SOY FLOUR & MILK
Soy beans are rich in proteins and are extensively used in
many food items in several far East and East Asian
countries since many decades. Today Madhya Pradesh is the
highest producer of soya bean. Bulk of the production of soya
beans are used for extraction of oil but other products like
soya milk, paneer, flour, curd etc. are also becoming popular,
as soya beans are high in proteins, low in fat and easy to
Soy proteins are available on the market in the form of
defatted flours, protein concentrate, protein isolate but
seldom as whole flour, which includes the seed oil with all
its vitamin E, phospholipids, and micro nutrients intact,
essential compounds that are rarely found in regular daily
diets. By refining soybean oil, essential micro nutrients are
eliminated extracted soybeans oil is separated from
phospholipids (lecithin) through the degumming process
and, in the deodorization process, part of the vitamin E is
As soybean flour, when defatted, is very rich in protein
(50 %), its consumption alone is not recommended, since a
balanced food must contain approximately 2 - 3 g of protein
for every 100 calories. Whole soybean flour, however, is a
more balancer meal than defatted flour because oil has a
calorific value 2.2 times higher than sugar or other
Soymilk is a water extract of whole soybeans. It is an offwhite
emulsion/suspension containing the water soluble
proteins and carbohydrates, and most of the oil of the
soybeans. Soymilk has been produced traditionally in China,
and to a lesser extent elsewhere in East Asia, but was never
a predominant element in the popular diet.
Physical Characteristics & Chemical Composition of the
The shape of the soybean seed varies from almost
spherical to elongated and flat. The industrial varieties grown
for oil are nearly spherical while the elongated varieties are
the ones used as a vegetable. The color of the seed may be
yellow, green, brown or black. Industrial varieties are yellow
and the presence of seeds of other colors in a lot is considered
a defect. Seed size is expressed as the number of seeds per
unit volume or weight. Industrial soybeans weigh 18-20
grams per 100 beans. The seeds of “vegetable” varieties are
The composition of soybeans may vary somewhat
according to variety and growing conditions. Through plant
breeding it has been possible to obtain protein levels between
40% and 45%, and lipid levels between 18% and 20%.
Usually, an increase of 1% in protein content is accompanied
by a decrease of 0.5% in oil. Incidentally, this negative
correlation between protein and oil is one of the reasons for
the lack of interest in high-protein varieties, since the
production of these varieties does not result in increased
income per hectare cultivated.
Soya bean flour is used in many products and has several
uses and is considered to be a health food. With increasing
awareness about health, there is a distinct shift towards soya
products including its flour. Its use as supplement in wheat
flour is increasing substantially in many households.
Its applications are many fold and is used in meat
products, cereal flour, ready-to-eat products, prepared
instant mixes, baby foods, confectionaries, special diet food,
high protein soups, protein concentrates, food additives,
bakeries etc. Thus, there is a vast growing market. Many
individual households have also started mixing a small
proportion of soya flour as a supplement in wheat flour.
Saccharin is an artificial sweetener that is 300 times
sweeter than sugar. It is considered a no-calorie
sweetener because it has fewer than 5 calories per usual
serving. By 1907, saccharin was used as a replacement for
sugar in foods for diabetics. Since it is not metabolized in the
body for energy, saccharin is classified as a noncaloric
sweetener. By the 1960s it was used on a massive scale in
the “diet” soft drink industry. Saccharin is the foundation
for many low-calorie and sugar-free products around the
world. It is used in table top sweeteners, baked goods, jams,
chewing gum, canned fruit, candy, dessert toppings and salad
Saccharin has been used as a substitute for sugar as a
sweetening agent for about ninety years. Its use was initially
limited to those unable to tolerate sugar in their diet, but
its consumption has recently been greatly increased by the
rising popularity of low-calorie foods and beverages.
Although other artificial sweeteners have been developed
and marketed, doubts have been raised as to their safety,
and saccharine has retained a dominant position in the
market. Saccharin and its salts have been used in a variety
of beverages, foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Its
primary function is to provide sweetness without adding
calories, and it is used in the following foods and beverages:
soft drinks, fruit juices, other beverages and other beverage
bases or mixes; table-top sweeteners in tablet, powder or
liquid form; processed fruits, chewing-gum and confections;
gelatine desserts, jams and toppings; and sauces and
dressings. Lesser amounts of saccharin are used in a variety
of non-food applications, as a nickel electroplating
brightener, chemical intermediate, animal feed sweetener
and anaerobic adhesive accelerator.
Uses in Foods and Other Products
Saccharin is used in a wide variety of foods, including
juices, jellies, chewing gum, beverages, canned fruit, salad
dressings, dessert toppings, candy, jams and baked goods.
It’s also used in non-food products, such as mouthwash,
toothpaste, lipstick, pill coatings and vitamins.
EDIBLE CORN OIL
Crude corn oil has a dark reddish amber color. Even after
refining, it is considerably darker than many other vegetable
oils. By applying strong bleaching treatments, however, it can
be lightened to a golden yellow color. This oil, unless subjected
to stringent deodorization action, retains the strong taste and
odor characteristics of the original corn kernel. The unrefined
oil contains relatively large amounts of phosphatides and
other non oil substances (often in excess of 2%) and its free
fatty acid content (usually above 1.5%) is higher than that
found in most vegetable oils.
The refined oil contains small amounts of waxes, which
cause a precipitate or “cloud” to form in oil held at refrigerator
temperatures unless the wax is selectively removed by a
process called winterization. The keeping quality of refined
corn oil is fairly good. The crude oil, however, is rapidly
hydrolyzed unless processing proceeds without delay. Such
degradation is hastened when the oil remains in the presence
of corn meal impurities.
Raw material for the corn oil is the maize grains originated
in Western hemisphere. Generally it is cultivated in the
America, India, and Columbus etc. Its name in European
countries is corn to distinguish from the cereals. It contains
the mainly bran, germ and endosperm. The bran 6% germ
12% and Endosperm 83%. The main composition of the maize
Many fast food items have flooded the markets but
noodles have emerged as the most popular item as it is
cheaper, very easy to make and nutritious. Urban and semiurban
markets are controlled by Maggi and other players are
Top Ramen and other brands. Instant noodles are mostly fried
noodles which are made of flour, water, alkaline salt and other
additives. The consumption of instant noodles is global due
to their characteristics such as convenience to eat, easy to
mass-produce, widely acceptable taste, preferred texture and
affordable prices. Instant noodles are dried or precooked
noodles fused with oil, and often sold with a packet of
flavoring. Dried noodles are usually eaten after being cooked
or soaked in boiling water for 2 to 5 minutes, while precooked
noodles can be reheated, or eaten straight from the packet.
Instant noodles are commonly sold in either a
polyethylene bag or in a Styrofoam cup or bowl with a peel
back aluminium cover. Cup instant noodles have very thin
strands to facilitate rapid rehydration and are readily served
after pouring hot water into the cup and resting for 1-2
minutes. Bag-types of instant noodles generally have medium
thickness and are square or round strands in shape.
Confectionery products are universally popular among the
young and the older generations alike. With increased
access to better machinery, openness among customers to
newer tastes and flavors and affordability of required raw
materials, the confectionery industry is thriving like never
before. Candy or Sweet is the most popular type of confectionery
over the world, and there is certainly something about
this unique product that holds many mysterious qualities.
Generally candies are available in fruit based flavors or Milk
based flavor and sometimes with centre filling also. While
we often think about candy as a food for children, we all know
that adults love this delicious food as well.
There are different types of candies that are produced
today in the world. the range of candies available in today’s
market include such treats as soft and tender golden
caramels, elegant truffles and fudges, chewy licorice,
sumptuous chocolates, mouthwatering toffee and hard
candy, as well as nougats, rolls, jelly beans and gum drops.
A natural milk candy, composed mainly of milk powder, and
rich calcium and other nutrients. The milk candy represents
a great in-between meal dietary snack. It can be flavored with
chocolate, coffee and other natural flavors.
Uses of Candy
• Candy is usually liked by all age groups of people as a
• Candies are used after meal, dinners as smooth
refresher. It drives away bad smell from mouth and
refreshes the breath. Some times it causes good
sensation while chewing.
• It is chewed by children, young people, young girls,
yound ladies etc. But mostly it is consumed by children’s
of age group below ten.
Breakfast is one of the most important meals of the day
as it replenishes our body’s energy after an all-night fast.
Corn Flakes are made from corn and are in addition fortified
with vitamins and iron. Corn flakes being one of most
nutritious foods and is consumed as breakfast food not only
in India but-elsewhere in the world. Corn flakes are food made
by combining corn with sugar, vitamins and minerals to make
them as nutritious as possible. Maize is one of the important
commercial food-grains grown abundantly in our country.
Maize provides invaluable substances, which act as nutrients
and these substances are very necessary for balance of
human diet. The various substances are proteins,
carbohydrates, starch, fat and water, proteins, carbohydrates
and starch are main nutrients of maize.
In India and many other corn flakes are mostly taken in
breakfast. Mostly it is taken with milk though it can be had
in many other ways also depending one’s taste. As a breakfast
meal, corn flakes are soaked in milk and then taken. It is
very quick meal and acts as apetizer also. Now a days people
don’t like to have chapattis or paranthas in all the four meals
which they have been having for long. Corn flakes is good
substitute for such people.
Uses and Applications
Corn Flakes are used mainly as breakfast food along with
milk. They are also used for making any delicious food by
cooking. It is also being given to patients, since it contains
carbohydrates, protein and starch. This food acts as a
stimulant for patients.
Corn flakes are mainly consumed by upper strata of
society, in hotels, hospitals, nursing homes etc. It is
economical, convenient, nutritious and flavourful food
suitable for daily consumption.
People getting modernized they need some sophistication
in their food also the need of which fulfilled by corn
flakes. The per capita consumption of corn flakes has
increased many times as compared to last decade.
EXTRUDED FOOD (KURKURE TYPE)
It is a variety of ready to eat crisp namkeen known for its
particular taste. Kurkure type extruded products are
becoming popular day by day due to change in the food habits
and convenience to use. It is a cereal (Rice, Corn and Pulses)
based convenience food with oil /fat and good source of
energy. It is being used in homes, restaurants, parties’ etc.
by almost every section of the society because of its less cost
and easy availability. Its snack smart initiative to cut out
trans-fat from its products by using rice bran oil which cuts
saturated fat by 40 per cent.
This aspect coupled with changing life styles has opened
up many new markets in many sectors including the food
processing sector. Last few years have witnessed a remarkable
change in preferences and spending habits especially of
the younger generation and youth. Extruded puffed snacks
are primarily targeted at this segment of the population. These
products find various applications like tea time snacks, as
munching during ceremonies or parties, during picnics or
outings or simply as fun products. Hence with proper publicity,
adequate placement to ensure easy availability and attractive
packaging the market can be captured, provided quality is
upto the mark.
Properties of Kurkure Type Products
1. It should be crispy and soft in the teeth.
2. It has very good flavour and taste.
3. It should not absorb moisture from whether when it is
4. It can be transport from one place to another place
easily. When it is packed condition.
5. It may be hollow rolled cylindrical shape or curry shape.
Raw Materials Required
JAM & JELLY
Jams and jellies are made from a variety of fruits, either
singly or in combination. Most of the fruits are harvested
in the fall. The level of ripeness varies. Pears, peaches, apricots,
strawberries, and raspberries gel best if picked slightly
underripe. Plums and cherries are best if picked when just
ripe. Most jam and jelly producers develop close relationships
with their growers in order to ensure quality.
Jam is a product containing both soluble and insoluble
fruit constituents Jam and jelly are made from fruits and they
are being made since long in different forms. Jam & jelly are
made from fruits, fruit pulps or extracts. Jam is boiled fruit
pulp with sugar and preservatives and is thick. Jelly is also
made by boiling but is clear, sparkling and transparent. These
products are applied to some snacks or bread. They are also
used in making certain desserts. Jam & jelly are used in
homes as well as restaurants and other eateries. They enjoy
substantial shelf life and thus can be made available round
the year. These products can be produced in many states of
All contain the four essential ingredients needed to make
a jellied fruit product–fruit, pectin, acid and sugar. They differ,
however, depending upon fruit used, proportion of different
ingredients, method of preparation and density of the fruit
pulp. Jam is made from crushed or ground fruit. The end
product is less firm than jelly, but still holds its shape.
Pectin is a natural plant substance that causes fruit to
gel. Fruits such as apples, crabapples, currants, grapes and
some plums contain enough natural pectin to form a gel;
others require added pectin. Follow the manufacturer’s
directions or tested recipes for each type of pectin.
Acid is needed for gel formation and flavor. The amount
of acid in fruits also varies with the fruit and degree of
ripeness. When using low-acid fruits in recipes without
commercial pectin, add 1 tablespoon lemon juice or 1/8
teaspoon citric acid for each cup of fruit.
Sugar helps form the gel, serves as a preserving agent,
firms the fruit and adds flavor. Beet or cane sugar can
be used. Brown sugar, sorghum and molasses are not recommended
because of their strong flavor and varying degree
of sweetness. Light corn syrup or mild honey can be
substituted for part of the sugar using recipes that specify
honey or corn syrup.
SWEET SCENTED SUPARI
Supari is the dehydrated betel nut sliced for direct
consumption. It is used as mouth fresher after food. It is
a typical Indian product popular with both young and old.
Sweet scented supari is used to remove bad odour of mouth
& for refresh feeling. Betel nuts are abundantly found in the
North Eastern Region and are extensively used. Conversion
of betel nut to supari confers substantial value addition to
the extent of 80% of the cost. Scented Supari is available in
many forms, but the various constituents or the main
ingredients remain nearly the same. Scented Supari may be
mixed in tobacco, Pan Masala etc. Due to its flavouring taste
children used it very enthusiastically.
Betel nuts are consumed in large quantities across the
country. The betel (Piper betel) is the leaf of a vine belonging
to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava. It
is valued both as a mild stimulant and for its medicinal
properties. It is a typical Indian habit and they are eaten by
many purely as an addiction whereas some consume it
assuming that it helps the digestive system.
Despite the name “betel nut,” the substance that people
chew in many areas of the world is usually a mixture of two
plant items and lime minerals. The nut portion is the areca
nut, which comes from the palm tree Areca catechu.
Sometimes, the nut and lime is contained inside a wrapping
of leaves from the betel vine, Piper betel. In other preparations
all the ingredients are mixed together as powder.The betel
plant is an evergreen and perennial creeper, with glossy
heart-shaped leaves and white catkin.
Uses and Applications
1. It is used to refresh the mouth.
2. It freshens up mouth and breathes with its flavour.
3. It is chewed by all age group people.
4. It is served to guests after lunch and dinner to keep
5. It helps in digestion of food after meals
6. It is served in marriages, parties or any other special
7. It is a direct substitute of pan, pan masala etc.
8. Widely used in religious and social functions.
9. Strengthens gums and teeth.
The best known primary products of beekeeping are honey
and wax. The products are consumed in the state.
Treditionally honey is considered the major beekeeping
product. Wax has played a considerable role in only a few
parts of the world and propolis is even less known. However,
with increasing knowledge about beekeeping and an
awareness of the beneficial aspects of many bee products,
the use and demand for other products is increasing. The
inclusion of natural bee products in cosmetics, medicines and
foods hasimproved consumer appeal. While such appeal is
not always based on scientific evidence,more and more
studies confirm at least some of the treditionally claimed
benefits of primary bee products.
Tutti-Frutti is a processed fruit product prepared from raw
papaya. It finds wide use in bakery and confectionery
products, jellies, puddings and sweetmeats. It is used in
households commonly as a topping in sweets, cakes and
puddings. Children prefer to consume it per se as a pastime
delicacy. Having a dual market both commercial and domestic
with varying tastes and flavours, the product has gained
importance in the processing industry. It is a mass
consumption item across the country. Children & young
generation are very fond of it.
Cereals like wheat , rice, maize and millets are staple food
grain for majority of population around the world . These
are the rich source of carbohydrates and supply of calorie
and other nutrients to the consumers. Apart from value
addition by processing to traditional products from these
grains, development of Newer products offers Variety,
Convenience, Quality, Cost efficiency and Scope for increasing
nutritional value. In the developed countries many
convenience foods are prepared by extrusion process using
extruder, as it offers a large number of desired characteristic
to be incorporated in the product. Noodles are a form of pasta
that is becoming extremely popular in India even as
Continental and Italian delicacy. Instant Noodles is prepared
by means of an extrusion machine that is basically made of
an stainless steel make strips, either flat (rolled and Cut) or
Oval round (Extruded). The process is quite simple and
requires not much skilled labour. The machine itself is high
technology and provides the manufacturers to produce pasta
with several alternatives materials (like Maida, Suji, Rava,
Rice flour and so on) and in different shapes (like Spaghetti,
Fettuccini, Vermicelli, Maccaroni, Fusilli, Penne, etc.) of Pasta
and Noodles. These products can be described as Hard, Brittle
pieces, Formed into different shapes by extruding , cutting
and drying tough dough made from semolina or farina mixed
Namkeen is very popular fast food item used in day-today
life in almost all houses in the country and also in
abroad. Because of the taste and aroma of the product, the
product has secured a very good market demand. The product
is prepared in different tastes in accordance with the taste
of the people of that region. Items like masala puffed rice,
chevda, fried peas, dal-muth, roasted masala peanuts etc.
The product is packed in polythene pouches by using simple
Vermicelli is a popular instant food product. It falls under
the category of extruded product and is made from wheat
flour. At times tapioca or soybean or groundnut flour is also
added. Thus, it is rich in proteins and liked by people from
all walks of life, irrespective of age. It is basically a snack food
item and at times it is also used as a table enricher. With
changing lifestyles, greater awareness about health and
preference for instant food items have made vermicelli very
popular and an item of mass consumption.
Ice cream has become very popular throughout the country.
Ice Cream is the most common products but other items
like chocolate Ice Cream and mango ice cream, etc. are also
not lagging far behind. These items are consumed by people
of all age groups across the board. Indians by their very
nature and culture are passionate about food, both making
and eating, which makes it an attractive business idea for
anyone having requisite skills. Home utensils and
equipment’s can be easily used for opening your very own
ice cream parlo. Nature of these products is such that the
consumers prefer fresh items. Shelf life of ice cream is limited
and thus local manufacturers enjoy distinct advantage. In
spite of continuous increase in the consumption of these
items during last few years, the per capita consum-ption is
still very low compared to the advanced countries. There is,
thus, good scope for these items.