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Petroleum & Petroleum Products Technology Handbook (Thermal Cracking of Pure Saturated Hydrocarbons, Petroleum Asphalts, Refinery Products, Blending and Compounding, Oil Refining and Residual Fuel Oils) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9788193733912
Code ENI528 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1875   1875 US$ 150   150
Pages: 440 Published 2019
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days

Petroleum asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most petroleum crude oils and in some natural deposits. Petroleum crude oil is a complex mixture of a great many different hydrocarbons. Refined petroleum products are derived from crude oils through processes such as catalytic cracking and fractional distillation. Refining is a necessary step before oil can be burned as fuel or used to create end products.

Residual fuel oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons prepared by blending a residuum component with a flux stock which is a distillate component diluent, to give the desired viscosity of the fuel oil produced.Petroleum refining is the process of separating the many compoundspresent in crude petroleum.An Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant wherecrude oil is processed and refined into more useful products

The global Petroleum Asphalt market is valued at USD 48.8 Billion in 2017 and is expected to reach USD 77.67 Billion by the end of 2024, growing at a Growth Rate of 6.87% between 2017 and 2024.The global bunker fuel market was valued at $137,215.5 million in 2017 and is expected to reach $273,050.4 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 9.4% from 2018 to 2025.

Some of the fundamentals of the book are composition of radiation effects on lubricants, thermal cracking of pure saturatedhydrocarbons, petroleum asphalts, refinery products, refinery feedstocks, blending and compounding, oil refining, residual fuel oils, distillate heating oils, formulations of petroleum, photographs of machinery withsuppliers contact details.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today's most lucrative petroleum industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the petroleum industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of petroleum products. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.

 

1. RADIATION EFFECTS ON LUBRICANTS

Introduction

Interaction of Radiation with Organic Matter

General Physical Effects of Radiolysis

Base Oils

The Radiation Environment

Hydrocarbons (Petroleum Oils)

Alkylaromatics

Ethers

Esters

Silicones

Halogenated Compounds

Additives

Radiation Damage Inhibitors

Antioxidants

Viscosity Index Improvers

Antiwear Additives

Extreme Pressure (EP) Agents

Foam Inhibitors

Rust Inhibitors

Environmental Factors

Effects of Radiation Type and Intensity

Role of Temperature

Influence of Oxygen

Oil Lubricants

General: Commerical formulations

Based on Alkylaromatic Fluids

Fluids Based on Poly (phenyl ethers)

Steam Turbine Oils

Aircraft Turbine Oils

Hydraulic Fluids

Lubricating Greases

Gelling Agents

CONTENTS

Base Oils

Commerical Greases

Greases of Enhanced Radiation Resistance

Dynamic Tests

Principles

 

2. THERMAL CRACKING OF PURE SATURATED

HYDROCARBONS 65-102

Introduction

Experimental Methods

Batch Reactors

Flow Reactors

Residence Time

Volume Change on Reaction

Kinetics of the Cracking Process

Rates of Decomposition

Straight Chain Paraffins

Correlation of the Rate Constants for n-Paraffins

Effect of Branching on the Rate of Decomposition

Effect of Pressure on the Decomposition of Paraffinic

Hydrocarbons

Rates of Decomposition–Saturated Cyclic Hydrocarbons

Estimation of Rate Constant of Decomposition

APPENDIX

Calculation of Product Distribution from Paraffin Cracking by the Rice-Kossiakoff Method.

 

3. PETROLEUM ASPHALTS

Chemical and Physical Composition

Possible Structures of the Nuclei in Resins and Asphaltenes

Manufacture of Asphalt from Petroleum

uses of Asphalts

 

4. REFINERY PRODUCTS

Low-boiling Products

Gasoline

Gasoline Specifications

Distillate Fuels

Jet and Turbine Fuels

Automotive Diesel Fuels

Railroad Diesel Fuels

Heating Oils

Residual Fuel Oils

 

5. REFINERY FEEDSTOCKS

Crude Oil Properties

1. API Gravity

2. Sulfur Content, Wt%

3. Pour Point, °F (°C)

4. Carbon Residue, Wt%

5. Salt Content, 1lb/1000 bbl

6. Characterization Factors

7. Nitrogen Content, Wt%

8. Distilation Range

9. Metals Content, ppm

10. Total Acid Number

Composition of Petroleum

1. Paraffins

2. Olefins

3. Naphthenes (Cycloparaffins)

4. Aromatics

Crudes Suitable for Asphalt Manufacture

Crude Distillation Curves

Problems

 

6. BLENDING AND COMPOUNDING

 

7. OIL REFINING

Introduction

General Aspects of Oil Refining

Crude Oils and Products

Crude Oil Constituents

Classification of Crude Oils

Oil Products

1. Gas Fuels

2. Liquid Fuels

Nonfuel Applications

Oil Refining Processes

Crude Oil Distillation

Atmospheric Distillation

Vacuum Distillation

Crude Oil Desalting

Catalytic Cracking (Cat Cracking)

Hydrotreating

Distillate Hydrotreating

Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrotreating

Desulfurizing by Adsorption

Catalytic Reforming

Introduction

Semiregenerative Reformer

Fully Regenerative Reformer

Continuously Regenerative Reformer

Hydrocracking

Residue Conversation Process Introduction

Fundamentals of Residue Conversion and Process Options

Hydrogen Addition (‘‘H-in’’) Processes

Residue Hydrotreating (Demetallization, Desulfurization,

Denitrification)

Residue Hydrocracking (Hydroconversion)

Carbon Rejection (‘‘C-out’’) Processes

Thermal Processes (Visbreaking, Coking)

Catalytic Processes (Residue Cat Cracking)

Other Processes

Extraction of Asphaltenes

Partial Oxidation

Process Combinations

Gasoline Upgrading Processes

1. Alkylation

2. Polymerization

3. Isomerization

4. Production of Ethers (MTBE, ETBE)

Other Processes

Gas Treating

Sulfur Recovery

Catalysts

Environmental Protection in Oil Refining

Introduction

Manufacturing Emissions

Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons in Air

Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Hydrocarbons in Soil and Groundwater

Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds

Sulfur Compounds

Nitrogen Compounds

Consumer Related Emissions

Transportation Fuels

Motor Gasoline

Diesel Fuel

Marine Fules

Fuels for Heat Generation

Cost of Environmental Conservation

Integrated Refinery Models

Trends of Refinery Structures

Hydroskimming Refinery

Conversion Concepts

Cat Cracking – Visbreaking Refinery

Hydrocraking- Cat Cracking Refinery

Hydrocracking – Coking Refinery

Integration of Existing Refineries

Corrosion and Materials

Testing and Analysis

Crude Oil and Product Properties

Testing Methods and Standards

Storage and Transport

 

8. RESIDUAL FUEL OILS

History

Specifications For Residual Fuels

Fluidity

Thermal Stability

Explosiveness

Pacific Specifications for Fuel Oils

Detailed Inspections of Heavy Fuels

End uses of Residual Fuel Oils

Steam Boilers

Industrial Applications

Diesel Engines

Gas Turbines

Gas-enrichment Oils

Problems Associated with Utilization

Sulfur in Residual Fuel Oils

Ash Possible Source of Contaminants

Soot and Carbon Particles

Instability and Incompatibility

The Combustion of Residual Fuels

Heating Value

Chemistry of Combustion

Flue-gas Analysis

Humidity in Air and Flue Gases

Heat Content of Flue Gases

Specific Heat of Fuel Oils

Residual Fuel Oil Burners

 

9. DISTILLATE HEATING OILS

Status of the Heating-Oil Industry

Burners, Controls and Tanks

Central-Heating Systems

Burning Qualities in Oils

Stability in Heating Oils

Handling and Delivery

10. FORMULATIONS OF PETROLEUM

 

11. PHOTOGRAPHS OF MACHINERY WITH SUPPLIERS CONTACT DETAILS

 

ABOUT NPCS

 

NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.

 


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:


• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period


We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.

 

The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?


The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.


Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.

 

Our Approach:


• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.

 

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:

 

 

Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications

 

Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity

 

Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers

 

Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel

 

Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)

 

Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram

 

Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities

 

Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:

 

  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital

 

  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals

                Revenue/Income/Realisation

                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios

                D.S.C.R

                Earnings Per Share (EPS)

               

             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 

                B.E.P

  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR