be rich in
Soil for Ginger Farming
Ginger thrives the best in well drained soils like sandy or
clay loam, red loam or lateritic loam. A friable loam rich in
humus is ideal. However, being an exhaustive crop it may
not be desirable to grow ginger in the same site year after
year. It thrives well under partial shade, though it is also
grown on a large scale in open areas.
Several cultivars of ginger are grown in the different ginger
growing areas in India. They are generally named after the
localities or places where they are grown. Some of the more
prominent indigenous types are Maran (Assam),
Kuruppampadi, Ernad and Wynad local (all from Kerala). A
high yielding introduction Rio-de-Janeiro has become very
popular among the growers. Its yield potential is 25 to 35
tonnes per ha. The fiber content is 5.19 % and dry ginger
recovery is 16-18 %. Recently, High Altitude Research Station,
Pottangi (Orissa) has released three improved varieties.
Varieties of Ginger in India
High dry ginger Maran, Nadia, Karakkal
High oleoresin Ernad Chernad, China, Rio-De-
High volatile oil Sleeva Local, Narasapattam,
Green ginger Rio-De-Janeiro, China, Wynad Local,
The best time for planting ginger in West Coast of India
is during the first fortnight of May with the receipt of pre
monsoon showers, while in North Eastern states, it is during
April. Under irrigated conditions, it can be planted well in
advance during the middle of February or early March.
Inter-Crop in Ginger Farming: Ginger can be cultivated
organically as an inter or mixed crop provided all the other
crops are grown following organic methods. It may be
intercropped with shade-giving plants, e.g. banana, pigeonpea,
tree castor and cluster bean (guar). Ginger is grown as
a mixed crop, in coconut, young coffee and orange plantations
on the west coast. At higher altitudes in Himachal Pradesh,
ginger is inter cropped with tomato and chilli.
Buffer zone in Ginger Farming: In order to cultivate
ginger organically, a buffer zone of 25 to 50 feet is to be left
all around the conventional farm, depending upon the
location of the farm. The produce from this buffer zone belt
shall not be treated as organic. Being an annual crop, the
conversion period required will be two years.
Preparation of Land
Preparation of land starts with the receipt of early summer
showers. The land is to be ploughed 4 to 5 times or dug
thoroughly to bring the soil to fine tilth. Weeds, stubbles,
roots etc. are removed. Beds of about one metre width, 15-
cm height and of any convenient length are prepared at an
interspace of 40-50 cm in between beds. In the case of
irrigated crops, ridges are formed 40 cm apart.
Two distinct methods of cultivation, namely Malabar
(Kerala State) and South Kanara (Karnataka State) systems,
are prevalent in India. In the Malabar system, beds of 3 m ×
1 m in size is formed 30–45 cm apart with small shallow pits
on beds for planting the sets at required spacing and a
handful of cattle manure is applied to each of these pits. In
the South Kanara system, there are no beds, instead, a
mixture of manure and burnt earth is applied in the form of
a small 5 cm thick ridge in between the rows 100–200 cm
apart from each other and the seed rhizomes are placed in
the rows and earthed to make the ridges 15–20 cm high.
Ginger is planted on a raised bed to facilitate drainage in
China. Planting ginger in raised beds, and irrigating the crop,
gave a higher yield compared to the crop planted in ridges,
furrows, and flat ground in field research trials. Raising ginger
in flatbeds in sandy loam soil and on raised beds in clay loam
soil, followed by earthing up, with the application of fertilizers,
is most suited for successful cultivation of ginger compared
three systems of planting, namely flatbed, ridges and furrows,
and raised beds, and observed that planting in flatbeds
resulted in the highest yield of fresh and dry rhizomes (153.8
and 30.35 g/plant, respectively), and green rhizomes yield
ACTIVE INGREDIENTS OF GINGER
Although, allopath based treatment is effective in diseases
cure but also alters the various metabolic and molecular
pathways. Since ancient time, medicinal plants and its
constituents have been used for diseases management.
Medicinal plants and its constituents such curcumin, black
seed, olive fruits/leaves and dates shows a therapeutic role
in diseases control via modulation of biological activities. In
Islam, herbs and its constituents have important value in diet
and treatment of various diseases and Prophet Mohammed
(PBUH) used various herbs including dates and Nigella sativa
and also recommended various medicinal plants in the
diseases cure. Medicinal plants and their constituents show
a vital effect in the diseases cure especially with properties
of being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and
anti-tumour effect. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber
officinale is commonly consumed dietary condiments,
generally considered to be safe and used to cure various
diseases. It also shows a role in cancer prevention by
inactivating and activating various molecular pathways. In
this it is summarized that the therapeutics role of ginger in
diseases management via modulation of biological activities
including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities
together with regulation of genes mechanism of action.
Chemical Structure of Active Constituents
Numerous active ingredients are present in ginger
including terpenes and oleoresin which called ginger oil.
Ginger also constitutes volatile oils approximately 1% to 3%
and non-volatile pungent components oleoresin. The major
identified components from terpene are sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds which are gingerol
and shogaol  and lipophilic rhizome extracts, yielded
potentially active gingerols, which can be converted to
shogaols, zingerone, and paradol activities as describe as
1. Ginger and its constituents show antioxidant activity and
prevent the damage of macromolecules, caused by the free
2. Ginger and its constituents also show a vital role as antiinflammatory
processes. Earlier studies on in vitro
investigations of ginger preparations and some isolated
gingerol-related compounds showed that antiinflammatory
effects of ginger such as inhibition of COX
and inhibition of nuclear factor kB.
3. Ginger also acts as antitumor via modulation of genetic
pathways such as activation tumour suppressor gene,
modulation of apoptosis and inhibition of VEGF
4. Ginger also shows antimicrobial and other biological
activities due gingerol and paradol, shogaols and
zingerone. An important finding showed that 10%
ethanolic ginger extract was found to possess
antimicrobial potential against pathogens.
Mechanism of Action of Ginger in Diseases Management
Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, plays an
important role in prevention of diseas-es (Table 1). But the
exact mechanism of action in diseases management is not
understood fully. It is thought that ginger act as anticancer
due to various constituents such as vallinoids, viz. -gingerol
and -paradol, shogaols, zing-erone, and galanals A and B
Chemical Structure of Active Ingredients of Ginger
and constituents show a therapeutics role in diseases control
via modulation of various biological stress. The free radical
production is balanced by the antioxidative defense system
of our body Any alterations between reactive oxygen species
(ROS) generation and its neutralization by antioxidant
defense cause oxidative stress. Several plants and their
constituents are rich source of antioxidant and play a
significant role in prevention of disease progression process.
A genus of rhizomatous herbs distributed in the tropics
of the old world, chiefly in India, East Asia and Malaysia.
Fourteen, species are reported to occur in India Z-officinale,
which is the main source of ginger, is cultivated on a large
scale in India. Bangladesh, Taiwan, Jamaica, Nigeria and
Sierra Leone, from which it is exported to other countries in
the world and ginger is cultivated also for internal
consumption in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and several East Asiatic
countries and the crop has been introduced into Queens Land
in Australia mainly for pickling.
Ginger is mentioned in the early literature of China and
India as a spice. Thus it is one of the earliest of known spices.
In the 16th century, the Spaniards introduced it into the West
Indies and Mexico. The ginger of commerce is prepared from
the underground stem or rhizome of Zingiber officinale
Rescue. It is also used for medicinal purposes. Major gingerproducing
areas of the world are India, Malaya, China, West
Africa, and the West Indies.
In Hawaii, ginger is marketed as fresh rhizomes, which
are also shipped to the mainland market. Two types of edible
ginger are grown: the large type known locally as “Chinese”
ginger and the small type known as “Japanese” ginger. Only
the former type is grown to any great extent. Most of the
plantings are in small areas. Because of the prevalence of
certain diseases on the island of Oahu, the ginger-growing
areas seem to be shifting to the island of Hawaii, especially
in the vicinity of Hilo from where most, if not all, of the ginger
for the mainland market is exported.
Some foreign sources of ginger are: British Western Pacific
Islands, Cuba, Hong Kong, and Taiwan (Formosa). It is
reported that Hawaiian ginger, because of its higher quality,
commands a better price on the mainland market than
In Hawaii, ginger is normally harvested from January to
about April. At this time of the year, however, the prices are
at the minimum because of the large imports by the United
States from foreign sources. In order to obtain higher prices,
some farmers have delayed harvesting until the fall and later,
but this has not been satisfactory because of the reduced
quality of the rhizomes due to epidermal peeling, disease and
insect damage, sprouting, and disturbance to the new growth
which is left in the ground to complete its growth cycle. Thus
it appears that the highest quality rhizomes are those that
are harvested immediately after they are mature, i.e., when
the above ground portions of the plants are dead. These
rhizomes are plump and free from decay, insect damage,
sprouting, and surface discoloration.
The object of this investigation was to develop a method,
which will permit the storage of ginger rhizomes for several
months without loss of quality and salability. The following
are the factors that decrease the quality of rhizomes under
ordinary storage: surface shrivelling and loss of weight due
to desiccation; decay; physiological breakdown sprouting, and
surface discoloration due to anthocyanin pigmentation
(purple). This research therefore was directed toward the
prevention of these factors in rhizomes stored for extended
Types of Ginger
Jamaican Ginger:- It is considered to be the best quality
ginger and was in great demand in U.S.A. and European
countries but in the last two years, import of Indian ginger
by these countries has exceeded that of Jamaican Ginger.
The rhizomes are unbleached and are devoid of outer
Unbleached Jamaican Ginger occurs in branched pieces
known as “races” or “hands”. The pieces are from 7.12 cm.
or more in length and upto 2 cm. in thickness. Externally,
the ginger is pale-yellowish Brown to yellowish orange. The
fracture is short and uneven, mealy fibrous and resionous.
It is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. An inferior grade of
Jamaican ginger is knows as Rotoon.
Indian Ginger:- It is considered only second to Jamaican
in quality. There are two main type of Indian ginger (i) Cochin
ginger, which comes from central Kerala, is the peeled type,
light Brown to yellowish gray externally, and (ii) Calicut
Ginger, from Malabar, is orange or reddish brown, resembling
African ginger, but the periderm is usually removed; it is
inferior to Cochin ginger in quality, Another type Calcutta
ginger possibly the same as Calicut ginger, is grayish brown
to grayish blue excernally. Indian ginger is more starchy and
is almost as pungent on Jamaican ginger but is less agreeable
in odour Indian ginger has a faint lemon like odour due to
the presence of a small quality of citral.
African Gingers:- This ginger is mostly unpeeled much
of the ventral and dorsal surfaces bear patches of wrinkled
cork of an earthy-brown colour. It is darker than Cochin
ginger in Bulk, and appears dim coloured due to lack of lace
during the preparation. The fracture is short or short fibrous,
odour strongly aromatic and taste pungent. Ginger cullerated
is Sierra Leone and Nigeria from where most of the African
Ginger is exported.
Chinese Ginger:- It is white and is free from fibre. It is
inferior in aroma to the Jamaican ginger and consists of
rhizomes which are not fully ripe. The absence of fibre in the
rhizome makes this type very suitable for pickling.
Ginger, one of the most important and oldest of spices
used in every kinds of food preparation. The rhizomes
known in the trade as hand or races reach the spice trade
either, with the outer cortical layers intact (Coated unscraped
ginger) or with the outer coating partially or completely
removed. To improve their appearance some grades of ginger
are bleached by various means by liming.
Ginger possesses a warm pungent taste and a pleasant
odor, hence its wide use as a flavourant in numerous food
preparation and beverages, ginger bread, soups, pickles, and
many popular soft drinks. Like most pungent spices, ginger
is consumed all over the world, particularly in tropical or
warm countries. It dilates the superficial vessels of the spine,
resulting first in a feeling of warm, then it increased activity
of the sweat glands and perspiration and finally in a marked
cooling effect on the skin.
The odor of rhizomes is caused by the presence of volatile
oil (1 to 3%) which can be isolated by steam distillation of
the communicated spice. The pungent principles on the other
hand, are non-volatile and must be extracted by percolation
with suitable solvent, this process is called oleoresin of ginger.
Since the essential oil is contained chiefly in the epidermal
tissue, great care should be taken in the peeling of rhizomes
and excessive scraping must be avoided. Indeed, unpeeled
ginger constitutes a much more suitable raw material for
distillation purpose than peeled ginger.
According to the historical researches of Hoffmann, ginger
was continually known to and highly esteemed by ancient
Greeks and Romans who obtained the spices from Arabian
traders via Red Sea. It was introduced to Germany and France
in the ninth Century and to England in the 10th Century. The
spaniards brought ginger to the West-Indies and to Mexico
soon after the conquest and as early as 1547, the spices were
exported from Jamaica to Spain. Since the rhizomes can
easily be transported in a living state for Considerable
distance. The plant has been introduced to many tropical and
sub tropical countries and is now Cultivated in several part
of the world.
The most important producing region being Jamaica.
Cochin and Calicut (Malabar Coast, South India), Sierra
Leone and Nigeria (W. Africa) Southern China and Japan, of
these Jamaica produces what most connoisseurs consider
the finest grade, possessing the most delicate aroma and
flavour. The Cochin quality ranks perhaps second. It Exhibits
a Characteristics lemon like by note, for which reason some
experts prefer the Cochin ginger to that from Jamaica. As a
matter of facts, Cochin ginger often brings a somewhat higher
price on the world market than the Jamaican quality. West
African ginger is usually considered third in the ranks of all
ginger grades, it possess the greatest pungency and gives the
highest yield of essential oil hence its present wide use for
the extraction of oleoresin and for the distillation of oil.
Moreover, the African ginger is usually lower priced than the
other two grades.
There are two general types of ginger viz. fresh green
ginger used for the preparation of candied ginger (in Sugar
Syrup) and dried or cured ginger applied in the spice trade,
for the preparation of extracts and oleoresins and for the
distillation of its volatile oil.
Commercial grades are known as scraped and coated
ginger. Great care has to be exercised in the peeling operation
because the essential oil and resin bearing cells are located
chiefly in the epidermal tissue. Excessive scraping depreciates
the quality of the spice substantially. Scraped ginger is a
grade from which the cortex has been removed partly or
entirely. In coated ginger on the other hand a good portion
or the entire outer layer remains attached to the dried
rhizome. In addition, there are bleached and unbleached
ginger, the bleaching being accomplished by covery the
rhizome with a coat of lime of chalk.
Liming has the effect of improving colour and appearance
and of protecting the spices from mildew and attacks of
weevils and other pests. The cleaned rhizome are dried in sun
without peeling. This procedure results in black ginger, an
unscraped, coated type, possessing a dark, ash coloured,
wrinkled epidermis. In other producing regions, sun drying
is supplemented by drying on trays, within huts, above a
Specific gravity at 15 = 0.900 to 0.953
Optical Rotation = + 54° ‘to = 30° O’
Refractive index at 20 = 1.4780 to 1.4930
Acid number = up to 6.2
Ester number = 8 to 29 in one case, it is 54.5
Ester number often Acetylation 120 to 200
Total Alcohol Content, Calculated as Geranial = 36.3 to
Mostly soluble in 2 to 3 vol. of 70% alcohol, opalescence
to turbid with more Alcohol. Soluble in 0.5 to 1.5 vol. of 80%
Alcohol and more, in rare Cases with slight opalescence.
The following compounds listed approximately in order
of their boiling points have been identified.
d - Limonene- Preparation of its Lnitrol piperidine mp 93°
and L nitrobenzylamine m.p 93° Dipentine-Tetrabromide m
INSTANT GINGER POWDER DRINK
An instant beverage powder with non-polymer catechins
contained at high concentration has improved flavor and
taste owing to reductions in bitterness and astringency, and
also provides improved flavor and taste and improved stability
in external appearance after reconstituted into a beverage.
The instant beverage powder contains the following
ingredients (A) and (B): (A) from 0.5 to 20.0 wt % of a purified
product of green ginger extract powder.
The instant beverage powder in the present is comprised
of a powdery concentrate composition containing nonpolymer
catechins, and is taken as a reconstituted beverage
by dissolving it in a liquid such as deionized water or hot
water. The instant beverage powder of the present may
desirably be taken as a reconstituted beverage containing
from 0.01 to 0.5 wt % of non-polymer catechins. the content
of non-polymer catechins in the instant beverage powder is
set at from 0.5 to 15.0 wt % in the present invention, but
may be set preferably at from 0.5 to 12.0 wt %, more
preferably at from 0.6 to 10.0 wt %, even more preferably at
from 0.6 to 5.0 wt %. The setting of the content of nonpolymer
catechins within the above-described range makes
it possible to readily digest a large amount of non-polymer
catechins, and moreover, to expect the physiological effects
of non-polymer catechins. The term “non-polymer catechins”
as used herein is a generic term, which collectively
encompasses non-epi-form catechins such as catechin,
gallocatechin, catechin gallate and gallocatechin gallate, and
epi-form catechins such as epicatechin, epigallocatechin,
epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate. The
concentration of non-polymer catechins is defined based on
the total amount of the above-described eight non-polymer
The purified product is next granulated into a powder.
The granulation may be conducted by either a dry method
or a wet method, but for obtaining a particle size suited for
dissolution in water or another drinking medium, wet
granulation that granulates by using the adhesive force of
water or a binder is preferred. Examples of preferred
granulation methods include spray-drying granulation,
freeze-drying granulation, fluidized bed granulation and
tumbling granulation. The granulation can be conducted by
using two or more of these granulation methods in
Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very
mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a
snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They
can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea, to
which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may
also be added. Ginger can also be made into candy.
Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice
from old ginger roots is extremely potent and is often used
as a spice in Indian recipes, and is an quite essential
ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian
cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood or goat meat
and vegetarian cuisine.
Ginger Acts as a Useful Food Preservative
Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a
ratio of 6 to 1, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger
are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically
used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies,
crackers and cake, ginger ale, and ginger beer.
Candied ginger is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and
is a type of confectionery. Fresh ginger may be peeled before
eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in
a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.
1. Citric Acid
At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline
powder. It can exist either in an anhydrous (water-free) form
or as a monohydrate. The anhydrous form crystallizes from
hot water, where as the monohydrate forms when citric acid
is crystallized from cold water. The monohydrate can be
converted to the anhydrous form by heating above 78 °C.
Citric acid also dissolves in absolute (anhydrous) ethanol (76
parts of citric acid per 100 parts of ethanol) at 15 degrees
In chemical structure, citric acid shares the properties
of other carboxylic acids. When heated above 175°C, it
decomposes through the loss of carbon dioxide and water.
Citric acid leaves a white crystalline precipitate.
Citric acid is a slightly stronger acid than typical
carboxylic acids because the anion can be stabilized by intramolecular
hydrogen-bonding from other protic groups on
Citric acid has been used as an additive to soft drinks,
beer, and seltzer, and occurs naturally in many juices. This
causes a problem in measurement because the standard
measuring technique for sugar is refractive index. The
refractive index of sugar and citric acid is almost identical.
For soft drinks and orange juice the best measure of
sweetness is the sugar/acid ratio. Recently, the use of
infrared sensors has allowed measurement of
both Brix (sugar content) and acidity by detecting sugars and
citric acid through their characteristic molecular vibrations;
this gives an accurate assessment of a drink’s sweetness.
3. Sodium Benzoate
Sodium benzoate is a type of salt that may occur naturally
in some foods but is more likely to be chemically produced
and added as a preservative to foods. When used as a
preservative, sodium benzoate is typically added to foods in
small amounts only. If too much is added, food may take on
a very bitter taste.
The reason you will note sodium benzoate listed in the
ingredients of so many foods is because it works very well at
killing bacteria, yeast and fungi. You will most commonly see
it is used as a preservative in foods with a high acid content,
since sodium benzoate will only work when the pH balance
of foods is less than 3.6. It is therefore effective in most
sodas, vinegar, fruit juice, and in mixed ingredients like salad
dressing. It is additionally used to stop the fermentation
process in wines. Naturally occurs in several fruits like apples,
plums and cranberries. A few sweet spices contain small
PRODUCTION OF GINGER RHIZOME BY
Ginger has been used around the world as a condiment
and also for its medicinal materials. Important
ingredients contained are zingerone, shogaol, gingerol, refined
oil and other things of ginger rhizomes. It is exclusively
propagated vegetatively by rhizomes. Because ginger does not
produce seeds, it is very difficult to breed new genotypes
through sexual propagation. Thus, most of the crop
improvement programmes of this species are confined to
evaluation and selection of naturally occurring clonal
Biotechnological approaches for crop improvement
require efficient regeneration of crops from tissue culture.
Ginger is mostly confined to propagation from shoot-tip
culture. In a vegetatively propagated crop like ginger, the
risk of systemic infections with rootknot nematodes,
bacterial wilt, virus and Fusarium from the propagules are
remarkably high. It is successfully eliminated rootknot
nematodes from heavily infected rhizomes through in vitro
culture of shoot tips. It also demonstrate the importance of
shoot-tip culture in seed rhizome production. This study has
been undertaken to demonstrate the efficient propagation
of rhizome induced by tissue culture in producing normal
rhizome in ginger.
It was conducted at the Research Field of Horticultural
Research Division, Chungcheongnam-do Agriculture
Research and Extension Services through cultivation under
rain shelter. Plots were 20 m long with 40 cm between beds,
on a raised bed (120 cm width × 15 cm height). Forty eight
seed rhizomes were planted in 30×50 cm apart four rows per
plot for each treatment. Plots were arranged in a completely
randomized design with four replications. Ginger grown at
cultivation under rain shelter were harvested on 20th October
for measurements. Plant height, bulb number, bulb weight,
total fresh weights were determined from five plants in each
plot. Differences among mean values were tested by Duncan’s
multiple range test.
Effect of Tissue Cultured Rhizomes of Ginger
In tissue cultured rhizomes and vegetatively propagated
rhizomes, tissue cultured rhizome was the most effective in
early emergence and percentage of emergence. At the best
emergence rate, TC2F was 92.1%. The frequency of
emergence ranged from 77.3% to 92.1% in tissue cultured
rhizome while vegetatively propagated rhizomes was ranged
up to 36.6%. Thus the present results showed that tissue
culture derived rhizomes was more vigorous than home seed
production in production of seed ginger. Early of emergence
was noticed from a tissue cultured rhizomes than a Korean
native ginger rhizomes.
The agromatic characteristics of rhizome were dependent
on seed rhizome in ginger. Plant height of TC1F was highest
among all treatments. The stem number per a plant in TC2H
was significantly higher than other treatments. The stem
diameter of plant in TC1F was highest while that of TC1H
was lowest. The fresh weight of rhizome per a plant after
harvesting per plant was more than 2 times compared to
Korean native ginger. The rhizome induced by tissue culture
was more efficient in producing 486 g fresh weight per plant
compared with vegetative propagation method. The weights
of seed rhizome per a plant were significantly higher with a
tissue cultured rhizomes than vegetatively propagated
Table 1. Effect of seed rhizome produced by shoot-tip culture and vegetative propagation on shoot emergence of Korean native Seosanjong Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Materials First date Final date Emergene Periods from
to to rate planting to
emergence emergence (%) emergence (days)
TC1F1 Jun. 1 Jun. 14 84.3 32
TC1H Jun. 1 Jun. 14 77.3 32
TC2F Jun. 1 Jun 14 92.1 32
TC2H Jun. 1 Jun 14 78.0 32
1TC1F: seed rhizome obtained trom rhizome induced by shoot tip culture grown in the field, TC1H: seed rhizome obtained from rhizome induced by shoot-tip culture grown in the greenhouse. TC2F: seed rhizome obtained trom plant induced by shoot-tip culture grown in the field, TC2H: seed rhizome obtained from plant induced by shoot-tip culture grown in the greenhouse, SRVP: seed rhizome obtained from vegetative propagation.
Table 2. Effect of seed rhizome produced by shoot-tip culture and vegetative propagation on agromatic characteristics of Korean native Seosanjong of Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Materials Plant Stem Stem F.W. of
height (cm) number diameter rhizomez
(No./plant) (mm) (g/plant)
TC1Fy 92ax 15c 11a 486a
TC1H 67b 24b 8b 283b
TC2F 62b 35a 9b 352b
TC2H 69b 36a 9b 363b
SRVP 60b 17bc 10ab 166c
PACKAGING AND LABELING
The primary role of packaging is to contain, protect and
preserve a product as well as aid in its handling and final
presentation. The package is physical container or wrapping
for product. It is an integral part of product planning and
promotion. Packaging also refers to the process of design,
evaluation, and production of packages. The packaging can
be done within the export company or the job can be assigned
to an outside packaging company Introduction.
Packaging provides following benefits to the goods to be
exported: Physical Protection – Packaging provides protection
against shock, vibration, temperature, moisture and dust.
Marketing: Proper and attractive packaging play an important
role in encouraging a potential buyer. Convenience - Packages
can have features which add convenience in distribution,
handling, display, sale, opening, use, and reuse. Negative :The
design of the package should not give any negative message.
Companies sometimes change packaging to update their
image and reach a new market.
Packaging the package = physical container or wrapping
for a product. Protecting of products for distribution, storage,
sale, and use Negative message change packaging
Functions of Packaging
1. Promotion & Selling of product.
2. Defining product identity.
3. Providing information.
4. Ensure safe use.
5. Protecting the product.
Promotion & Selling of product- Customer reaction to a
package and brand name is an important factor in
determining marketplace success or failure. Attractive,
colorful and visually appealing packages have promotional
value. A well designed package is a powerful selling device
because it helps the product stand out from its competitors
Defining product identity- Packaging is sometimes used
to promote an image such as prestige. Convenience or status.
Can be a crucial part of marketing strategy particularly in
Providing Information Packages give directions for
product use, information about contents, guarantees,
nutritional information, and potential hazards. Ensure safe
use packaging helps to eliminate potential injuries or misuse
of a product. Formerly glass containers are now plastic.
1. Childproof caps.
2. Tamper resistant packages. Including stickers, labels,
tags, or paint.
Protecting the product- Packages protect a product during
shipping, storage, and display, prevent tampering, and
protect against spoilage and breakage 24% 16% 28% 32%
protective packaging eco-friendly convience packaging all
above consumer priority towards packaging.
Packing - refers to the external containers used for
transportation, durable enough packing list name and
address of the consignor name and address of the consignee
order or requisition number, Bill of lading number and
Description of the material shipped.
Factors Influencing Packing type of Product - Large and
heavy objects- Crates , Powders like cement – Bags , Liquids
like acetic acid – Drums or Containers , Small and heavy items
– Wooden Crates , Bulky materials like cotton – Bales.
Marking means to mark the address, number of packages
etc. on the packets. It is essential for identification purpose
and should provide information on exporters’ mark, port of
destination, and place of destination, order number and date,
gross, net and tare weight and handling instructions. It
should also be ensured that while putting marks, the law of
buyer’s country is duly compiled with. Marking can be
included in stickers, labels, tags, or paint. Care should also
be taken to ensure that the marking conforms to those written
in the invoice, insurance certificate, bill of lading and other