Fashion Technology Handbook ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( Out Of Stock )
Author Meenakshi Narang ISBN 8178330970
Code ENI42 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 325   325 US$ 50   50
Pages: 238 Published 2003
Publisher Select
Usually Ships within 3 days

Fashion and life style exist parallel to each other. Fashion leads the world & it will continue to do so through times. Human cannot be ever segregated from fashion. Fashion keeps on changing along with the times, it can be old styled, and traditional, modern, rigid, practical, customary, experimental, trendy, sober, etc. generation have witnessed the colour and glamour that constitutes the fashion. Accessories are the extra elements of fashion which enhance the look of your garments design. They form an excellent focal point if used carefully. It helps in making you appear taller or shorter. Some of the examples of accessories are scarves, belts, jewellery, handbags, shoes etc. The Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the structural elements of design. Again, the way in which these principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work. The principles are: balance, proportion, rhythm, emphasis and unity. The elements of design converge to create a equal distribution of visual weight within the particular composition. Balance in design principles is the design or arrangement of elements that appear to be a whole with equilibrium. The simplistic type of balance is called symmetrical balance which has a basic appeal to the viewer. Asymmetrical balance is achieved by unlike object that has equal eye attraction. Asymmetrical balance is based on: balance by value and colour, balance of shape and texture and by position and eye direction. The Indian fashion industry has experienced significant expansion in the last decade mainly driven by the growth of domestic designers, some of whom have gained international recognition in recent years. Industry growth in India is mainly driven by the growing exposure of domestic designers at international forums, but growth is also supported by other factors such as the launch of focused business education courses for emerging designers and the establishment of an industry association.
This book basically deals with history of fashion, sketching, designing principles, drawing the garments, understanding and application of silhouettes, basic principles of fashion illustrations, fashion accessories and their creative uses, designing techniques, achieving texture in pen and ink, sketching human body, drawing of hands & postures, structure of feet & postures drawing of other parts of body, contemporary western fashion style, etc. 
Professional students, new entrepreneurs and designers will find valuable educational material and wider knowledge of fashion technology in the book. Comprehensive in scope, the book provides solutions that are directly applicable to the basic principles, history, designing principles, language guide of fashion industry.

1. Introduction

Vedic Age
The Persian Influence
Greek Influence
The Purdah System

Showing Curvature
Sketching Colour
Enhancing Your Image

Use of Illustrations
Drawing the Garments
Creating Designs
Proportion Illusions
Horizontal Proportions
Vertical Style Lines
Horizontal Style Lines
Diagonal Style Lines
Curved Lines
Various Lines and their Meanings
Optical Illusions and its Application

The Lexicon of Colours 
Colour Mixture

Understanding and Application of Silhouttes
Various Ways to Show Size or Accentuate different Parts of the Body 
Silhouttes of Garment

Proportion of the Ideal Figure
Major Muscles of the Neck
Three Quarter View
Changing the Angle of the Head
The Third Dimension
Construction in Simplified Block Form
Drawing Women
Drawing Men
Design Development Sheets
Working Drawings
Illustrating Various Details

Drawing Still Objects 

Fashion accessories and their Creative Uses
Does and Don'ts

Design, Research and Sources of Ideas
Design Techniques Materials
Achieving Texture in Pen and Ink
Wax-Resistant Effects
Line Drawings
Drawing Pens
Figure Proportion
Figure Proportion Table

Sizes and Proportions of Different Parts of Body
Profile of Head or Face
Front Position of Head
Drawing of Hands & Postures
Structure of Feet & Postures
Drawing of Other Parts of Body




Designing Techniques

Students of fashion design are given design projects by their college lecturer or by a manufacturer, a professional designer or a buyer. Each assignment will give the students of professionals the chance to design in different areas of fashion. The design briefs are presented in a concise way explaining the requirements and stages in which to work and when the project needs to be completed. It is important to understand the brief fully before commencing and interpret the requirements correctly. This will also avoid any kind of confusion or loopholes in their work.

Details that should be taken care of before starting designing should be like :-

  • What exactly has been asked to design?
  • The design is meant for whom-a company, the consumer or a retail outlet?
  • The garment would be worn under what occasion and in what environment?

Following strategy should be planned before hand :-

  • How the work is to be planned & produced ?
  • Specific consideration stated in the brief.
  • The deadline when the work needs to be completed.

Design Research and Sources of Ideas

When developing research and bring for a theme on which to formulate the basic ideas, the designer can scan following different areas :

  • Films
  • Theater
  • Television
  • Sports
  • Paintings
  • Nature
  • History of Costume
  • Different Periods of Fashion
  • National Costume
  • Defense Uniforms
  • Street Fashion.

It is important that a designer is constantly aware of the changes and influences taking place in the fashion industry. Effectiveness of fashion exhibitions, trade fairs and fashion shows. Fashion magazines and jewels should be thought of in terms of their readership and editorial context.

Starting with the Basic Figure

Students require ability to produce design ideas with clarity and speed. One should be able to sketch the figure by estimating the number of heads into the body.

During design collection student should start by entering ideas in a sketch book. A camera may also be used to record images and textures like - cloud formation, flower and plant form & architectural details. Research material is often displayed on a pin board for time to time reference. From the research, sample design sheets are produced working to the selected them and developing many design sketches. Presentation drawing is often produced, illustrating the design in full colour with samples of leather and trimmings and a fashion sketch suggesting the total image is often included.

Design Techniques Materials


It is an invaluable tool for the fashion design illustrator. It can be used to :-

  • Reduce or enlarge drawings.
  • Reproduce drawings on which to experiment with. Colour pattern and texture techniques before working on the origin.
  • Produce material for background effects on presentation boards.
  • Transfer drawings on to different coloured papers.
  • Transfer drawings and photographs on to acetate-which is very effective for presentation work.
  • Paste-up drawings when working on the arrangement of design work. Cut out the figures and general artwork, and use spray mount to fix it on to clean white card. Photocopy in black & white or colour for a clean professional look.
  • Photocopy artwork for reference when sending your originals off for competitions etc.
  • Enlarge sections of design drawings details of collars, pockets and style features.
    1. Tone : Use one colour to produce four clearways. Vary the squares from light to progressively darker tones.
    2. Burnishing : Colour may be smoothed out by burnishing. This is achieved by going over the colour with a white or light grey pencil.
    3. Mixing colours : Coloured pencils may be mixed to create a wide range of colours.
    4. Changing tones : Tones of colours are made by changing the pressure on the pencils.
    1. The drawing is sketched with a black Fine liner pen on smooth white illustration card.
    2. The denim jacket and trousers is coloured with an ultramarine pencil, shaded in one direction from one side of the figure in a darker tone by putting more pressure on the pencil. This gives the effect of more light falling on one side of the figure.
    3. In the last stage the darker tones were added to the garment under the collar, pocket, and folds in the jacket and trousers. A soft lead pencil has been used over the blue denim to give the effect of the texture and weave. The face was tinted with a burnt sienna pencil, shading the face on one side. A thick line has been added round the figure with a medium Stabilo black pen and burnished with a white pencil to smooth out the colour.
    4. The drawing was completed with a thick black outline round the figure, the latter being cut out and mounted using a spray mount on to a clean sheet of card.
    1. Technical pens
    2. Plastic-tipped pens
    3. Fiber-tipped pens
    4. Roller pens
    5. Ballpoint pens.
    • Markers tend to bleed on some papers and may go beyond a line. Always experiment with pens first before applying colour to an original drawing.
    • Some areas of the work will tend to look darker if these are gone over twice with the same marker.
    • Always clean the nib if one colour is to be used over another.
  • [/ul]

    Marker Pens

    They are available in a wide range of colours and sizes, with many different nib sizes from cylindrical shaped heads blunt bullet like points, shapes and fine points. The inks are either water soluble or spirit based. Markers can be used for filling in areas of colour or for making bold outlines, to give a clean and pleasing effect. They are very convenient as they dry rapidly and are especially noted for their clarity of colour.

    The range of markers available can bewildering. Some contain soluble ink and others permanent colourfast ink. The nibs tend to be fibre-tipped nylon or foam. Sizes range from fine to broad, and they may be round, square, bullet or chisel shaped. They are also available in a wide range of colours. Note that the caps must always be replaced after use otherwise the pens tend to cry out. Spirit-based pens should always be used in ventilated areas.

    Studio markers are also available in a wide range of colours and tones. Some are made with two nibs, broad and fine, combined on the one pen, and produce a clean smooth flat effect. They tend to be expensive but looked after they will last a long time. Bleed-proof paper which prevents ink passing through on to the backing sheets is available for use with permanent markers.


    Although no brushes are used, the use of pastels is more akin to painting than drawing. The advantage being that there is no liquid medium and hence no drying time to consider. The range of tints in each colour is considerable. A variety of tones can be achieved by beating the tinted paper as a mid-tone, and a coloured paper may be used as a key for the rest of the colour scheme. Different effects can be created, depending on which part of the pastel stick is used.

    Water Colour

    Water colour may be bought as solid tablets or as paste in tubes thinned with water before use. Paint boxes of different sizes are easily available. Paint brushes vary in quality from sable to nylon. The paper surface is also very important. Unless you are using good quality paper, it should be stretched. If this is not done, the paper will react to the water by crackling and your work will be distorted.

    Stretching Paper

    Fill the sink with clean cold water. Pass the paper through the water, hold it up for few seconds to let all the excess water run off, then lay it flat on the drawing board. Fix the paper down on the board with brown gum strip round the edges. When the paper has dried it will be perfectly flat and ready for use. When the drawing is completed and perfectly dry, use a scalpel and straight edge rule to cut the paper from the board.


    Gouache is the same water colour but is mixed with white pigment, which makes it opaque. When dry, gouache forms a positive film of colour. Hard divisions of solid colour are associated with it. A free style of painting may also be achieved where the brush strokes are visible, working with wet paint on wet paper. Watercolour paper or boards are most suitable for gouache. Cartridge and layout paper are not suitable. Wheather method is used, the main characterstic is the ability to provide a strong contrast of colour and tone.

    Water colour broods or papers ore most suitable for gouache. Tinted papers may also be used as the paint is opaque.

    Coloured Pencils

    Coloured pencil is easily available, graded from very hard to extra soft. Pencils offer the most versatile methods of colouring a drawing. By varying the pressure, different tone values may be obtained.

    Water soluble pencils are also available in a wide colour range. To use them, the drawing is produced as normal, and then a water colour wash is applied to produce an even colour, which obliterates the pencil marks.

    Coloured pencils can be graded from soft to hard. They may be purchased in boxes with a large or small selection of colours, or obtained individually. Some are water-solvent and may be combined with water for application with a brush over the pencil, in order to give a water colour effect.

    Always try these pencils before applying them to the drawing. The more pressure applied to the pancil, the deeper the tone and the more intense the colour will be. It is more effective to stroke in one direction only (as illustrated).

    Select a paper, from rough to smooth depending on the effect required. Remember to use an absorbent paper when applying water.


    Experiment with Pencils

    Coloured pencils and black fineliner pen

    The sketch can be produced in four stages.


    Pen and ink creates immediate visual effects, in both line and tone, which may take the form of lines, dots, hatching and cross hatching. Ink drawings combined with washes of coloured inks are most effective. Many different colours are available. Inks on either be used on their own mixed together or diluted with water.

    Achieving Texture in Pen and Ink

    Textures can be shown by using different line values in the same drawing. Examples are shown of herringbone, tweed, checks, ribbed and cable-stitch knitwear.


    Wax-Resistant Effects

    A wax crayon or candle may be used as a resistant to water colour and inks.

    First draw with the candle to make the paper waterproof beneath the wax. Add a wash and the area will remain free of colour. A rubber solution may also be used to gain a similar effect.

    Various selection of wax crayons is available and they come in different thick nesses. They produce a solid bright colour and the harder the pressure, the deeper the tone, but it is difficult to produce different tone with wax crayons. Experiment with the crayons on paper of different textures and colours. Some crayons are wax based, others are water solvent and may be used combined with water.


    A box with a glass top containing a light for tracing. By placing the work to be traced under a sheet of paper which rests on the glass and is illuminated underneath by the light, the work is then shown clearly. These boxes are available in range of sizes.


    The airbrush provides perfect even tones, graded tones and soft lines. It will also blend colour. It is operated by a motor compressor or compressed air propellant aerosols.

    Layout Paper

    White layout detail paper with a surface ideal for ink and pencil. The paper is semi-transparent, which is useful when working over roughs and developing work.

    Line Drawings

    Various pens used for drawing can be divided into five groups :

    New types are constantly being produced. When selecting a pen, experiment with it first to see if it produces the line required. The paper or card to be used also has to be considered carefully as the surface will affect the line value.

    These sketches illustrated the use of different techniques using a variety of pens with different line values, often within the same drawing.

    Drawing Pens

    Technical pens

    The ink pens used by designers are known as technical pens. They produce a clear line, the nib of the pen being in the shape of a tube. The ink is fed down the tube, the size of which produces the width of the line. Technical pens are extremely accurate for very fine detailed work.

    Plastic-tipped pens

    These produce very fine accurate lines.

    Fiber-tipped pens

    The nibs are made from vinyl tip or nylon, and vary from firm to supple. They are made in a selection of sizes for different line values.

    Roller pens

    These have a very smooth action, producing an even flow of ink. A range of colours and widths are available.

    Ball-point pens

    The point is made from a steel carbide ball that rolls, and is available in a range of colours and widths.

    Figure Proportion

    The height of the average figure varies from between seven and a half or eight times the height of the head. When drawing a fashion sketch, the Proportions are usually eight of eight and a half with exaggeration on the length of the legs. Try not to over-exaggerate when producing sketches, however, as this may distort the proportions of your designing.





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Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
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  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
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Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
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Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
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  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
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Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
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  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
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Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
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Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
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Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
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Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
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Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.