Handbook on Biofuel, Ethanol and Bioenergy Based Products ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author P. K. Chattopadhyay ISBN 9788195370184
Code ENI328 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1875   1875 US$ 51   51
Pages: 456 Published Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Handbook on Biofuel, Ethanol and Bioenergy Based Products

(Ethanol as Biofuel, Methane Gas, Biodiesel, Biogas, Biomass Gasification, Bio-Chemical, Renewable Energy, Clean-Energy, Activated Carbon, Agricultural Residues, Forestry Residues, Animal Waste, Wood Wastes, Industrial Wastes, Municipal Solid Wastes and Sewage with Machinery, Manufacturing Process, Equipment Details and Plant Layout)


Bioenergy is biofuel-derived energy. Biofuel is any fuel made from biomass, such as plant or algal matter or animal waste. Biofuel is considered a renewable energy source since the feedstock material can be easily renewed, unlike fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas.


Ethanol is a naturally occurring result of plant fermentation that may also be made by hydrating ethylene. Ethanol is a widely used industrial chemical that is employed as a solvent, in the production of other organic compounds, and as a fuel additive (forming a mixture known as a gasohol). Many alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits, include ethanol as a psychoactive element.

Transportation fuels generated from biomass resources, such as ethanol and biomass-based diesel, are known as biofuels. Using ethanol or biodiesel reduces the use of crude oil-based gasoline and diesel, potentially lowering the amount of crude oil imported from other nations. The global biofuels market is expected to reach growth at 7.3% CAGR. Increasing demand for biofuels as automobile fuel owing to their environment friendly characteristic to mitigate greenhouse gas emission is expected to propel industry growth.

The global ethanol fuel market is expected to reach growing at a CAGR of 6.7%. The demand for the product is driven by growing usage of the product as a biofuel. The bioenergy market is expected to register a CAGR of over 6% during the forecast period. Bioenergy is one of the renewable energy sources globally. Increasing demand for energy, advancements in bioenergy conversion technologies, and increasing investment in bioenergy, and declining electricity generation costs from bioenergy facilities are expected to drive the market during the forecast period.

The book covers a wide range of topics connected to Biofuel, Ethanol and Bioenergy Based Products, as well as their manufacturing processes. It also includes contact information for machinery suppliers, as well as images of equipment and plant layout.

A complete guide on Biofuel, Ethanol and Bioenergy Based Products manufacture and entrepreneurship. This book serves as a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about the Biofuel, Ethanol and Bioenergy Based Products manufacturing industry, which is ripe with opportunity for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only book that covers commercial Biofuel, Ethanol and Bioenergy Based Products in depth. From concept through equipment procurement, it is a veritable feast of how-to information.





          1.1.  Types

                   1.1.1.   Wood

                   1.1.2.   Biogas

                   1.1.3.   Biodiesel

                   1.1.4.   Ethanol

                   1.1.5.   Methanol

                   1.1.6.   Butanol

          1.2.  Benefits

                   1.2.1.   They are Renewable Sources of Energy

                   1.2.2.   Sovereignty

                   1.2.3.   Ensure Sustainable Economy

                   1.2.4.   Low Costs

                   1.2.5.   Cleanest Fuel

                   1.2.6.   Production of Less Smoke

                   1.2.7.   They Help to Reduce Monopoly

                   1.2.8.   Lower Toxicity in the Atmosphere

                   1.2.9.   They are a Source of Employment for Locals

                   1.2.10. They do not Produce Sulfur

                   1.2.11. Promotion of Agriculture

   2.    ETHANOL   

          2.1.  Production Process

                   2.1.1.   Hydrolysis of Starch and Cellulose followed by Fermentation of Glucose to Ethanol

          2.2.  Applications

          2.3.  Uses

                   2.3.1.   Medical

                   2.3.2.   Recreational

                   2.3.3.   Fuel

          2.4.  Chemistry

                   2.4.1.   Chemical Formula

                   2.4.2.   Physical Properties

                   2.4.3.   Solvent Properties

                   2.4.4.   Flammability

          2.5.  Technology


          3.1.  History of Ethanol

          3.2.  Most Motor Gasoline Now Contains Fuel Ethanol

                   3.2.1.   Sugar-to-Ethanol Process

                   3.2.2.   Starch-to-Ethanol Process

                   3.2.3.   Cellulose-to-Ethanol Process

                   3.2.4.   Distillation and Dehydration Process

          3.3.  Technology Applications for Bioethanol

          3.4.  Ethanol and The Environment


          4.1.  Cleaning of Sugarcane, Extraction of Sugars and Juice Treatment

          4.2.  Juice Concentration and Sterilization

          4.3.  Distillation and Dehydration


          5.1.  Pre-Hydrolysis of Hemicellulose

          5.2.  Cellulose Hydrolysis and Solvent Recovery


          6.1.  Cellulosic Production Process

                   6.1.1.   Pretreatment

                   6.1.2.   Enzyme Hydrolysis

                   6.1.3.   Fermentation

                   6.1.4.   Distillation

                   6.1.5.   Fuel Ethanol

   7.    BIOFUEL

          7.1.  How Biofuel is Made

                   7.1.1.   Biofuel Conversion Processes Deconstruction

                              • High-Temperature Deconstruction

                              • Low-Temperature Deconstruction

          7.2.  Production of Common Biofuels

          7.3.  Biofuels are Classified in the following four Categories:

                   First-Generation Biofuels.

                   Second-Generation Biofuels

                   Third-Generation Biofuels

                   Fourth-Generation Biofuels

          7.4.  Types

                   7.4.1.   Gaseous Biofuel

                   7.4.2.   Liquid Biofuel


          8.1.  Biomass Production

                  8.1.1.   Introduction

                   8.1.2.   The Holistic Approach

          8.2.  Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Biofuel

                   8.2.1.   Bioethanol from Sugar Beet

                   8.2.2.   Biological Hydrogen from Sweet Sorghum

          8.3.  Few Crops and their Residues

                   8.3.1.   Arhar

                   8.3.2.   Bajra

                   8.3.3.   Banana

                   8.3.4.   Barley

                   8.3.5.   Coconut

                   8.3.6.   Coffee

                   8.3.7.   Coriander

                   8.3.8.   Cotton

                   8.3.9.   Dry Chilly

                   8.3.10. Dry Ginger

                   8.3.11. Green Gram

                   8.3.12. Ground Nut

                   8.3.13. Jowar

                   8.3.14. Maize

                   8.3.15. Mango

                  8.3.16. Masoor

                   8.3.17. Moong

                   8.3.18. Moth

                   8.3.19. Mustard

                   8.3.20. Potato

                   8.3.21. Soyabean

                   8.3.22. Sugarcane

                   8.3.23. Tea


          9.1.  Properties of Biomass Briquettes

          9.2.  Uses and Applications of Briquette

          9.3.  Feedstock

          9.4.  Market

          9.5.  Pre-processing of Biomass Residues

          9.6.  Bio-briquette Manufacturing Process

                   9.6.1.   Advantages of Biomass Briquetting

          9.7.  Comparative Characteristics of Bio Briquettes

          9.8.  Briquetting Plant


          10.1. Introduction

          10.2. Types of Biomass

          10.3. Lignocellulosic Biomass

          10.4. Crops and Vegetables

          10.5. Waste Biomass

          10.6. Properties of Biomass

                   10.6.1. Physical Properties


                              True Density

                              Apparent Density

                              Bulk Density

                   10.6.2. Thermodynamic Properties

                              (a) Thermal Conductivity

                              (b) Specific Heat

                              (c) Heat of Formation

                              (d) Heat of Combustion (Reaction)

                              (e) Heating Value

                              (f) Ignition Temperature

          10.7. Important Constituents of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

                   10.7.1. Benefits of Biomass

                   10.7.2. Disadvantages of Biomass

          10.8. Biomass Pyramids

                   10.8.1. Compaction Characteristics of Biomass and Their Significance

                   10.8.2. Effect of Particle Size

                   10.8.3. Effect of Moisture

                   10.8.4. Effect of Temperature of Biomass

                   10.8.5. Effect of Temperature of the Die

                   10.8.6. Effect of External Additives

                   10.8.7. Unit Operations

                   10.8.8. Anaerobic Digestion

          10.9. Biomass Energy in India


          11.1. Waste Biomass

          11.2. Types of Waste Biomass

                   11.2.1. Lignocellulose

                   11.2.2. Lignocellulose Composition

                   11.2.3. Cellulose

                   11.2.4. Hemicellulose

                   11.2.5. Lignin

          11.3. Residual Biomasses and the Biorefinery Associated Concept

                   11.3.1. Bio-Based Processes

                   11.3.2. Value Addition of Waste Biomass

                   11.3.3. Biotransformation of Biomass

                   11.3.4. Transformation of Marine Process Wastes

                   11.3.5. Biotransformation of Biotechnological Process Wastes

                  11.3.6. Biochemical Extraction from Biomass


          12.1. Introduction

          12.2. Biomass Pyrolysis and Char Activation

          12.3. Biomass Properties

                   12.3.1. Lab-Scale Pyrolysis

                   12.3.2. Lab-scale Activation

                   12.3.3. Activation Results

                   12.3.4. Pore Size Distribution

                   12.3.5. Generation of Granular Activated Carbon

                   12.3.6. Rotary Kiln Reactor for Char Activation

          12.4. Composition of Biological Activated Carbon Process

                   12.4.1. Composition and Application

                               Basic Principles of Biological Activated Carbon Technology

                              Application Fields and the Typical Process Flow of Biological
                                Activated Carbon Technology

                              • Basic Operational Parameters of BAC Process

          12.5. O3-BAC Process and the Evaluation of Ozonation

                   12.5.1. Mechanism and Characteristics of O3-BAC Process

          12.6. Effect of Ozonation on Molecule Weight Distribution and the Molecule Structure of Organic Matters

                   12.6.1. Effect of Ozonation on Molecule Weight Distribution of Organic Matters

                   12.6.2. Effect of Ozonation on the Structure of Organic Matters

                   12.6.3. Improvement of Biochemical Properties of Organics by Ozonation

                   12.6.4. Improvement of Ozonation on Biodegradability of Organic Matters


          13.1. Chemicals from Biomass as Feedstock

          13.2. Biomass Conversion Chemicals

                   13.2.1. Methane

                   13.2.2. Methanol

          13.3. Production of Methanol from Biomass

          13.4. Uses and Applications of Methanol

                   13.4.1. Waste Water Treatment

                   13.4.2. Environmentally Friendly

                   13.4.3. Chemical Intermediate and Fuel

                   13.4.4. Safety in Automotive Fuels

                   13.4.5. Government Policy

                   13.4.6. Other Applications

          13.5. Ethanol

                   13.5.1. Properties of Ethanol

                   13.5.2. Ethanol Production Process from Sugarcane

          13.6. Cleaning of Sugarcane, Extraction of Sugars and Juice Treatment

                   13.6.1. Juice Concentration and Sterilization

                   13.6.2. Fermentation

                   13.6.3. Distillation and Dehydration

                   13.6.4. Acetic Acid

                   13.6.5. Ethylene

                   13.6.6. Glycerol

                   13.6.7. Lactic Acid

                   13.6.8. Acetone

          13.7. Butanol

                   13.7.1. Sorbitol


          14.1. Gasification Reactor Types

                   14.1.1. Moving Bed (Fixed Bed)

                   14.1.2. Down-draft Gasifiers

                   14.1.3. Up-draft Gasifier

                   14.1.4. Fluidized Bed Gasifier

                   14.1.5. Bubbling Fluidized Bed

                   14.1.6. Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier

                   14.1.7. Entrained-Flow Reactor

          14.2. Gasification Reactions and Steps

                   14.2.1. Gasifying Medium

                   14.2.2. Chemical Reactions

                              1. Reactions with Molecular Oxygen

                              2. Reactions with Carbon Dioxide

                              3. Reactions with Steam

                              4. Reactions with Hydrogen

          14.3. Fuel-Gas Production and Utilization

                   14.3.1. Synthesis Gas Production

          14.4. The Gasification Process

                   14.4.1. Drying

                   14.4.2. Pyrolysis

          14.5. Char Gasification Reactions

                   14.5.1. Speed of Char Reactions

                   14.5.2. Boudouard Reaction

                   14.5.3. Water–Gas Reaction

                   14.5.4. Shift Reaction

                   14.5.5. Hydrogasification Reaction

                   14.5.6. Char Combustion Reactions

          14.6. Catalytic Gasification

          14.7. Catalyst Selection Criteria

                   14.7.1. Advantages and Limitations

          14.8.   Generation of Thermal Energy from Wood through Biomass Gasification System

          14.9.   Scope of Supply

          14.10. Equipment Description

          14.11. Appendix & Annexure


          15.1. Biomass Conversion

                   15.1.1. Thermo Chemical Conversion

                   15.1.2. Combustion

                   15.1.3. Gasification

                   15.1.4. Pyrolysis

                   15.1.5. Biochemical Conversion

                   15.1.6. Fermentation

                   15.1.7. Anaerobic Digestion

                   15.1.8. Mechanical Extraction

          15.2. Biochemical from Biomass

                   15.2.1. Biomethanation

                   15.2.2. Feature of Biomethanation

                   15.2.3. Mechanism of Biomethanation

                   15.2.4. Current Status

                   15.2.5. Ethanol Fermentation

                   15.2.6. Ethanol Fermentation of Saccharine Materials

                   15.2.7. Ethanol Fermentation of Starch

                   15.2.8. Ethanol Fermentation of Lignocellulosics

                              (a) Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Process

                              (b) Dilute Sulfuric Acid Process

                   15.2.9. Acetone-Butanol Fermentation

                   15.2.10.Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol Fermentation

                   15.2.11.Reactions of Acetone-Butanol Fermentation

                   15.2.12. Energy Efficiency of Acetone-Butanol Fermentation

                   15.2.13. Products of Acetone-Butanol Fermentation

                   15.2.14. Hydrogen Fermentation

                   15.2.15. Characteristics of Hydrogen Fermentation

                   15.2.16. Reactions of Hydrogen Fermentation

                   15.2.17. Energy Efficiency of Hydrogen Fermentation

                   15.2.18. Products of Hydrogen Fermentation

                   15.2.19. Lactic Acid Fermentation

                   15.2.20. Lactic Acid Bacteria

                   15.2.21. Biomass Resources for Lactic Acid Fermentation

                   15.2.22. Utilization of Unused Biomass from Palm Oil Industry

                   15.2.23. Lactic Acid Fermentation from Kitchen Garbage

                   15.2.24. Purification of Lactic Acid

                   15.2.25. Silage

                   15.2.26. Silage Making

                   15.2.27. Silage Fermentation

                   15.2.28. Roll Bale Silage

          15.3. Composting

                   15.3.1. Basic Principles of Composting

                   15.3.2. Basic Elements of Composting

                              (a) Preprocessing

                              (b) Fermentation

                              (c) Product Forming Process

          15.4. Current Composting Technology



          16.1. Introduction

          16.2. Materials and Methods

                   16.2.1. Preparation of Hardened Cement Paste Specimens

                   16.2.2. Monolith Leaching Test

          16.3. Characterization of WBFA

          16.4. Leaching Behavior of Blended Cement Pastes




  • Charcoal Briquettes Machine
  • Automatic Agrowaste Cum Biomass Briquette Making Machine
  • Automatic Biomass Briquette Machine
  • Agro Waste Biomass Briquetting Plant
  • Biomass Pellet Making Machine
  • Activated Carbon Making Plant
  • Biodiesel Plant
  • Fuel Ethanol Plant
  • Automatic Bioethanol Plant
  • Fully Automatic Fly Ash Brick Making Machine
  • Biomass Gasification Plant
  • Fluid Bed Gasifier for Thermal & Electrical
  • Acetic Acid Recovery Plant





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·         Uses & Applications


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Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


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  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR