Bioplastics & Biodegradable Products Manufacturing Handbook (Bioplastic Carry Bags, Bio-PET, Bioplastic Drinking Straws, Corn and Rice Starch-Based Bioplastics, Food Packaging Applications, Cassava Bags, Biodegradable Tableware, Biodegradable Plates, Biodegradable Toilet Paper, Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics, Polylactic Acid (PLA)) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author P. K. Chattopadhyay ISBN 9788195370122
Code ENI327 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1575   1575 US$ 43   43
Pages: 448 Published 2022
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days


Bioplastics & Biodegradable Products

Manufacturing Handbook



(Bioplastic Carry Bags, Bio-PET, Bio Plastic Drinking Straws, Corn and Rice Starch-Based Bio-Plastics, Food Packaging Applications, Cassava Bags, Biodegradable Tableware, Biodegradable Plates, Biodegradable Toilet Paper, Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics, Polylactic Acid (PLA))


Bioplastic is simply plastic that is created from a plant or other biological source rather than petroleum. It can be created by extracting sugar from plants like corn and sugarcane and converting it into polylactic acids (PLAs), or it can be made from microorganism-engineered polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Bioplastics are plastics made from renewable biomass sources such vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, sawdust, and recovered food waste, among others. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also known as petro-based polymers), on the other hand, are made from petroleum or natural gas.

Biodegradable Products Manufacturing (Bio-Products) are all types of natural and artificial products that can be easily decomposed without causing any damage to the environment. The significant examples of Biodegradable Products are Biodegradable Plastic, Biodegradable Airline Meals, Bio-degradable Toilet Paper, Biodegradable Cups etc. It has become the need of the hour to use these products as most of the goods like Plastics take many years to decompose in nature and this affects the environment adversely with time.

The worldwide bioplastics market is predicted to increase at a CAGR of 17.1 percent over the next five years. The packaging industry's rising product demand will propel the market even higher.

The book covers a wide range of topics connected to bioplastics and biodegradable products, as well as their manufacturing processes. It also includes contact information for machinery suppliers, as well as images of equipment and plant layout.

A comprehensive reference to manufacturing and entrepreneurship in the bioplastics and biodegradable products business. This book is a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about the bioplastics and biodegradable products manufacturing industry, which is ripe with potential for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only comprehensive guide to commercial bioplastics and biodegradable products manufacture. It provides a feast of how-to knowledge, from concept through equipment purchase.




        1.1.     Biodegradable Plastics

                   1.1.1.     Properties

                   1.1.2.     Applications

        1.2.     Type of Biodegradable Plastics

        1.3.     Biodegradable Vs. Compostable

        1.4.     Bio-Based Plastics

                   1.4.1.     Applications

                   1.4.2.     Benefits of Bioplastics

        1.5.     Renewable Resources

                   1.5.1.     Natural Polymers

                   1.5.2.     Polysaccharides (Carbohydrates)

                   1.5.3.     Proteins

                   1.5.4.     Lignin

                   1.5.5.     Natural Rubber

        1.6.     Other Biogenic Materials

                   1.6.1.     Plant Oils

                   1.6.2.     Monomers


        2.1.     Applications

        2.2.     Economic and Social Development

        2.3.     Impact Factors on Bioplastic Demand

        2.4.     Specific Options for the Development of Bioplastics

                   2.4.1.     Mobilizing Resources for Research and Development

                   2.4.2.     Supporting Scaling Up Activities

                   2.4.3.     Investing in Demonstrator Facilities

                   2.4.4.     Alternative Uses for Feedstock

                   2.4.5.     Agricultural Land Productivity

                   2.4.6.     Alternative Cropping Systems

                   2.4.7.     Public Procurement

                   2.4.8.     Quotas

   2.4.9.      Subsidies and Taxes


                   2.4.10.   Standards, Labels, and Consumer Awareness


        3.1.     Biodegradable

                   3.1.1.     The ASTM Defines ‘Biodegradable’ as

        3.2.     Compostable

                   3.2.1.     ‘Compostable’ is Defined by the ASTM as

                   3.2.2.     Hydro-biodegradable and Photo-biodegradable

                   3.2.3.     Bio-erodable

        3.3.     Biodegradable Starch-based Polymers

                   3.3.1.     Thermoplastic Starch Products

                   3.3.2.     Starch Synthetic Aliphatic Polyester Blends

                   3.3.3.     Starch and PBS/PBSA Polyester Blends

                   3.3.4.     Starch-PVOH Blends

        3.4.     Biodegradable Polyesters

                   3.4.1.     PHA (Naturally Produced) Polyesters

                   3.4.2.     PHBH (Naturally Produced) Polyesters

                   3.4.3.     PLA (Renewable Resource) Polyesters

                   3.4.4.     PCL (Synthetic Aliphatic) Polyesters

                   3.4.5.     PBS (Synthetic Aliphatic) Polyesters

                   3.4.6.     AAC Copolyesters

                   3.4.7.     Modified PET

        3.5.     Other Degradable Polymers

        3.6.     Water Soluble Polymers

                   3.6.1.     Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)

                   3.6.2.     Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH)

        3.7.     Controlled Degradation Additive Masterbatches

        3.8.     Emerging Application Areas in Australia

        3.9.     Coated Paper

        3.10.   Agricultural Mulch Film

        3.11.   Shopping Bags

        3.12.   Food Waste Film and Bags

        3.13.   Consumer Packaging Materials

        3.14.   Landfill Cover Film

        3.15.   Other Applications

        3.16.   Standards and Test Methods

        3.17.   Biodegradation Standards and Tests


                   3.17.1.   American Society for Testing and Materials

ASTM D5338-93 (Composting)

                   3.17.3.   ASTM D5209-91 (Aerobic, Sewer Sludge)

                   3.17.4.   ASTM D5210-92 (Anaerobic, Sewage Sludge)

                   3.17.5.   ASTM D5511-94 (High-solids Anaerobic Digestion)

                   3.17.6.   ASTM Tests for Specific Disposal Environments

                   3.17.7.   International Standards Research

                   3.17.8.   International Standards Organisation

                   3.17.9.   European Committee for Normalisation

                   3.17.10. ‘OK Compost’ Certification and Logo

                   3.17.11. Compost Toxicity Tests

                   3.17.12. Plant Phytotoxicity Testing

                   3.17.13. Animal Toxicity Test

                   3.17.14. Difference Between Standards for Biodegradation

                   3.17.15. Development of Australian Standards

                   3.17.16. Disposal Environments

                   3.17.17. Composting Facilities and Soil Burial

                   3.17.18. Key Factors Defining Compostability

                   3.17.19. Physical Persistence

                   3.17.20. Chemical Persistence

                   3.17.21. Toxicity

                   3.17.22. Effect on Quality of Compost

                   3.17.23. Anaerobic Digestion

                   3.17.24. Waste Water Treatment Plants

                   3.17.25. Reprocessing Facilities

                   3.17.26. Landfills

                   3.17.27. Marine and Freshwater Environments

                   3.17.28. Litter

        3.18.   Plastics Sorting and Reprocessing

                   3.18.1.   Key Issues

                   3.18.2.   Recyclable Plastics Sorting Considerations

                   3.18.3.   Reprocessing Considerations

                   3.18.4.   Polyolefin Reprocessing

                   3.18.5.   Polyethylene Reprocessing

        3.19.   Potential Positive Environment Impacts

                   3.19.1.   Composting

                   3.19.2.   Landfill Degradation

                   3.19.3.   Energy Use

                   3.19.4.   Greenhouse Gas Emissions

        3.20.   Potential Negative Enviornment Impact

                   3.20.1.   Pollution of Aquatic Environments

                       Increased Aquatic BOD

                       Water Transportable Degradation Products

                       Risk to Marine Species

                   3.20.2.   Litter

                   3.20.3.   Compost Toxicity

                   3.20.4.   Recalcitrant Residues

                       Aromatic Compounds

                   3.20.5.   Addigtives and Modifiers

                       Isocyanate Coupling Agents



                       Catalyst Residues

                   3.20.6.   Prodegradants and Other Additives

                   3.20.7.   Source of Raw Materials

        3.21.   Development of Australian Standards and Testing

                   3.21.1.   Life-Cycle Assessment

                   3.21.2.   Minimisation of Impact on Reprocessing

                   3.21.3.   Determination of Appropriate Disposal Environments

                   3.21.4.   Education

        3.22.   Conclusions

                   3.22.1.   Identify standards and test methods for biodegradable plastics in Australia

        3.23.    Appendix A


        4.1.     A Climate-Friendly Brand

        4.2.     Main Applications

        4.3.     Reduce CO2 Emission with Bioplastics

        4.4.     Which Biobag to Choose?

        4.5.     Types of Bio Bag

        4.6.     Bio-Recyclable Bags can be Used to Create New Bags

        4.7.     Bio-Recyclable Bags do not Pollute the Recycling Process

        4.8.     Bio-Compostable Bags Break Down into Humus

                   4.8.1.     Polyethylene (PE)

                   4.8.2.     Polylactic Acid (PLA)

                   4.8.3.     Thermoplastic Starch (TPS)

        4.9.     Bioplastics

                   4.9.1.     Manufacturing Process

                   4.9.2.     Recyclability of Plastic Materials

                   4.9.3.     How Recycling Improvements Affect the Manufacturer

5.     BIO-PET

        5.1.     Bio-PET as a Replacement for Virgin PET

        5.2.     Biodegradable Plastics

        5.3.     Biopolymer Plastic

        5.4.     Why is Bio-based Polyester Important?

        5.5.     The Benefits of Biopolymer Bottles

        5.6.     Biopolymer Bottle Types

        5.7.     Bottle-to-bottle Recycling


        6.1.     Types of Biodegradable Plastic Straws

                   6.1.1.     Wheat Straws

                   6.1.2.     Bamboo Straws

                   6.1.3.     The Truth of Sugarcane Bagasse

                   6.1.4.     Rice Straw

        6.2.     Technology Process

                   6.2.1.     Pulp Bleaching Process

                   6.2.2.     Pulp Washing Process

                   6.2.3.     Pulp Cooking Process

                   6.2.4.     Chemi-Mechanical Pulping


        7.1.     Biobased Packaging Materials

        7.2.     Polymers Produced from Biomass

        7.3.     Polymers from Bio-derived Monomers

        7.4.     Polymers Produced from Micro-Organisms

        7.5.     Properties of Packaging Materials

                   7.5.1.     Gas Barrier Properties

                   7.5.2.     Moisture Barrier Properties

                   7.5.3.     Mechanical and Thermal Properties

        7.6.     Biodegradability

                   7.6.1.     Packaging Products from Bio based Materials


        8.1.     Introduction

        8.2.     Modification of Guar Gum

        8.3.     Derivatization of Functional Groups

        8.4.     PVS Modified Guar Gum

        8.5.     Characterization


        9.1.     Introduction

        9.2.     Materials and Methods

        9.3.     Extraction of Starch

        9.4.     Preparation of Bioplastics Film

        9.5.     Characterization

                   9.5.1.     Tensile Test

                   9.5.2.     Thickness Measurement

                   9.5.3.     Test for Moisture Content

                   9.5.4.     Water Solubility Test

                   9.5.5.     Water Contact Angle Measurement

                   9.5.6.     Biodegradability Test

                   9.5.7.     Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

                   9.5.8.     Thermogravimetric Analysis

                   9.5.9.     Sealing Properties of Bioplastics


        10.1.   Introduction

                   10.1.1.   Ingredient Properties Affecting Feedrates and Dry Ingredients Handling

                   10.1.2.   Storage Hoppers and Ingredient Activation

                   10.1.3.   Volumetric Feeders

                   10.1.4.   Vibrating Tray Feeders

                   10.1.5.   Belt Feeders

                   10.1.6.   Loss-in-Weight Feeders

        10.2.   Start with a Traditional Feeding Device, Example a Screw Feeder


        11.1.   Recycling

                   11.1.1.   Mechanical Recycling of Bioplastics

        11.2.   Renewable Energy Recovery (incineration)

        11.3.   Feedstock Recovery or Chemical Recycling

        11.4.   Compost/Biodegradation

                   11.4.1.   Biodegradable

        11.5.   Anaerobic Digestion

                   11.5.1.   Energy Recovery

        11.6.   Communicating End-of-Life Options


        12.1.   Manufacturing Process

        12.2.   Types of Cassava Bags


        13.1.   Begin Insert

        13.2.   Plastics From Potato Waste

        13.3.   Starch to Glucose to Lactic Acid

        13.4.   Lactic Acid into Plastic

        13.5.   Potential Markets


        14.1.   Formula of the Product

        14.2.   Introduction

        14.3.   Objective of the Present Invention

        14.4.   Preferred Embodiments

        14.5.   Claims

        14.6.   Conclusion


        15.1.   Analysis

        15.2.   Plastics and the Environment

        15.3.   The Move to Renewable Sources

        15.4.   Extending the Recycling Loop

        15.5.   Biopolymers, Conventional Plastics and Biodegradable Plastics

        15.6.   The Plastics Sector

        15.7.   Packaging

        15.8.   Plastic Films

        15.9.   Structure of the Business

        15.10. Recent Developments

        15.11. Biodegradability and Compostability

        15.12. Challenges Ahead


        16.1.   Introduction and Background

        16.2.   Results from Previous Funding

        16.3.   Rational and Significance

        16.4.   Procedures/Methodology

        16.5.   Other Related Works


        17.1.   Introduction

        17.2.   Technology Commercialization Model

                   17.2.1.   Application of Technology Commercialization Model

        17.3.   Starch-based Biodegradable Plastics – Commercialization Case Studies

        17.4.   Conclusion


        18.1.   Structure of Nano Composites Based on Natural Nano Fillers

                   18.1.1.   Layered Silicate Filled Nano Composites

                   18.1.2.   Cellulose Nanoparticles Filled Nano Composites

                   18.1.3.   Starch Nano Crystals Filled Nano Composites

        18.2.   Properties of Bio-Nano Composites

                   18.2.1.   PLA Based Bio-Nano Composites

                   18.2.2.   Mechanical Properties

                   18.2.3.   Barrier Properties

        18.3.   Starch Based Nano Composites

                   18.3.1.   Elaboration Processes

                   18.3.2.   Effect of the Surfactant and Plasticizer on the Structure

                   18.3.3.   Mechanical Properties

        18.4.   Optical Properties

        18.5.   PHA Based Bio-Nano Composites

        18.6.   Proteins Based Nanocomposites


        19.1.   What are the General Characteristics of PHAs?

        19.2.   What are the Benefits of Bioplastics and PHAs in Particular?

        19.3.   What Applications have Utilized or can Utilize PHAs?

        19.4.   Materials and Methods

                   19.4.1.   Reagents Preparation

                   19.4.2.   Media Preparation

                   19.4.3.   Sample Collection

                   19.4.4.   Waste Collection

                   19.4.5.   Isolation and Screening

                   19.4.6.   Submerged Fermentation for PHA Production

                   19.4.7.   Extraction of PHA Produced during Fermentation

                   19.4.8.   Quantification of Produced PHA

                   19.4.9.   Characterization of the Extracted PHA by FTIR

                   19.4.10. Molecular Identification of the Most Efficient PHA Producing Strain

                   19.4.11. Optimization of Cultural Conditions

                   19.4.12. PHA Film Preparation

                   19.4.13. Statistical Analysis


        20.1.   Introduction

                   20.1.1.   PLA Film

                   20.1.2.   PLA Trays and Other Thermoformed Products

                   20.1.3.   PLA Bottles

                   20.1.4.   Other Packaging Products

        20.2.   (Biodegradable) Starch based Plastics

                   20.2.1.   Starch based Films

                   20.2.2.   Starch based Trays and Other Thermoformed Products

                   20.2.3.   Other Packaging Products

        20.3.   Cellophane Films

        20.4.   Biodegradable (and bio-based) Polyesters

                   20.4.1.   Flexible Films based on Biodegradable Polyesters

                   20.4.2.   Trays and Other Thermoformed Products

                   20.4.3.   Other Packaging Products

        20.5.   Manufacture of Polylactic Acids

        20.6.   Influence of Optical Composition


        21.1.   Sugarcane Bagasse

                   21.1.1.   Characteristics

                   21.1.2.   Advantages

                   21.1.3.   Manufacturing Process

        21.2.   Cornstarch Tableware

                   21.2.1.   Advantages

        21.3.   Bamboo Tableware

                   21.3.1.   Features

                   21.3.2.   Making Disposable Bamboo Tableware

                   21.3.3.   Durable or Reusable

                   21.3.4.   Benefits

        21.4.   Palm Leaf Tableware

                   21.4.1.   Features

                   21.4.2.   Eco-friendly

                   21.4.3.   Manufacturing Process


        22.1.   Characteristics of Bagasse Products

        22.2.   Benefits of Using Biodegradable Plates

                   22.2.1.   Saves Non-renewable Sources of Energy

                   22.2.2.   Reduces Carbon Emission

                   22.2.3.   Consumes Less Energy

                   22.2.4.   Provides an Eco-Friendly Solution

        22.3.   Various Types of Disposable Plates

        22.4.   Disposable Bamboo Plates

        22.5.   Palm Leaf Plates

        22.6.   Bagasse Plates/ Sugarcane Plates

                   22.6.1.   What is Bagasse? How is it used to Make Plates and Bowls?

        22.7.   Manufacturing Stages

                   22.7.1.   Pulping

                   22.7.2.   Forming

                   22.7.3.   Shaping and Drying

                   22.7.4.   Edge cutting and Sterilization

                   22.7.5.   Packaging


        23.1.   Types


        24.1.   Introduction

                   24.1.1.   Results and Discussion

                   24.1.2.   General Procedure for Grafting of Sugars onto Poly (styrene Maleic Anhydride)

                   24.1.3.   Determination of Biodegradability of Polymers Using Aerobic Microorganisms

        24.2.   Supplementary Data

                   24.2.1.   Weight Loss Data

                   24.2.2.   FTIR Spectral Data

                   24.2.3.   Use of Colorimetry for Determination of the Sugar Content in the Poly (styrene Maleic Anhydride) Linked with Glucose: The Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Reaction Method

                   24.2.4.   Quantification of Carbohydrate Groups Linked to Poly(styrene-Maleic Anhydride) by Silylation of the Carbohydrate Hydroxyl’s and NMR Anlysis of the Spectrum

                   24.2.5.   Molecular Weight Decrease After Biodegradation by GPC

                   24.2.6.   Mechanism of Reaction of Poly(styrene Maleic Anhydride) with the Sugar


        25.1.   Introduction

        25.2.   Bioplastic as Packaging Material

                   25.2.1.   Why Use Starch as Packaging Material?

        25.3.   Characteristics of a Good Packaging Material

        25.4.   Recent Advances in Starch Based Composites for Packaging Applications

        25.5.   Plasticized Starch and Fiber Reinforced Composites for Packaging Applications

        25.6.   Protein-Starch Based Plastic Produced by Extrusion and Injection Molding

        25.7.   Starch-based Completely Biodegradable Polymer Materials

                   25.7.1.   Starch: The Future of Sustainable Packaging



        27.1.   Bio Degradable Bag Machine

        27.2.   Corn Starch Biodegradable Bag Machine

        27.3.   Biodegradable Compostable Bags Machine

        27.4.   Biodegradable Carry Bag Cutting and Sealing Machine

        27.5.   Biodegradable Carry Bag Machine

        27.6.   Biodegradable Plastic Film Machine

        27.7.   Blown Film Machine

        27.8.   Areca Leaf Plate Machine

        27.9.   Betel Leaf Plate Machine

        27.10. Areca Food Container Machine

        27.11. Bagasse Tableware Pulp Molding Machine

        27.12. Pulp Molded Tableware Machinery

        27.13. Eggs Pulp Tray Machine

        28.14. Biodegradable Pulp Cup Rotary Machine


             29.15. Biodegradable Paper Straw Making Machine




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            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR