55 Most Profitable Micro, Small, Medium Scale Food Processing (Processed Food) Projects and Agriculture Based Business Ideas for Startup ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( Out Of Stock )
Author NPCS Board of Food Technologists ISBN 9789381039908
Code ENI316 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 0   0 US$ 0   0
Pages: 392 Published 2018
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
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Food processing is a way or technique that is used to convert raw foods into well-cooked and well preserved eatables for both humans and animals. Food processing uses raw, clean, harvested crops or slaughtered and butchered animals and turns these into food products for daily consumption. A number of products are nutritious, easy to cook and have a long shelf life. They are packed in an attractive manner and are highly marketable.

The food processing industry plays a vital role in the economy of any country because it links agriculture to industry. The food processing industry is responsible for diversification of agriculture, improvement of value-added opportunities, and creation of excess that can be exported. The food processing industry of India is one of the largest in the world in terms of manufacture, use, export, and development. The sector has immense potential to contribute to growth and employment opportunities of the country. 

Rapid globalization and development of economy has taken a toll on the lives of consumers, particularly those residing in urban areas. Employment growth and increased work pressure in organizations leaves consumers with little time for personal care. Additionally, more product offerings by food companies and marketing on a large scale has altered people’s appetite- they demand more and more processed food items every day. These are some of the reasons for the steady growth of food processing industry in India in the past few years. Some of the biggest companies making their presence felt in the Indian market are Unilever, Dabur, Nestle, Nissin, Cadbury’s, Kelloggs’, Godrej, ITC, Britannia, Kohinoor Foods Ltd., Mother Dairy, Pepsico India, Marico Ltd, Patanjali, MTR Foods etc.

Food processing industry is of enormous significance for any country's development because with the changing lifestyle, there has been a consistent increase in preference and demand for packaged foods amongst the population. These can be seen as a great opportunity by the packaging companies. The agricultural strength amalgamated with a various other factors like competent market price and favorable government policies have further aggrandized the food packaging sector.

The Major Contents of the Book are Soy Flour & Milk, Starch Derivatives, Saccharin, Tomato Paste, Edible Corn Oil, Malt, Instant Noodles, Garlic Oil and Powder, Cattle Feed, Banana Wafers, Biscuits, Bread, Candy, Chocolates, Potato Chips, Rice Flakes (Poha), Corn Flakes, Baby Cereal Food, Fruit Juice, Milk Powder, Paneer, Papad, Ghee, Extruded Food (Kurkure Type), Instant Tea, Jam & Jelly, Khakhra, Soft Drinks, Spices, Sweet Scented Supari, Cake & Pastry, Banana Chips, Papad, Besan, Pickles, Ice-Cream Cones, Honey, Flour Mill, Tutti-Fruitti, Confectionery, Noodles, Ice Candy, Namkeen, Vermicelli, Mango Pappad (Aam Papad), Chilli Powder, Popcorn, Supari Chips, Revadi and Gazak, Mava, Tomato Sauce and Ketchup, Ice Cream, Baking Powder, Moong Dal Bari, Packaged Drinking Water With Pet Bottles, Food Packaging & Labelling, Good Manufacturing Practices in Food Industry, Manufacturing Process, Process Flow Diagrams, Addresses of Plant & Machinery Suppliers and Photographs of Machineries.


It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, agriculturists, agriculture universities, food technologists, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of Food products manufacturing.




Reasons for Growth in Demand of Processed Food in India

Growth Drivers

Future of Packaged Food Industry in India: Drivers and Barriers

Importance of Food Packaging in Food Industry

Food Labeling




Physical Characteristics & Chemical Composition of the Soybean

Chemical Composition

Representative Proximate Composition


Raw Material

For Soy Flour

For Soy Milk

Process Description

1.       Soy Flour Process Description

2.       Soy Milk Process Description

Process Flow Diagram

Soy Flour

Machinery Required for Soy Flour

Soy Milk

Machinery Required for Soy Milk





Some Important Definitions

Raw Material

Process Description

General Process Flow for Starch-Derived

Sweeteners (Corn/Glucose Syrups, High Fructose Syrups, Dextrose, Fructose, Maltodextrins and Syrup Solids)

1. Glucose Syrup

Dextrose Syrup





Properties of Saccharin

Uses in Foods and Other Products

Process Description

Chlorosulfonic Acid Synthesis Process


Amination and Refining

Oxidation Process

Concentration and Crystallization

Drying and Packing Process

Recovery of Oxidizing Agent and Catalyst

Raw Material

Flow Diagram

Machinery Required





Raw Material Requirements

Raw Material

Process Description



Juice Extraction


Aseptic Filling

Machinery Required




Process Description

Required Machinery


7.   MALT


Standard Malt and Specialty Malt

Barley Conditioning


Malt Treatment

Process Flow Diagram

Machinery Required




Manufacturing Process

Processing and Classification of Instant Noodles

Machinery Required






Process Description

Process Flow Diagram

Machinery Required


10.                CATTLE FEED

Raw Materials for Concentrate Feeds

Process Description

Reception of Raw Material

Storage of Raw Materials



Process Flow Diagram

Machinery Required


11.                BANANA WAFERS


Manufacturing Process

Description of Manufacturing Process

Detail Process

Process Flow Diagram


12.                BISCUITS


Uses & Applications

Basic Raw Material for Biscuits

Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram


13.                BREAD



Raw Material

Formulation of Bread

Manufacturing Process

Process Flow Sheet


14.                CANDY


Uses of Candy

Raw Material for Candy


Corn Syrup/Glucose Syrup


Properties of High-Boiled Candy

Candy Manufacturing Process

Process Flow Diagram


15.                CHOCOLATES



Composition of Fermented Cocoa Beans

Raw Material

Sweet Dark Chocolate

Semi-Sweet or Bittersweet Dark Chocolate

Milk Chocolate

White Chocolate


Dark Chocolate

Milk Chocolate

Manufacturing Process

1.       Roasting and Winnowing the Cocoa

2.       Grinding the Cocoa Nibs

3.       Blending Cocoa Liquor and Molding Chocolate

Milk Chocolate

White Chocolate

Plain Dark Chocolate

Process Flow Diagram


16.                POTATO CHIPS


Composition of Fresh & Fried Potato

Uses & Application Manufacturing Process

(1)      Sorting, Cleaning & Washing

(2)      Slicing and Washing

(3)      Drying of Slices

Chip Frying


Process Flow Diagram


17.                RICE FLAKES (POHA)


Uses & Applications Composition of Rice

Manufacturing Process

Process Flow Diagram


18.                CORN FLAKES


Uses and Applications Properties

Manufacturing Process

Grain Cleaning Section

Corn Grit Section

Corn Flake Section

Process Flow Diagram


19.                BABY CEREAL FOOD


Uses & Applications

Properties of Cereal Food

Infant Cereals Manufacturing Process

Raw Materials

Wet Mixing Plant


Infant Milk Manufacturing Process

    Mixing Ingredients





        Heat Treatment or Sterilization

        Dry Blending


Muesli Manufacturing Process


Process Flow Diagram


20.                FRUIT JUICE

Classification of Fruit Juice

Uses & Applications


Raw Material Requirement

Manufacturing Process



Process Flow Diagram


21.                MILK POWDER


Uses of Milk Powder

Composition of Milk-Powder

Property of Milk Powder

Milk Powder Production Process

        Separation/ Standardization



        Spray Drying

        Packaging and Storage

Process Flow Diagram


22.                PANEER


Various Uses

Functional Properties

Classification of Cheese

Composition of Paneer

Manufacturing Process

Process Flow Diagram


23.                PAPAD


Uses & Applications

Formulation for Papad

Manufacturing Process

Process Flow Diagram


24.                GHEE


Uses of Ghee

Nutritional benefits of Ghee

Properties of Ghee

n Physical Properties

n Chemical Properties

Composition of Ghee


Manufacture of Ghee


25.                EXTRUDED FOOD (KURKURE TYPE)


Properties of Kurkure Type Products

Formulation of Kurkure

Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram


26.                INSTANT TEA


Composition of Tea


Manufacturing Process

Process Flow Diagram


27.                JAM & JELLY

Essential Ingredients

Formulation for Jams

The Manufacturing Process for Jam & Jelly


Cleaning, Crushing and Chopping

Pasteurizing the Fruit

Cooking the Jam and Jelly

Filling the Jars

Labeling and Packaging

Process Flow Diagram for Jam Process Flow Diagram for Jelly


28.                KHAKHRA

Uses and Applications

Nutrition Facts of Khakhra

Manufacturing Process of Khakhra

Process Flow Diagram


29.                SOFT DRINKS

Ready-to-Drink Products

Concentrated Soft Drinks


Components of a Soft Drink

Manufacturing Process



Process Flow Diagram


30.                SPICES

Uses & Applications

General Manufacturing Procedure

Process Flow Diagram


31.                SWEET SCENTED SUPARI


Uses and Applications


Formulation of Scented Supari

For Scented Coloured Supari

Process Description

Process Flow Diagram


32.                CAKE & PASTRY



Market Opportunities


Raw Material



Bakery Moulds


Wheat Flour


Milk Power


Making Process

Flow Chart of Bakery


33.                BANANA CHIPS



Market Potential

Demand and Supply

Marketing Strategy

Selling and Distribution Overheads


How to make Banana Chips

Process Flow Diagram




Aluminum Utensils

Chips Cutter Electric Motor

Sealing Machine

Weighing Scale


34.                PAPAD


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Papad Making Machine

Flour Kneading Machine


35.                BESAN


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process





Main Machinery and Equipments

Gram Dal

Pulveriser Machine


36.                PICKLES



Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Machinery and Equipments


Cap Sealing Machine

Serrated Slicer


37.                ICE-CREAM CONES


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Machinery Required

Ice-cream Cones


Storage Racks


38.                HONEY


Main Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments


Honey Stirrer

Weighing Balance

Heating Equipments

39.                FLOUR MILL


Market Potential

Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Machinery and Equipments


Roller Mill Body

Weighting Machine


40.                TUTTI-FRUITTI


Raw Materials

Production Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Peeling Machine

Stainless Soaking Tanks


41.                CONFECTIONERY


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments


Chips Cutting Machine

Balance Scale


42.                NOODLES

Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments


Noodle Making Machinery


43.                ICE CANDY


Manufacturing Process

Raw Materials

Main Machinery and Equipments

Complete Ice-Candy Machine


Ice-Cream Mixer


44.                NAMKEEN


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments


Namkeen Making Machine


45.                VERMICELLI


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments


Vermicelli Making Machine

Mixing Machine

Weighing Balance


46.                MANGO PAPPAD (AAM PAPAD)


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Aam Papad

Mango Peeler Machine


Storage Tanks


47.                CHILLI POWDER


Raw Material

Manufacturing Process

The Process Flow Chart is as under

Main Machinery and Equipments

Polythene Bags

Red Chilli



48.                POPCORN


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments


Popping Machine

Sealing Machine


49.                SUPARI CHIPS


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Supari Chips

Supari-Chips Cutting Machine



50.                REVADI AND GAZAK

Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Revadi and Gazak

Big Pans



51.                MAVA


Raw Material

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments


Mava Making Machine

Milk Cans

Physical Balance


52.                TOMATO SAUCE AND KETCHUP


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Tomato Sauce


Tomato Charging Machine

Boiler Machine


53.                ICE CREAM


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Ice Cream


Ice Cream Chiller


54.                BAKING POWDER


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Baking Powder Ribbon Blender Sieving Set


55.                MOONG DAL BARI


Raw Materials

Manufacturing Process

Main Machinery and Equipments

Moong Dal

Moong Dal Bari






Weight Loss

Maintain Bone Health

Lower Blood Pressure and LDL Cholesterol

Reduce Chances of Kidney Stone

Process of Manufacture


57.                FOOD PACKAGING & LABELLING


Importance of Packaging


Facilitates Purchase Decision


Protection/ Preservation

Chemical Protection

Biological Protection

Different Types of Food Packaging

Custom Display




Other Types of Packaging

Food Labeling


Types of Labeling in Marketing

Branded Product Labels

Eco or Information Labels Other Product Label Types




Food Industry Standards

GMP Practices for Food

(i) Design and Facilities


(ii) Premises and Rooms

Design and Layout

(iii) Internal Structures & Fittings

(iv) Equipment

(v) Containers for Waste and Inedible Substances


(i) Water Supply

(ii) Drainage and Waste Disposal

(iii) Cleaning

(iv) Personnel Hygiene Facilities and Toilets

(v) Temperature Control

(vi) Air Quality and Ventilation

(vii) Lighting

(viii) Power Back up

(ix) Storage

Control of Operation

(i) Time and Temperature Control

(ii) Control of Other Specific Process Steps

(iii) Specifications

Microbiological Cross Contamination

Physical and Chemical Contamination

Incoming Materials Requirements



(i) Water, Ice and Steam in Contact with Food

(ii) Water, Ice and Steam not in Contact with Food

(iii) Water pipes & Storage Tanks

(iv) Management and Supervision

 Documentation and Records

Product Recall & Traceability


Maintenance and Sanitation

(i) Pest Control

(ii) Waste Management

(iii) Personal Hygiene

Quality Control


Product Information and Consumer Awareness

Competence & Training

Temporary/Mobile Premises, Vending Machines




Washing and Peeling Machine

Paste Making Machine

Slicer Machine

Paste Filling Machine

Steam Jacketted Vesssel

Ribbon Blendor


Bucket Elevator

Powder Dryer Machine


Oil Storage Tank

Pneumatic Conveying System

Material Handling Conveyors

Air Compressor

R.O. Plant

Distillation Unit

Fruit Pulper

Liquid Filling Machine

Drum Type Blancher

Fruit Mill

Spray Machine

Weighing Machine

Packaging Machine

Oil Extraction Machine

Pollution Control Equipment

Reverse Osmosis System


Hammer Mill

Redler Conveyors

Oil Filter Machine

Blending Tanks

Sealing Machine

Carton Packaging Machine

Pouch Packaging Machine


60.                SAMPLE PLANT LAYOUTS




Soy beans are rich in proteins and are extensively used in

many food items in several far East and East Asian

countries since many decades. Today Madhya Pradesh is the

highest producer of soya bean. Bulk of the production of soya

beans are used for extraction of oil but other products like

soya milk, paneer, flour, curd etc. are also becoming popular,

as soya beans are high in proteins, low in fat and easy to



Soy proteins are available on the market in the form of

defatted flours, protein concentrate, protein isolate but

seldom as whole flour, which includes the seed oil with all

its vitamin E, phospholipids, and micro nutrients intact,

essential compounds that are rarely found in regular daily

diets. By refining soybean oil, essential micro nutrients are

eliminated extracted soybeans oil is separated from

phospholipids (lecithin) through the degumming process

and, in the deodorization process, part of the vitamin E is

also lost.


As soybean flour, when defatted, is very rich in protein

(50 %), its consumption alone is not recommended, since a

balanced food must contain approximately 2 - 3 g of protein

for every 100 calories. Whole soybean flour, however, is a

more balancer meal than defatted flour because oil has a

calorific value 2.2 times higher than sugar or other


Soymilk is a water extract of whole soybeans. It is an offwhite

emulsion/suspension containing the water soluble

proteins and carbohydrates, and most of the oil of the

soybeans. Soymilk has been produced traditionally in China,

and to a lesser extent elsewhere in East Asia, but was never

a predominant element in the popular diet.            


Physical Characteristics & Chemical Composition of the


The shape of the soybean seed varies from almost

spherical to elongated and flat. The industrial varieties grown

for oil are nearly spherical while the elongated varieties are

the ones used as a vegetable. The color of the seed may be

yellow, green, brown or black. Industrial varieties are yellow

and the presence of seeds of other colors in a lot is considered

a defect. Seed size is expressed as the number of seeds per

unit volume or weight. Industrial soybeans weigh 18-20

grams per 100 beans. The seeds of “vegetable” varieties are

considerably larger.

Chemical Composition

The composition of soybeans may vary somewhat

according to variety and growing conditions. Through plant

breeding it has been possible to obtain protein levels between

40% and 45%, and lipid levels between 18% and 20%.

Usually, an increase of 1% in protein content is accompanied

by a decrease of 0.5% in oil. Incidentally, this negative

correlation between protein and oil is one of the reasons for

the lack of interest in high-protein varieties, since the

production of these varieties does not result in increased

income per hectare cultivated.



Soya bean flour is used in many products and has several

uses and is considered to be a health food. With increasing

awareness about health, there is a distinct shift towards soya

products including its flour. Its use as supplement in wheat

flour is increasing substantially in many households.

Its applications are many fold and is used in meat

products, cereal flour, ready-to-eat products, prepared

instant mixes, baby foods, confectionaries, special diet food,

high protein soups, protein concentrates, food additives,

bakeries etc. Thus, there is a vast growing market. Many

individual households have also started mixing a small

proportion of soya flour as a supplement in wheat flour.  


Saccharin is an artificial sweetener that is 300 times

sweeter than sugar. It is considered a no-calorie

sweetener because it has fewer than 5 calories per usual

serving. By 1907, saccharin was used as a replacement for

sugar in foods for diabetics. Since it is not metabolized in the

body for energy, saccharin is classified as a noncaloric

sweetener. By the 1960s it was used on a massive scale in

the “diet” soft drink industry. Saccharin is the foundation

for many low-calorie and sugar-free products around the

world. It is used in table top sweeteners, baked goods, jams,

chewing gum, canned fruit, candy, dessert toppings and salad


Saccharin has been used as a substitute for sugar as a

sweetening agent for about ninety years. Its use was initially

limited to those unable to tolerate sugar in their diet, but

its consumption has recently been greatly increased by the

rising popularity of low-calorie foods and beverages.

Although other artificial sweeteners have been developed

and marketed, doubts have been raised as to their safety,

and saccharine has retained a dominant position in the

market. Saccharin and its salts have been used in a variety

of beverages, foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Its

primary function is to provide sweetness without adding

calories, and it is used in the following foods and beverages:

soft drinks, fruit juices, other beverages and other beverage

bases or mixes; table-top sweeteners in tablet, powder or

liquid form; processed fruits, chewing-gum and confections;

gelatine desserts, jams and toppings; and sauces and

dressings. Lesser amounts of saccharin are used in a variety

of non-food applications, as a nickel electroplating

brightener, chemical intermediate, animal feed sweetener

and anaerobic adhesive accelerator.


Uses in Foods and Other Products

Saccharin is used in a wide variety of foods, including

juices, jellies, chewing gum, beverages, canned fruit, salad

dressings, dessert toppings, candy, jams and baked goods.

It’s also used in non-food products, such as mouthwash,

toothpaste, lipstick, pill coatings and vitamins.



Crude corn oil has a dark reddish amber color. Even after

refining, it is considerably darker than many other vegetable

oils. By applying strong bleaching treatments, however, it can

be lightened to a golden yellow color. This oil, unless subjected

to stringent deodorization action, retains the strong taste and

odor characteristics of the original corn kernel. The unrefined

oil contains relatively large amounts of phosphatides and

other non oil substances (often in excess of 2%) and its free

fatty acid content (usually above 1.5%) is higher than that

found in most vegetable oils.

The refined oil contains small amounts of waxes, which

cause a precipitate or “cloud” to form in oil held at refrigerator

temperatures unless the wax is selectively removed by a

process called winterization. The keeping quality of refined

corn oil is fairly good. The crude oil, however, is rapidly

hydrolyzed unless processing proceeds without delay. Such

degradation is hastened when the oil remains in the presence

of corn meal impurities.

Raw material for the corn oil is the maize grains originated

in Western hemisphere. Generally it is cultivated in the

America, India, and Columbus etc. Its name in European

countries is corn to distinguish from the cereals. It contains

the mainly bran, germ and endosperm. The bran 6% germ

12% and Endosperm 83%. The main composition of the maize




Many fast food items have flooded the markets but

noodles have emerged as the most popular item as it is

cheaper, very easy to make and nutritious. Urban and semiurban

markets are controlled by Maggi and other players are

Top Ramen and other brands. Instant noodles are mostly fried

noodles which are made of flour, water, alkaline salt and other

additives. The consumption of instant noodles is global due

to their characteristics such as convenience to eat, easy to

mass-produce, widely acceptable taste, preferred texture and

affordable prices. Instant noodles are dried or precooked

noodles fused with oil, and often sold with a packet of

flavoring. Dried noodles are usually eaten after being cooked

or soaked in boiling water for 2 to 5 minutes, while precooked

noodles can be reheated, or eaten straight from the packet.


Instant noodles are commonly sold in either a

polyethylene bag or in a Styrofoam cup or bowl with a peel

back aluminium cover. Cup instant noodles have very thin

strands to facilitate rapid rehydration and are readily served

after pouring hot water into the cup and resting for 1-2

minutes. Bag-types of instant noodles generally have medium

thickness and are square or round strands in shape.



Confectionery products are universally popular among the

young and the older generations alike. With increased

access to better machinery, openness among customers to

newer tastes and flavors and affordability of required raw

materials, the confectionery industry is thriving like never

before. Candy or Sweet is the most popular type of confectionery

over the world, and there is certainly something about

this unique product that holds many mysterious qualities.

Generally candies are available in fruit based flavors or Milk

based flavor and sometimes with centre filling also. While

we often think about candy as a food for children, we all know

that adults love this delicious food as well.

There are different types of candies that are produced

today in the world. the range of candies available in today’s

market include such treats as soft and tender golden

caramels, elegant truffles and fudges, chewy licorice,

sumptuous chocolates, mouthwatering toffee and hard

candy, as well as nougats, rolls, jelly beans and gum drops.

A natural milk candy, composed mainly of milk powder, and

rich calcium and other nutrients. The milk candy represents

a great in-between meal dietary snack. It can be flavored with

chocolate, coffee and other natural flavors.

Uses of Candy

• Candy is usually liked by all age groups of people as a


• Candies are used after meal, dinners as smooth

refresher. It drives away bad smell from mouth and

refreshes the breath. Some times it causes good

sensation while chewing.

• It is chewed by children, young people, young girls,

yound ladies etc. But mostly it is consumed by children’s

of age group below ten.



 Breakfast is one of the most important meals of the day

as it replenishes our body’s energy after an all-night fast.

Corn Flakes are made from corn and are in addition fortified

with vitamins and iron. Corn flakes being one of most

nutritious foods and is consumed as breakfast food not only

in India but-elsewhere in the world. Corn flakes are food made

by combining corn with sugar, vitamins and minerals to make

them as nutritious as possible. Maize is one of the important

commercial food-grains grown abundantly in our country.

Maize provides invaluable substances, which act as nutrients

and these substances are very necessary for balance of

human diet. The various substances are proteins,

carbohydrates, starch, fat and water, proteins, carbohydrates

and starch are main nutrients of maize.

In India and many other corn flakes are mostly taken in

breakfast. Mostly it is taken with milk though it can be had

in many other ways also depending one’s taste. As a breakfast

meal, corn flakes are soaked in milk and then taken. It is

very quick meal and acts as apetizer also. Now a days people

don’t like to have chapattis or paranthas in all the four meals

which they have been having for long. Corn flakes is good

substitute for such people.

Uses and Applications

Corn Flakes are used mainly as breakfast food along with

milk. They are also used for making any delicious food by

cooking. It is also being given to patients, since it contains

carbohydrates, protein and starch. This food acts as a

stimulant for patients.

Corn flakes are mainly consumed by upper strata of

society, in hotels, hospitals, nursing homes etc. It is

economical, convenient, nutritious and flavourful food

suitable for daily consumption.

People getting modernized they need some sophistication

in their food also the need of which fulfilled by corn

flakes. The per capita consumption of corn flakes has

increased many times as compared to last decade.


It is a variety of ready to eat crisp namkeen known for its

particular taste. Kurkure type extruded products are

becoming popular day by day due to change in the food habits

and convenience to use. It is a cereal (Rice, Corn and Pulses)

based convenience food with oil /fat and good source of

energy. It is being used in homes, restaurants, parties’ etc.

by almost every section of the society because of its less cost

and easy availability. Its snack smart initiative to cut out

trans-fat from its products by using rice bran oil which cuts

saturated fat by 40 per cent.

This aspect coupled with changing life styles has opened

up many new markets in many sectors including the food

processing sector. Last few years have witnessed a remarkable

change in preferences and spending habits especially of

the younger generation and youth. Extruded puffed snacks

are primarily targeted at this segment of the population. These

products find various applications like tea time snacks, as

munching during ceremonies or parties, during picnics or

outings or simply as fun products. Hence with proper publicity,

adequate placement to ensure easy availability and attractive

packaging the market can be captured, provided quality is

upto the mark.

Properties of Kurkure Type Products

1. It should be crispy and soft in the teeth.

2. It has very good flavour and taste.

3. It should not absorb moisture from whether when it is

in packed.

4. It can be transport from one place to another place

easily. When it is packed condition.

5. It may be hollow rolled cylindrical shape or curry shape.

Raw Materials Required


Jams and jellies are made from a variety of fruits, either

singly or in combination. Most of the fruits are harvested

in the fall. The level of ripeness varies. Pears, peaches, apricots,

strawberries, and raspberries gel best if picked slightly

underripe. Plums and cherries are best if picked when just

ripe. Most jam and jelly producers develop close relationships

with their growers in order to ensure quality.

Jam is a product containing both soluble and insoluble

fruit constituents Jam and jelly are made from fruits and they

are being made since long in different forms. Jam & jelly are

made from fruits, fruit pulps or extracts. Jam is boiled fruit

pulp with sugar and preservatives and is thick. Jelly is also

made by boiling but is clear, sparkling and transparent. These

products are applied to some snacks or bread. They are also

used in making certain desserts. Jam & jelly are used in

homes as well as restaurants and other eateries. They enjoy

substantial shelf life and thus can be made available round

the year. These products can be produced in many states of

the country.

All contain the four essential ingredients needed to make

a jellied fruit product–fruit, pectin, acid and sugar. They differ,

however, depending upon fruit used, proportion of different

ingredients, method of preparation and density of the fruit

pulp. Jam is made from crushed or ground fruit. The end

product is less firm than jelly, but still holds its shape.

Essential Ingredients

Pectin is a natural plant substance that causes fruit to

gel. Fruits such as apples, crabapples, currants, grapes and

some plums contain enough natural pectin to form a gel;

others require added pectin. Follow the manufacturer’s

directions or tested recipes for each type of pectin.

Acid is needed for gel formation and flavor. The amount

of acid in fruits also varies with the fruit and degree of

ripeness. When using low-acid fruits in recipes without

commercial pectin, add 1 tablespoon lemon juice or 1/8

teaspoon citric acid for each cup of fruit.

Sugar helps form the gel, serves as a preserving agent,

firms the fruit and adds flavor. Beet or cane sugar can

be used. Brown sugar, sorghum and molasses are not recommended

because of their strong flavor and varying degree

of sweetness. Light corn syrup or mild honey can be

substituted for part of the sugar using recipes that specify

honey or corn syrup.


Supari is the dehydrated betel nut sliced for direct

consumption. It is used as mouth fresher after food. It is

a typical Indian product popular with both young and old.

Sweet scented supari is used to remove bad odour of mouth

& for refresh feeling. Betel nuts are abundantly found in the

North Eastern Region and are extensively used. Conversion

of betel nut to supari confers substantial value addition to

the extent of 80% of the cost. Scented Supari is available in

many forms, but the various constituents or the main

ingredients remain nearly the same. Scented Supari may be

mixed in tobacco, Pan Masala etc. Due to its flavouring taste

children used it very enthusiastically.

Betel nuts are consumed in large quantities across the

country. The betel (Piper betel) is the leaf of a vine belonging

to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava. It

is valued both as a mild stimulant and for its medicinal

properties. It is a typical Indian habit and they are eaten by

many purely as an addiction whereas some consume it

assuming that it helps the digestive system.

Despite the name “betel nut,” the substance that people

chew in many areas of the world is usually a mixture of two

plant items and lime minerals. The nut portion is the areca

nut, which comes from the palm tree Areca catechu.

Sometimes, the nut and lime is contained inside a wrapping

of leaves from the betel vine, Piper betel. In other preparations

all the ingredients are mixed together as powder.The betel

plant is an evergreen and perennial creeper, with glossy

heart-shaped leaves and white catkin.

Uses and Applications

1. It is used to refresh the mouth.

2. It freshens up mouth and breathes with its flavour.

3. It is chewed by all age group people.

4. It is served to guests after lunch and dinner to keep

mouth fresh.

5. It helps in digestion of food after meals

6. It is served in marriages, parties or any other special


7. It is a direct substitute of pan, pan masala etc.

8. Widely used in religious and social functions.

9. Strengthens gums and teeth.


The best known primary products of beekeeping are honey

and wax. The products are consumed in the state.

Treditionally honey is considered the major beekeeping

product. Wax has played a considerable role in only a few

parts of the world and propolis is even less known. However,

with increasing knowledge about beekeeping and an

awareness of the beneficial aspects of many bee products,

the use and demand for other products is increasing. The

inclusion of natural bee products in cosmetics, medicines and

foods hasimproved consumer appeal. While such appeal is

not always based on scientific evidence,more and more

studies confirm at least some of the treditionally claimed

benefits of primary bee products.


Tutti-Frutti is a processed fruit product prepared from raw

papaya. It finds wide use in bakery and confectionery

products, jellies, puddings and sweetmeats. It is used in

households commonly as a topping in sweets, cakes and

puddings. Children prefer to consume it per se as a pastime

delicacy. Having a dual market both commercial and domestic

with varying tastes and flavours, the product has gained

importance in the processing industry. It is a mass

consumption item across the country. Children & young

generation are very fond of it.



Cereals like wheat , rice, maize and millets are staple food

grain for majority of population around the world . These

are the rich source of carbohydrates and supply of calorie

and other nutrients to the consumers. Apart from value

addition by processing to traditional products from these

grains, development of Newer products offers Variety,

Convenience, Quality, Cost efficiency and Scope for increasing

nutritional value. In the developed countries many

convenience foods are prepared by extrusion process using

extruder, as it offers a large number of desired characteristic

to be incorporated in the product. Noodles are a form of pasta

that is becoming extremely popular in India even as

Continental and Italian delicacy. Instant Noodles is prepared

by means of an extrusion machine that is basically made of

an stainless steel make strips, either flat (rolled and Cut) or

Oval round (Extruded). The process is quite simple and

requires not much skilled labour. The machine itself is high

technology and provides the manufacturers to produce pasta

with several alternatives materials (like Maida, Suji, Rava,

Rice flour and so on) and in different shapes (like Spaghetti,

Fettuccini, Vermicelli, Maccaroni, Fusilli, Penne, etc.) of Pasta

and Noodles. These products can be described as Hard, Brittle

pieces, Formed into different shapes by extruding , cutting

and drying tough dough made from semolina or farina mixed

with water.


Namkeen is very popular fast food item used in day-today

life in almost all houses in the country and also in

abroad. Because of the taste and aroma of the product, the

product has secured a very good market demand. The product

is prepared in different tastes in accordance with the taste

of the people of that region. Items like masala puffed rice,

chevda, fried peas, dal-muth, roasted masala peanuts etc.

The product is packed in polythene pouches by using simple



Vermicelli is a popular instant food product. It falls under

the category of extruded product and is made from wheat

flour. At times tapioca or soybean or groundnut flour is also

added. Thus, it is rich in proteins and liked by people from

all walks of life, irrespective of age. It is basically a snack food

item and at times it is also used as a table enricher. With

changing lifestyles, greater awareness about health and

preference for instant food items have made vermicelli very

popular and an item of mass consumption.



Ice cream has become very popular throughout the country.

Ice Cream is the most common products but other items

like chocolate Ice Cream and mango ice cream, etc. are also

not lagging far behind. These items are consumed by people

of all age groups across the board. Indians by their very

nature and culture are passionate about food, both making

and eating, which makes it an attractive business idea for

anyone having requisite skills. Home utensils and

equipment’s can be easily used for opening your very own

ice cream parlo. Nature of these products is such that the

consumers prefer fresh items. Shelf life of ice cream is limited

and thus local manufacturers enjoy distinct advantage. In

spite of continuous increase in the consumption of these

items during last few years, the per capita consum-ption is

still very low compared to the advanced countries. There is,

thus, good scope for these items.




NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR