Manufacture of Pan Masala, Tobacco and Tobacco Products ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author P. K. Chattopadhyay ISBN 9788194737971
Code ENI317 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 2225   2225 US$ 60   60
Pages: 448 Published 2021
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days


Manufacture of Pan Masala, Tobacco and Tobacco Products

(Tobacco Cultivation, Chewing Tobacco, Cigarettes, Bidi, Cigars, Khaini, Zarda, Katha, Mouth Freshener, Pan Chatni, Kimam, Sweet Supari, Nicotine Sulphate, USP Nicotine, Nicotine Tartarate, Nicotine, Polacrilex Resin)


Tobacco comes from a leafy plant that tends to grow in warm tropical areas. It is famously grown all over the Caribbean, where the warm, sunny conditions make for a perfect growing climate. Tobacco is usually smoked as a nicotinic stimulant and is mostly processed, rolled and dried before being smoked. Different geographies produce different types of the plant. The taste and flavor of the leaves are the characteristic trademarks of different types. The process of curing also determines the type of tobacco.

Tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, loose pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco and snuff. These products contain the dried, processed leaves of the tobacco plant nicotiana rustica or nicotiana tabacum. All tobacco contains nicotine, an addictive drug. Today’s tobacco also contains thousands of other chemicals designed to make the products more user-friendly and addictive.

Nicotine is a nitrogen-based compound which dissolves in organic compounds. Tobacco leaves contain plenty of nicotine which evaporates on burning. This nitrogen-based compound is addictive in low amounts and toxic in high doses. Nicotine Sulfate is a potent pesticide, known for its high toxicity.

A large proportion of Indian economy is agro based in which Tobacco is one of the principal cash crops. The tobacco production and its allied products’ sales in the country have played a prominent role in the development of nation’s economy. India is the largest tobacco market in the world in terms of tobacco consumption. The smokeless tobacco has historically been served as a tradition in India for many decades.

Tobacco Waste or dust is generated at various stages of post-harvest processing of tobacco and also while manufacturing various tobacco products mainly during manufacture of tobacco products like cigarette and Beedi. The types of wastes generated during pre and post-harvest practice of tobacco include suckers, stems, mid ribs, leaf waste and dust.

The main contents of the book are Tobacco Cultivation, Tobacco Diseases and Pests, Organic Tobacco Production, Chewing Tobacco, Cigarettes, Bidi, Cigars, Readymade Khaini, Chewing Tobacco (Khaini), Zarda, BIS Specifications, Katha, Mouth Fresheners, Pan Chutney, Pan Masala, Kimam, Tobacco of Various Grade, Sweet Supari, Nicotine Sulphate, USP Nicotine, Nicotine Tartarate, Nicotine Polacrilex Resin, Smokeless Tobacco (SLT), Hookah, Tobacco Products Manufacturing Processes, E-Liquid (Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components), Additives in Tobacco Products, Additives Products, Packaging & Labeling (Design Trends & Technologies), Plastics in Food Packaging, Packaging Laws and Regulations and Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details.

This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sector of the Pan Masala, Tobacco and Tobacco Products, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on Pan Masala, Tobacco and Tobacco Products. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.







History of Tobacco

Varieties of Tobacco

Origin and Distribution

Area and Production

Types of Tobacco

Climate and Soil

Tobacco Growing

Nursery Management



Desuckering or Suckering

Ecological Requirement for Tobacco Cultivation

(A) Climatic Requirement for Tobacco Cultivation

(B) Soil Requirement for Tobacco Cultivation

Harvesting of Tobacco

Favoring Leaf Growth

After the Harvest

Curing Tobacco Leaves

Air-cured Tobacco Leaves

Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

Sun-cured Tobacco Leaves

Fermenting (A.K.A. Sweating) Tobacco Leaves


Kiln Fermenting

Methods of Harvesting


Stalk Cut Method

Harvesting Method of Tobacco Based on Different


Plant Protection

1. Pests

Tobacco Leaf-Eating Caterpillar


2. Stem Borers


3. Aphids





Preparing the Seedbeds

Sowing the Seeds

Crop Cultivation




Topping and Suckering

Worms and Suckers

Tobacco Growing

Varieties of Tobacco Growing in Different States

FCV Tobacco (A.P.)

HDBRG Tobacco

Burley Tobacco

Natu Tobacco

Lanka Tobacco

Bidi Tobacco

Chewing and Hookah Types of Tobacco

Wrapper, Filler, Jati & Motihari Tobacco in North


Types of Soil Required for Tobacco Cultivation

Northern Black Soils (NBS)

Central Black Soils (CBS)

Southern Black Soils (SBS)

Southern Light Soils (SLS)

Northern Light Soils (NLS)


Karnataka Light Soils (KLS)

Ecological Requirement for Tobacco Cultivation

(A) Climatic Requirement for Tobacco Cultivation

(B) Soil Requirement for Tobacco Cultivation

Factors Affecting Tobacco Growth







Types of Tobacco

Beedi Tobacco

FCV Tobacco

Burley Tobacco

Hookah Tobacco

Natu Tobacco

Cigar Tobacco

Forms of Tobacco

(1) Flue-cured

(2) Fire-cured

(3) Maryland Air-cured

(4) Dark Air-cured

(5) Cigar Types: Filler, Binder And Wrapper

(6) Perique

Process of Tobacco

The Harvest

The Corojo Harvest

The Criollo Harvest


The First Fermentation

DE-Ribbing and Sorting

The Second Fermentation


The Preparation of the Tobacco

Alternative Uses of Tobacco

Integrated Barn

Banana Fibre Extractor

Palmyrah Fibre Seperator


Bacterial Diseases

Fungal Diseases

Nematodes, Parasitic

Viral and Phytoplasma Diseases

Miscellaneous Diseases and Disorders

Granville Wilt (Ralstonia Solanacearum)









Blue Mold (Peronospora Tabacina)

List of Symptoms/Signs







1. Resistant Cultivars

2. Cultural Methods

(a) Chemical Control

(b) Induced Resistance

3. Collar Rot (Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum)


Factors that Affect the Development of Collar Rot

Cause and Disease Development



Control Recommendation

Cultural Practices

Frogeye Leaf Spot (Cercospora Nicotianae)




Favorable Conditions

Disease Cycle


Chemical Methods

Loopers (Cabbage Looper, Alfalfa Looper)

Trichoplusia ni Autographa Californica







Tobacco Culture

Transplant Production

Pests and Diseases in Seedling Beds

Field Growing




Chewing Tobacco and Other Forms of Smokeless



Raw Materials

Main Steps in the Manufacturing Process of


Growing and Harvesting

Curing the Leaf

First Processing

Preparation of Basic Blends and Making of


Adding of Humectants, Flavors and Flavourings



Birth of Bidi and the Industry

The Bidi Industry

Flavored and Herbal Bidis

Growth of the Tobacco Industry in India

Characteristics of the Bidi Industry

Women, Families, and the Bidi Industry

Tendu Leaves Drying in Sun for Beedi Cigarettes

Major Features of the Beedi Industry

Process of Work in Bidi Manufactory

Role of Women in the Bidi Industry

Methods of Production

Production Process: A Detailed Description

Interesting Bidi Facts

Marketing Channels of Cigarettes and Bidi





Raw Materials

The Manufacturing Process

Cultivation of Tobacco




Hand Rolling

Machine Rolling

The Production of Cigars

The Escaparate

Color Determination and Attachment of Cigar




Uses & Application

Manufacturing Process

Chemical Composition of the Fermented Chewing


Process Flow Diagram



Uses & Application

Process of Manufacture


Chemical Composition of the for Mented Chewing



Flow Sheet Diagram for Chewing Tobacco



Chemical Composition of Smokeless Tobacco

Different Formulation of Zarda

Baba Zarda

Tulsi Zarda

Gopal Zarda

Bhola Zarda

Perfume & Tobacco Formulation for Zarda

Essence of Tobacco

Formula – A

Perfume formulation for No. 300 Type Zarda

Formula – B

No. 300 Types Zarda

Manufacturing Process of Zarda

Basic Raw Materials Required



Quality Control

Process Flow Diagram





Process of Manufacture

Process Flow Sheet for Katha & Cutch



Uses and Applications

Manufacturing Process

Sweet Scented Supari


Scented Sweet Chikni Supari


Process Description

Formulation of Scented Supari

For Scented Coloured Supari

Process Flow Diagram



Formulations of Pan Chutney


Manufacturing Process

Preparation of Pan Chutney

Process Flow Diagram



Uses & Applications

Manufacturing Process

Process Details

Making of Lime and Katha Solution

Katha Solution

Formulation for Pan Masala Tobacco Gutka

Flow Diagram



Preparation of Kimam

Composition of Raw Material



Uses and Applications

Manufacturing Process

Formulation of Scented Supari

Process Flow Diagram


Manufacturing Process

Flow Diagram

Material Balance of Nicotine Sulphate



Manufacturing Process

Flow Diagram of the Product USP Nicotine

Mass Balance for USP Nicotine


Manufacturing Process

Flow diagram of the product Nicotine Tartarate

Material Balance of Nicotine Tartarate





Manufacturing Process

Flow Diagram of the Product Nicotine Polacrilex


Material Balance of Nicotine Polacrilex Resin


The Smokeless Industry

Chemical Composition of Smokeless Tobacco

Nicotine Content in Smokeless Tobacco

Carcinogenic Compounds in Smokeless Tobacco

(a) Volatile N-nitrosamines

(b) PAHs

(c) Other Carcinogenic Compounds and


Types of Smokeless Tobacco



Dissolvable Tobacco



Dry Snuff (Tapkeer)

Uses of Smokeless Tobacco

(a) Betel Quid with Tobacco

(b) Chimó

(c) Creamy snuff

(d ) Dry Snuff

(e) Gudhaku

(f) Gul

(g) Gutka

(h) Iq’mik

(i) Khaini

(j) Khiwam

(k) Loose-leaf

(l ) Maras

(m) Mawa

(n) Mishri

(o) Moist Snuff

(p) Naswar

(q) Plug Chewing Tobacco

(r) Red Tooth Powder

(s) Shammah

(t) Snuff

(u) Tobacco Chewing Gum

(v) Tobacco Tablets

(w) Toombak

(x) Tuibur

(y) Twist/Roll Chewing Tobacco

(z) Zarda

Nasal Use

(a) Dry Snuff

(b) Liquid Snuff


How Hookah Tobacco is Manufactured

Which Hookah Coals are Best for Pipes?

How to Set up a Hookah

Hookahs are Built by Combining Multiple Parts

Hookahs Today


The Bowl

Windscreen (Optional)


Body and Gaskets

Purge Valve (Optional)




What is a Water Bong? How does a Water Bong


What’s a Smoking Pipe? How does a Pipe Work?

How to Use a Hookah Shisha Pipe

Preparing Your Pipe

Preparing the Molasses

Lighting the Charcoal

Final Preparation

Further Tips

Foil and Air Holes

Heat Transfer to Your Pipe

Storing Your Shisha Molasses



Hookah Flavors of All Time

1. Al Fakher Mint

2. Tangiers Noir Cane Mint

3. Starbuzz Blue Mist

4. Nakhla Double Apple

5. Al Fakher Double Apple

6. Starbuzz Pirates Cave

7. Social Smoke Absolute Zero

8. Fumari White Gummi Bear



Primary Tobacco Processing

Expanded Tobacco Process

Flavor Making

Reconstituted Tobacco Manufacturing



Main Components

Propylene Glycol (PG) Vegetable Glycerine (VG)

Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

Propylene Glycol is

Vegetable Glycerin also known as Glycerol - is

Pharmaceutical Grade Glycerine is Named

Glycerine, USP


Main Components

Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components

Propylene (PG)

Vegetable Glycerin (VG)


Chemistry’s Role


Reasons for Adding Additives to Cigarettes

GRAS and FEMA Approval of Tobacco Additives

Carob Bean Extract

Function of the Additive

Amount of Carob Bean Extract Added to Cigarettes

Pyrolysis and Reaction Products in Cigarette


Cellulose Fibre

Function of the Additive

Amount of Cellulose Fibre

Guar Gum

Function of the Additive

Amount of Guar Gum Added to Cigarettes

Pyrolysis and Reaction Products in Cigarette



Function of the Additive

Amount of Liquorice Added to Cigarettes

Pyrolysis and Reaction Products in Cigarette



Function of the Additive

Amount of Menthol Added to Cigarettes

Prune Juice Concentrate

Function of the Additive

Pyrolysis and Reaction Products in Cigarette



Function of the Additive

Amount of Vanillin Added to Cigarettes



1. Scope

2. Terms

29. PACKAGING & LABELING (Design Trends &



Spout & Fitments

Flexible Packaging Shapes

Retort - Shelf Stable


Food Supply and the Protective Role of Packaging

The Value of Packaging to Society

Definitions and Basic Functions of Packaging

Packaging Strategy

Packaging Design and Development

The Packaging Design and Development


Product Needs

Distribution Needs and Wants of Packaging

Packaging Materials, Machinery and Production




Use of Plastics in Food Packaging

Types of Plastics Used in Food Packaging

Manufacture of Plastics Packaging

Plastic Film and Sheet for Packaging

Pack Types Based on Use of Plastic Films,

Laminates etc.

The Standards of Weights & Measures Act (SWMA)

Standard Units (Section 4)


Declaration on Packaged Commodities for

Interstate Trade or Commerce

Further Requirements Include

Standard Packages

Maximum Permissible Error

Label Declarations

General Provisions Relating to Declaration of


Symbols for Unit

General Guidelines on Giving Declarations

Violation of Law

The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act

Food and Adulteration

Packaging and Storage Requirements

Other Packaging Requirements under PFA



Dynamics 2500 Filter Assembler

Supari Chips & Ruff Cutting Machine

Automatic Supari Cutting Machine

Supari Chips Cutting Machine Auto Press

Supari Fadcha Machine

Automatic (Heavy Hopper Type) Bulk Supari

Multiple Cutting Machine

Automatic (Hoper Type) Circle, Routh Mamri

Supari Cutting Machine

3" Tobacco Cutting Machine

4.5" Tobacco Cutting Machine

6" Double Tobacco Cutting Machine

9" Double Tobacco Cutting Machine

6 Inch Tobacco Cutting Machine


Tobacco Recycler

Filter Khani Packing Machine

Filter Snus Tobacco Portion Making Machine

Shisha Tobacco Packing Machine

Automatic Hukkah Pouch Packing Machine

Automatic Cigarette Filling Machine (Ryo-Mini-III)

Full-Automatic Drawing Cigarette Paper Machine

High Speed Gutkha Packing Machine

Tobacco Packing Machine

Supari Cutter

Supari Grader

Supari Polisher

Dynamics 2500 Cigarette Making Machine

Cigarette Making Machine

Mark-9/Max-S Cigarette Maker

Mark8/Max3 Cigarette Maker

Cigarette Making Machine

Semi-Automatic Agro Waste Briquette Making


Khaini Packing Machine

Khaini Tobacco Packing Machine

Coating Pan Machine







Tobacco is a green, leafy plant that is grown in warm climates. After it is picked, it is dried, ground up, and used in different ways. It can be smoked in a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. It can be chewed (called smokeless tobacco or chewing tobacco) or sniffed through the nose (called snuff). Nicotine is one of the more than 4,000 chemicals in cigarettes and its smoke. It is the chemical that makes tobacco addictive or habit forming. Once we smoke, chew, or sniff tobacco, nicotine goes into our bloodstream, and our body wants more. The nicotine in tobacco makes it a drug. This means that when we use tobacco, it changes our body in some way. Because nicotine is a stimulant, it speeds up the nervous system, so we feel like we have more energy. It also makes the heart beat faster and raises blood pressure.

Varieties of Tobacco

Flue-Cured: - Harrison special, Chatham, Delcrest, Virginia gold, Kanakaprabha, Whit gold, Dhanadayi

• Bidi: -Keliu-49, Keliu-20, Surati-20, Anand-2, Anand-3, Anand-23, Anand-119, Kunkumathiri

Natu: -D.G.3, D.G.4, D.R.1

Cigar filler: -OL-10, VV-2, KV-1, I-462

• Cherrot: - OK-1, 1-737

• Chewing: -I-64, PV-7, WR-2, I-115, VTK-1, VD-1, S-1, P- 4, S-57, Anand-145

Hookah and chewing: -N.P.70, N.P.35, D.P.401, D.D.413, N.P.18, N.P.20

• Wrapper: -Dixie shade

Burley: -KY-16, Ky-58


Types of Tobacco

Anand area of Gujarat grows wholly bidi tobacco. Nipam area of Karnataka grows bidi tobacco North Bihar and Bengal area has both tabacum and rustica types used in the manufacture of hookah and to a limited extent chewing and snuff types Madurai and Coimbatore area of Tamil Nadu grow cigar, filter binder and chewing tobaccos.



In the first stage of the growing process, tobacco seeds are sown in specially constructed seedbeds. At the same time, farmers carefully prepare the soil in their fields. After two months in the beds, the seeds have grown into plants approximately 15-20 centimeters high and are ready to be transplanted to the field. The plants grow in the field for a further two to three months. Throughout the growing process, the plants are cultivated to maximize yield and quality, the soil is tended regularly, and care is taken to protect the plants from pests and disease. Harvesting is the next stage of the process. Harvesting is either done leaf by leaf in the case of Virginia and oriental tobaccos, or by the whole plant, in the case of burley. Harvesting has to take place when the leaves are mature (or ripe) and in prime condition for the next stage, the curing process. Curing plays a major role in contributing to the final leaf quality. Different ways of curing are used for different types of tobacco: air-curing for burley, flue-curing for Virginia, and sun-curing for oriental. Once the leaves are cured, the farmer sorts them according to their quality and stalk position. The leaves are then packed into bales ready to be shipped. Tobacco bales are moved to a buying station where they are assessed and subsequently purchased by leaf buyers.

Crop Cultivation

In the first stage of the growing process, tobacco seeds are sown in specially-constructed seedbeds. Selecting the right tobacco seed variety is essential to achieving a good yield of the desired quality of tobacco leaf. The seeds are sown in Tobacco Cultivation 23 seedbeds (not too close together) to give each seedling enough room to grow. Tobacco seeds are tiny – there are between 10,000 and 13,000 of them in a gram – and they germinate rapidly in five to ten days. Under the ideal seedbed conditions, they will grow to a height of 15-20 centimeters in about two months. They are then transplanted in the fields.

Tobacco Growing

Tobacco production in the EU can be subdivided in four main variety groups; Virginia, Burley, Dark (Dark air-cured and Fire-cured) and Oriental. Virginia varieties represent about 46% of the EU production, Burley 21% and the others together about 33%. The EU counts about 86,000 tobacco farmers. Bulgarian farmers represent 50% of them, followed by Poland and Greece (both 17%). The tobacco production is often limited to small regions carried out by family businesses. The average area (1.6 ha per farmer) differs considerably according to the varieties grown, with Burley and Oriental varieties requiring more labour force than Virginia varieties. As a consequence, 81% of EU tobacco farmers are involved in Burley or Oriental growing, while 15% grow Virginia varieties. According to tobacco producers, certain ingredients, including sugar, are indispensable for the use of certain tobacco varieties (Burley and Oriental). This is because these varieties lose their sugar content during the drying process whereas other varieties, such as Virginia, keep it.



Bidis (pronounced bee-dees and also known as beedis) are small hand-rolled cigarettes made of tobacco and wrapped in tendu or temburni leaf (plants that are native to Asia — Diospyros melanxylon). They are manufactured in India and other Southeast Asian countries and exported to more than 100 countries. In India, bidi cigarettes are cheaper and more heavily consumed than traditional commercial cigarettes. It is a common misconception that because they’re less expensive, they’re also less harmful. Bidis are thin, hand rolled cigarettes that are made mostly in India and other Southeast Asian countries. The tobacco is wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf, and tied with a colorful string. They come in flavors like chocolate, cherry or mango or may be unflavored. They have a higher amount of nicotine and tar and produce more carbon monoxide than traditional cigarettes.

Bidi factory has been started in 19th century in India. It has been in Solapur since 150 years. 50 to 60 % economic condition of Solapur is depended on bidi factory. The factories of bidi are mostly depended on Female bidi workers. Actually, it is 80 lakh bidi workers in all over the India. Bidi factory has been started in other states of India such as Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat.

The ancient history of Solapur, before 10th century was shrouded in darkness. Solapur as a small village passed through a number of regimes like those of Satvahana, etc., which had obtained power to rule in some part of present Maharashtra since 90 B.C. It was under the later Chalukyas and the Yadavas in the 11th and 12th centuries, that Solapur began to flourish as a religious centre. The persons responsible for making Solapur as a religious centre were Revansidha and Siddharama. It is found that the Yadavas left several vestiges of their rule in Solapur district among which are a few Hemadpanthi temples including a temple in the Solapur fort. An inscription at Sangur (Havery Taluka, Dist Dharwad) of Yadava Maharashtra Devraja visited Sonnakugenagarao which had been formerly the Sidheshwara Lake were built many year before the fort was built.

Characteristics of the Bidi Industry

1. There are about 300 manufacturers of major bidi brands and thousands of small scale contractors and manufacturers involved in bulk production in India.

2. The industry employs approximately 4.4 million full time workers and an additional 4 million in bidi industry related jobs. Most of them are largely poor and illiterate.

3. The lack of organized production in the bidi industry creates difficulty in regulating the working conditions of workers and in implementing welfare laws.

4. In 1999, the Indian bidi industry generated 165 million in excise and 200 million in foreign exchange revenue for the Indian government.



Tobacco is an important commercial crop cultivated in an area of 0.4 million ha producing annually around 700 million kg of cured leaf out of which 260 M kg is Flue-Cured Virginia tobacco (cigarette type). India is the 3rd largest producer of tobacco in the world after China and Brazil. Majority of the states in the Indian union territory grow one type or the other to a greater or lesser extent, significantly influencing the economy and prosperity of the farming community. Flue-Cured Virginia (FCV), Bidi, Hookah and Chewing, Cigar filler, Cigar Wrapper, Cheroot, Burley,  Oriental, HDBRG, Lanka etc., are the different types of tobacco grown in the country. Tobacco is consumed in the form of cigarettes, cigars, cheroots, bidis, pipe and hookah. It is chewed in the form of Surti, Zarda, Qiwamquid, Masheri, Kharamasala. Also, tobacco is inhaled in the form of snuff. The crop provides employment to about 36 million people directly or indirectly including 6 million farmers in the country. India ranks 5th largest exporter of tobacco in the world after Brazil, USA, Malawi and Turkey.

Zarda is a mixture of tobacco, lime, spices, and occasionally, silver flakes is also added to pan and chewed. Zarda is prepared by cutting tobacco leaves into small pieces and boiling them in water with slaked lime and spices until the water evaporates. It is then dried, and colouring and flavouring agents are added. Zarda may be chewed by itself, with areca nut or in betel quid quid. It is available in small packets or tins.

Manufacturing Process of Zarda

Basic Raw Materials Required

1) Tobacco leaves

2) Lime

3) Peppermint

4) Cardamom

5) Cinnamon

6) Vegetable Dyes

7) Flavours

8) Preservatives



1) Tobacco leaves - 60%

2) Lime - 15%

3) Peppermint - 7%

4) Cardamom - 5%

5) Cinnamon - 5%

6) Vegetable Dye - 6%

7) Flavours - 1%

8) Preservatives - 1%


Tobacco leaves should be bright lemon or light orange colour with fine texture and body should be free from sponginess, scalding, brushing or other bluish. Leaves should be dried in a Tray Dryer by maintaining temperature 80°C – 90°C by hot air such that leaves contains less than 6% moisture. Now take the above mentioned ingredients by weight. Dry tobacco leaves are kept in the horizontal mixing tank. Add lime powder over the dry leaves and mix the product for 20- 30 minutes and then add glycerol and kimam (It is a mixture of masala spices) over the mixer. Mix the mixture for 20 minutes. After proper mixing, the products are taken in the holding tanks. Now add perfume & silver flakes over it. Check the quality of the Zarda. Pack the product in the printed pouches/tin containers with the help of automatic packing machine. Now Zarda Ratna 300 type is ready for marketing.

Quality Control

Quality control, both in respect of detail product information, proper warning levels is needed. Government should initiate a sustainable system which looks into these issues. Many tobacco (processed) products does not carry proper information in SEA countries. There is dire need of establishment of proper testing laboratory in the region.



Nutritive and palatable mouth freshners were prepared from dehydrated aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) pulp of ‘Desi’and ‘Banarsi’ cultivars by mixing carboxymethyl cellulose, gums, arecanut, cardamom, sugar and milk powder at different proportions as a substitute for panmasala, tobacco and gutka. Mouth fresheners developed were packed in high density polyethylene pouches (HDPE,100 gauge), stored at ambient conditions (8–20°C, 60% RH) and analysed for physico-chemical and sensory quality attributes at different storage intervals. During storage for 6 months, ascorbic acid and overall acceptability of mouth freshener decreased (p 0.05) and moisture content in-creased. The equivalent relative humidity of mouth freshener was 49% and 53% in ‘Desi’ and ‘Banarsi’ cultivars, respectively. Despite the changes observed in various physico- chemical and sensory attributes, the overall sensory quality attributes of mouth freshners remained acceptable.

Uses and Applications

1. It is used to refresh the mouth.

2. It freshens up mouth and breathes with its flavour.

3. It is chewed by all age group people.

4. It is served to guests after lunch and dinner to keep mouth fresh.

5. It helps in digestion of food after meals

6. It is served in marriages, parties or any other special occasions.

7. It is a direct substitute of pan, pan masala etc.

8. Widely used in religious and social functions.

9. Strengthens gums and teeth.

10. It is beneficial in worm infestation. It kills intestinal parasites such as tapeworms, pinworms and round worms when one teaspoon of powdered areca nut is swallowed with water or drunk as decoction.

11. It is used as tooth whitener. Powdered kernel is rubbed on teeth and also useful in treating dental caries. It is also a constituent in some tooth powders.

12. It is used in sprains, bruises and contusions. Leaves of areca plant are crughed and mixed with coconut and then warmed and applied on the affected area.

As described above that Supari or Tobacco chewing is increasing bitterly in India & every part of world it’s chewing is prevailed. In any way, as pan chewing, the pan (a leaf of betel nut + lime + Katha+ sweet Spices + Supari) offered in many occasions to serve the guest at homes or at the time of wedding.

It is also an item of daily use of some people whether they are rich or poor due to their habit.



Nicotine is a potent chemical that excites the central nervous system and refreshes people. It is also physically addictive and causes dependence. Nicotine Sulfate is a white, sand-like solid. It is used as an insecticide, fumigant and medication for animals. A very poisonous alkaloid that in its pure state is a colorless, pungent, oily liquid, having an acrid burning taste. It is a constituent of tobacco, and is also produced synthetically. It is administered orally, intranasally, or by inhalation as an aid to smoking cessation. In water solution, it is sometimes used as an insecticide and plant spray. Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) that acts as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. The biosynthesistakes place in the roots and accumulation occurs in the leaves of the Solanaceae. It constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco and is present in the range of 2–7 ¼g/kg of various edible plants. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical; therefore, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past and nicotine analogs such as imidacloprid are currently widely used.

Manufacturing Process

Tobacco dust/ Tobacco Rava and lime are mixed together (using 10% lime) with the help ofthe mixing machine and packed into barrels specially made for percolation purpose. Water isadded into the barrel from the top and the water is allowed to percolate through the dust.The water dissolves all the Nicotine present in the dust and it gets collected into a sump (Broth). This Nicotinised water (Broth) is then subjected to liquid - liquid extraction using kerosene assolvent. Nicotine being more soluble in kerosene is taken up by kerosene & the Nicotinisedkerosene is then transferred into reactors for acidification with calculated amount of dilutesulfuric acid thereby forming Nicotine Sulfate – 40%. The Nicotine Sulfate- 40% is further purified by passing it through super centrifuge & then packed.



A hookah is a water pipe that is used to smoke flavored and sweetened tobacco. Other names for hookah are narghile, argileh, shisha, hubble-bubble, shisha and goza. The pipe is usually quite large with one or more flexible tubing stems that allow multiple smokers to inhale at the same time. Hookah tobacco is often flavored with molasses, fruit pulp, or honey with additional flavor added, like coconut, fruit flavors, mint, or coffee. Flavorings sweeten the taste and aroma of the tobacco, making it more appealing to young people, especially. Hookah pipes have been in use for about 400 years, originating in India and Asia. In the early 1600s, Hakim Abdul Fath, a physician from India invented the hookah, believing the health hazards of tobacco smoke would be minimized by passing it through water before inhalation. He was wrong. More on that in a bit. In the 1990s, flavored tobacco became popular in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, and hookah use grew out of that, spreading around the world. The tobacco chamber in a hookah consists of a bowl containing burning charcoal that is placed on top of the flavored tobacco. Charcoal is separated from tobacco by perforated aluminum foil. As the charcoal heats the tobacco below, smoke is created. When users draw on the stem of the hookah, the smoke is pulled through the water chamber, cooling it before being inhaled into the lungs.

How Hookah Tobacco is manufactured

Apart from the quality and design of the pipe itself, one of the keys to a satisfying hookah experience is the quality and flavor of the tobacco. Contrary to popular belief, most hookah smokers are merely smoking tobacco, although at one time opium and hashish were commonly smoked. Hookah tobacco is smoked for flavor rather than effect and most smokers find it relaxing and satisfying. Hookah tobacco is different from the tobacco used in cigarettes or cigars, most hookah tobacco is traditionally blended from fresh tobacco leaves along with various additives such as honey, molasses or fruit pulp. This mixture is known as maassel or tobamel. Rose oil or the juice from pomegranates has also occasionally been added to the mixture, which added more flavor to the smoke. During the 1980s, Egyptian hookah tobacconists started adding all sorts of flavors to their tobacco, fruits and spices in particular. The result is a strongly flavored tobacco sometimes called shisha. More recently, many hookah tobacco manufacturers have also started adding glycerin because of its sweetening ability and ability to keep the tobacco moist. Because it is so wet, shisha tobacco must be smoked using hookah charcoal. And hookah tobacco may be healthier for you than cigarette tobacco, most hookah tobacco is manufactured with no tar and contains just traces of nicotine. Because the tobacco is heated instead of burned, research shows that the level of carcinogens produced by hookah smoking is significantly lower.

What’s a Smoking Pipe? How does a Pipe Work?

Pipes are the simplest devices used to smoke legal buds, herbal smoke, marijuana etc., For the most part they are similar to pipes Smoking Pipe used to smoke tobacco but marijuana pipes should be made of heat resistant materials such as stone, ivory, metal, glass, and occasionally harder woods. Smoking Mixture used does not tend to stay lit in pipe so flame constantly has to be applied to bowl which heats it up more than pipes with tobacco in them typically are heated. Smoking Pipe: A common variant of pipe is the stash pipe, a pipe where one may store a small amount of herb. Some stash pipes are constructed in such a manner that the smoke passes through the stash area so that the herb mixture inside is bathed in the smoke and acquires a coating of resin which makes it more potent when it is turn is smoked. Smoking Pipe: There are glass hash pipes which are used to smoke hashish and hashish oil, the materiel is placed in the bowl as with other pipes but instead of heat being applied to the top of the substance it is applied to the bottom of the pipe. Smoking from a pipe can be very hard on the lungs. If you use a pipe and have a persistent cough, try smoking marijuana in a joint, water pipe, or with a vaporizer.

PACKAGING & LABELING (Design Trends & Technologies)

In market place today a “good package design” must differentiate from the masses on the retail shelf, stimulate sales volume of flat or mature product growth categories and leave the consumer with a positive “use” experience. It has been said that “the package is the silent salesperson” sitting next to the competition and it must not only get the busy consumers attention, but shout “buy me”. To be successful in the market today you must not only achieve this sort of reaction with your package design, but the package must also function well and provide a positive, memorable experience for the consumer.

Flexible Packaging is the new package format offering many of these benefits and many more. Financial benefits to the packager also include opportunities of material cost reduction as compared to some other more traditional methods, particularly in regards to rigid packaging. The logistically advantage of flexible packaging is also beginning to get attention as the cost of transportation has had a dramatic impact on total per package cost due to raising fuel charges, particularly when compared to more traditional methods of packaging including bottles, can, jars, composite or spiral cans.


Freshness of the product, as well as improved dispensing of the product may be enhanced after opening with the addition of a “press to close” zipper, “slider” zipper or spout. The ability to add convenience and functionality to the pouch or bag style package is having a dramatic impact on flexible packaging design today. Consumer’s appreciate the convenience and are exhibiting this appreciation through repeat sales and increased brand loyalty. Many new and improved recloseability features are continuing to add to a multitude of “design possibilities”.


The technology to create “shape” into a flexible package design through the utilization of die cutting can now add character, personality and improved functionality to the package. Die-cutting may be done at converting level through the supply of pre-made pouches or performed on - line as an integral part of the form, fill and seal process. Package shape in conjunction with the use of colorful graphics, custom designed barrier properties and presented in a myriad of sizes all add to the creative possibilities.

Food Supply and the Protective Role of Packaging

Packaging for consumer products is an area where supply and demand is continuously changing due to the development of an international food market and adaptation to consumer, distribution, legal and technological requirements. Broad external influences on packaging for fast-moving consumer products may be summarised as follows:

• technological

• political/legal

• socio-cultural

• demographic

• ecological

• raw material availability

• economic.



The Packaging Laws and Regulations for food products are mainly covered under:

• The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976 and the Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 1977 (SWMA).

• The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955 and its first ammendment, 2003 (PFA).

• The Fruit Products Order, 1955 (FPO)

• The Meat Food Products Order, 1973 (MFPO)

• The Edible Oil Packaging Order, 1998

• The Agmark Rules

The Act also specifies the base units for:

• Length – Metre

• Mass – Kilogram

• Time – Second

• Electric Current – Ampere

• Thermodynamic Temperature – Kelvin

• Luminous Intensity – Candela

• Base Unit of Numeration – International form of Indian numerals


Further Requirements Include

• Every package should bear the name of the manufacturer and also of the packer or distributor.

• The statement as to the net weight, measurement or number of the contents should not have any expressions, which tend to qualify such weight, measurement or number. (Exceptions to this are commodities which may undergo changes in weight or measure due to climatic variations; examples – bread, soap, etc. where the qualifying statement “when packed” may be added to the net weight or measure).

• Where there is undue proliferation of weight, measure or number in which any commodity is being sold and such undue proliferation impairs, in the opinion of the Government, the reasonable ability of the consumers to make a comparative assessment of the prices after considering the net quantity or number of such commodity, the Government may prescribe standard quantities or numbers for any commodity.

Where the retail price of a commodity is stated in any advertisement, the net quantity or number of the commodity must be conspicuously declared in the advertisement along with the price.

• A package containing a commodity, which is filled less than the prescribed capacity of such package cannot be sold or distributed except where it is proved that the package is so filled with a view to (a) giving protection to the contents of the package or (b) meeting the requirements of machines used for enclosing the contents of such packages

• The Central Government may, by rules, specify reasonable variations in the net contents of the commodity in a package as may be caused by the method of packing or the ordinary exposure which may be undergone by the commodity after it has been introduced in the market place. This very comprehensive and farreaching Act has put an end to the state of near anarchy in the trading of packaged goods. The clearly specified requirements in the Act have also provided a challenge to packaging development experts and label copy specialists who have to include statutory and promotional copy in the limited space available on labels and on packages themselves. However irksome they may appear, the provisions of this Act are welcome because they offer to the consumer a measure of protection which is not so apparent in many other legal requirements.




NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR