Manufacturing of Petroleum Products (Petroleum Waxes, Greases and Solid Lubricants, Solid Fuels, Gaseous Fuels, Gasoline, Diesel Fuel Oils, Automotive, Diesel and Aviation Fuels, Lubricating Oils and Lubricating Greases) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9788193733905
Code ENI527 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1675   1675 US$ 45   45
Pages: 376 Published 2019
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days

The petroleum waxes are semi refined or fully refined products obtained during the processing of crude oil. According to their structure they are divided into macrocrystalline waxes (paraffin waxes) and microcrystalline waxes (ceresine, petrolatum, others). Grease, thick, oily lubricant consisting of inedible lard, the rendered fat of waste animal parts, or a petroleum-derived or synthetic oil containing a thickening agent. Greases of mineral or synthetic origin consist of a thickening agent dispersed in a liquid lubricant such as petroleum oil or a synthetic fluid.

Diesel fuel, also called diesel oil, combustible liquid used as fuel for diesel engines, ordinarily obtained from fractions of crude oil that are less volatile than the fractions used in gasoline. Lubricating oil, sometimes simply called lubricant/lube, is a class of oils used to reduce the friction, heat, and wear between mechanical components that are in contact with each other. Lubricating oil is used in motorized vehicles, where it is known specifically as motor oil and transmission fluid.

The global wax market was valued at around USD 9 billion in 2017 and is expected to reach approximately USD 12 billion in 2024, growing at a CAGR of slightly above 3.5% between 2018 and 2024.The India lubricant market is expected to register a CAGR of 4.64%, during the forecast period, 2018-2023. The major factors driving the growth of the market are the increasing vehicular production along with the growing industrial sector. The global market for lubricants is expected to reach USD 70.32 billion by 2020. The global grease market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 2.13% during the forecast period, 2018 - 2023.Aviation fuel market size will grow by over USD 34 billion during 2018-2022

Some of the fundamentals of the book are composition of the petroleum waxes, solvent extraction, greases and solid lubricants, solid fuels, other significant tests or properties, gaseous fuels, properties of waxes, gasoline, diesel fuel oils, automotive, diesel and aviation fuels, special processes for motor-fuel blending components, crude distillation, lubricating oils, lubricating greases, nature of lubricating oils, photographs of machinery with suppliers contact details

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today’s most lucrative petroleum industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the petroleum industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of petroleum products. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.





Wax-Production Methods

Paraffin Waxes, Natural And Synthetic

Functional Tests for Paraffin Waxes

Synthetic Paraffin Waxes

Microcrystalline Waxes

Oxidized Microcrystalline Waxes


Field of Use of Petrolatum

Industrial uses of Petroleum-Wax

Paper Manufacturing

Paper Milk Cartons


Drugs, Cosmetics, Chemicals, and Matches

Electrical Goods and Metal Casting

Textile Industry

Rubber Compounding






Applications for Grease Lubrication

Structure and Properties of Greases

Materials Used in Making Greases

Characteristics of Greases from Various Metallic Soaps

Greases from Nonsoap Thickeners

Pure Petroleum Greases

Grease Additives and Fillers

Laboratory Testing of Greases


Apparent Viscosity

Dropping Point

Oxidation Stability

Water Resistance

Extreme Pressure Qualities

Grease Specifications

Solid Lubricants


Laminar Solids

Organic Compounds

Radiation Damage to Greases






Heating Value

Proximate Analysis



Analyses, Occurrence, and Uses of Coals

Coal Sizes

Calculation of Proximate Analysis and Heating

Value on Various Bases

Coal Coke

Petroleum Coke

Fuel Briquettes

Tests on Coke



Composition of Gaseous Fuels

Natural Gas

Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Refinery Oil Gas

Producer Gas

Blast Furnace Gas

Water Gas

Carburetted Water Gas

Oil Gas

Coal Gas or Coke Oven Gas

Sewage Gas

Gas Testing

Specific Gravity or Density of Fuel Gases

Direct Weighing

Pressure Balance

Displacement Balance

Bunsen Apparatus

Conversion from Dry to Saturated Basis

Analysis of Fuel Gas


Gas Chromatography


Chemical Absorption






Classification of Fuel Properties


General Requirements

Distillation Test of Gasoline

Reid Vapor Pressure Test

Starting Characteristics

Vapor Locking

Acceleration and Warm-up

Fuel Distribution

Volumetric Efficiency

Carburetor Icing


Combustion Quality


Surface Ignition

Mechanical Octane Number

Fuel Octane Number

Knock Rating

Knock Rating Methods

Knock Intensity Measurement

Significance of Knock Test Results

Fuel Sensitivity

Road-Knock Rating Procedures

Anti-knock Compounds


Effect of Molecular Structure of Fuels upon

Lead Susceptibility

Effect of Sulfur on Lead Susceptibility

TEL Addition to Commercial Blends

Heating Value of Gasoline

Gasoline Dye

Chemical Stability

Gum in Gasoline

Gum Tests


Corrosive Impurities

Sulfur Determination

Copper Strip Test

Doctor Test



Diesel Fuel Economics

Composition of Fuel an Important factor

Properties Determining Fuel Performance

Cetane Value an Expression of Ignition Quality

Increased Importance of Ignition Delay

Test Methods for Diesel Fuel Oils

Calculated Cetane Index

Significance of tests on Diesel Fuels

Stationary Diesel-engine Field Highly Competitive

Need of Automotive Diesels for Wide Range of Fuels

Marine Diesel Engines

Many Fields of Use for Diesel Tractors




Aviation Gasoline

Jet Propulsion fuels

Tractor fuel






Naphtha Reforming



Desalting Crude Oils

Vacuum Distillation

Auxiliary Equipment

Crude distillation unit products





Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Boundary Lubrication

ZN/P Curves


Dimensions and Units of Viscosity

Theory of Viscosity

Measurement of Viscosity

Viscosity-Temperature-Pressure Relations

Viscosity of Blends

Viscosity Index

Viscosity Temperature Coefficient

Significance of Viscosity and Viscosity Index

Cloud and Pour Point

Significance of Cloud and Pour Point


Viscosity Index Improvers

Pour Point Depressants

Oil Classification Systems


Oiliness Carriers

Extreme Pressure Lubricants

Sludge and Lacquer Formation


Corrosion Inhibitors


Commercial Additives

Bench Tests for Oxidation Stability


Carbon-Forming Tendencies

Work Factor Test

Oil Volatility





Synthetic Lubricating Oils

Dibasic Acid Esters

Organo-Phosphate Esters

Silicate Esters


Polyglycol Ether Compounds

Fluorinated and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

Effect of Radiation




The main grease components


Laboratory tests

Grease Structure

Grease rheology




The nature of crude oil

Production of basic grades of lubricating oils

Laboratory and rig tests and their significance

Lubricating oil additives

SAE classification of lubricating oils

Selection of oils for various duties

Physical properties of lubricating oils

other than viscosity







NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR