Handbook on Production, Recycling of Lithium Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries (with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details & Plant Layout) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author P.K. Tripathi ISBN 9788195577507
Code ENI330 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 2995   2995 US$ 81   81
Pages: 544 Published 2022
Usually Ships within 5


Handbook on Production, Recycling of Lithium Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries

(with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details & Plant Layout)


India is one of the world's largest battery manufacturers. Furthermore, there is an increase in global demand for batteries, and Indian battery producers are preparing to satisfy this need. The Indian battery sector has grown by 25% year over year and is expected to increase even more in the future. Batteries, such as Sealed Maintenance Free (SMF), lead-acid, or lithium-ion batteries, now power virtually everything else on the world.

The global battery market was worth USD 108.4 billion and is predicted to increase at a CAGR of 14.1%. The increasing demand from the automotive application is responsible for the market's rise. Rechargeable batteries are utilised in non-rechargeable batteries and electric vehicles in the automobile industry. The rising global popularity of consumer electronics is expected to increase the use of lithium-ion batteries as a product category. Portable electronics, such as LCD displays, smartphones, tablets, and wearable devices like fitness bands, are in high demand, increasing market growth. Because of technical developments in terms of increased efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and product innovation, the market is predicted to rise significantly. Battery demand is likely to be driven by strict emission requirements imposed by government agencies in industrialized countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as an increasing focus on fuel efficiency.

The demand for lithium-ion batteries is predicted to increase by more than 500 percent in the future. Many predictions suggest that demand will outpace supply, virtually assuring a price increase. All of the businesses in this field have unique opportunities to invest in the future of energy storage and transportation.

The global lithium-ion battery market size was valued at USD 53.6 billion and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.0%. The market's expansion can be ascribed to the rising demand for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and grid storage, since they provide high-energy density and lightweight solutions. The market size is expected to grow due to an increase in the registration of electric vehicles.

The global lead–acid battery industry is growing significantly across the globe and it is likely to register a CAGR of 5.2% during the forecast period. Growing SLI applications in the automobile sector, increase in renewable energy output, and rising demand for energy storage devices are some of the causes driving up demand for lead–acid batteries. As the telecom industry expands in nations like the United States, Brazil, India, and the United Kingdom, there is a growing demand for UPS systems as a backup power source, resulting in a higher usage of lead–acid batteries as a cost-effective energy source.

The book covers a wide range of topics connected to Batteries, as well as their manufacturing processes. It also includes contact information for machinery suppliers, as well as images of equipments.

A complete guide on Production, Recycling of Lithium Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries manufacture and entrepreneurship. This book serves as a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about the Battery manufacturing industry, which is ripe with opportunity for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only book that covers Production, Recycling of Lithium Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries in depth. From concept through equipment procurement, it is a veritable feast of how-to information.



   1.   Introduction

        1.1.   Principles of Operation                                                 

        1.2.   Primary Batteries                                                         

                1.2.1.    Zinc–Manganese Dioxide Systems

                1.2.2.    Zinc–Mercuric Oxide Battery

                1.2.3.    Zinc–Silver Oxide Battery

                1.2.4.    Lithium Batteries

                1.2.5.    Air-Depolarized Batteries

                1.2.6.    Other Primary Battery Systems

                1.2.7.    Storage Batteries

                1.2.8.    Lead-Acid Batteries

                1.2.9.    Alkaline Storage Batteries

                1.2.10.  Lithium Storage Batteries                                      

        1.3.  Development of Batteries                                                

   2.   Battery Design and Function

        2.1.   Lithium Ion Battery Electrochemistry and Function             

                2.1.1. Anode and Cathode Material Consideration                   

                2.1.2. Cylindrical vs Prismatic Cell Design Tradeoffs

        2.2.   Battery Module Design Approach                                    

        2.3.   Safety Considerations                                                  

   3.   Industrial Battery Outlook

        3.1. The Lead-Acid Segment Expected to Dominate

                the Market                                                               

        3.2.  Asia-Pacific to Dominate the Industrial Battery Market         

   4.   Future Scope of Lithium Ion Batteries

        4.1.  Present Day Lithium Ion Batteries                           

        4.2.  Deficiencies of Present Lithium Ion Batteries and

                Likely Improvements                                               

        4.3.  Li-Ion Batteries are Amazing Energy Storage Devices         

        4.4.  The Future of Li-Ion Energy Storage                       

        4.5.  A Finite Resource                                                    

        4.6.  Early Li-Ion Battery Development                            


5. Future of Lithium-Ion Batteries

        and Electrification

        5.1. Major Trends

        5.2.  Technological Trends                                             

        5.3.  Future Trends in Battery Technology                      

        5.4.  Conclusion                                                             

   6.   Lithium Ion Battery

        6.1. General Characteristics

        6.2.  Advantages                                                             

        6.3.  Classification                                                          

        6.4.  Chemistry                                                               

                6.4.1. Lithium                                                           

                6.4.2. Cathode Materials                                            

                6.4.3. Electrolytes                                                     

                6.4.4. Cells Couples and Reaction Mechanisms          

        6.5.  Characteristics of Lithium Primary Batteries           

                6.5.1. Summary of Design and

                        Performance Characteristics                              

                6.5.2. Soluble-Cathode Lithium Primary Batteries        

                6.5.3. Solid-Cathode Lithium Primary Cells                  

        6.6.  Safety and Handling of Lithium Batteries                

                6.61. Factors Affecting Safety and Handling                

        6.7.  Safety Considerations                                             

        6.8.  Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide (LI/SO2) Batteries                 

                6.8.1. Chemistry                                                       

                6.8.2. Construction                                                    

                6.8.3. Performance                                                   

        6.9.  Cell and Battery Types and Sizes                            

        6.10.Use and Handling of Li/SO2 Cells and Batteries–

                Safety Considerations                                             

        6.11. Applications                                                            

        6.12. Lithium/Thionyl Chloride (Li/SOCl2) Batteries          

                6.12.1. Chemistry                                                     

                6.12.2. Bobbin-Type Cylindrical Batteries                    


                6.12.4. Li/SOCl2 Cells, Flat or Disk-Type                     

   7.   Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

        7.1.    Personal Transportation Applications                              

        7.2.   Automotive Applications                                               

        7.3.    Microhybrid Electric Vehicles                                         

        7.4.    Hybrid Electric Vehicles                                                

        7.5.    PHEVs and EREVs                                                      

        7.6.    Battery Electric Vehicles                                                

        7.7.    Fuel Cell EVs                                                             

        7.8.    Bus and Public Transportation                                       

        7.9.    HD Truck Applications                                                  

        7.10.  Industrial Applications                                                  

        7.11. Robotics and Autonomous Applications                          

        7.12.  Marine and Maritime Applications                                    

        7.13.  Grid and Stationary Applications                                    

        7.14.  Bulk Energy Storage                                                    

        7.15.  Ancillary Services                                                        

        7.16. Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure Services          

        7.17. Customer Energy Management Services                           

        7.18. Community Energy Storage                                           

        7.19. Aerospace Applications                                          

   8.   Lithium Battery Manufacturing

        8.1   Electrode Coating                                                   

        8.2.  Cell Assembly                                                         

                8.2.1. Prismatic Cells                                                

                8.2.2. Cylindrical Cells                                               

        8.3.  Formation                                                               

        8.4.  Process Control                                                      

        8.5.  Support Services                                                    

        8.6.  Lithium ion Battery Pack Assembly Line Making Machine              

                8.6.1. Battery Cell Tester                                           

                8.6.2. Auto Paper Pasting Machine                            

                8.6.3. Auto Sorting Machine                                       

                8.6.4. Spot Welding Machine                                     

                8.6.5. Integrated Tester                                             

                8.6.6. Charging Discharging Aging Machine                 

   9.   Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

        9.1.  Repairing and Remanufacturing                              

        9.2. Refurbishing, Repurposing, and Second Life          

        9.3. Second Life Partnerships                                        

        9.4. Recycling                                                                

        9.5. Manufacturing Process                                           

        9.6. Manufacturing Equipments                                     

                9.6.1. Filter Press–Removal of the Black Mass           

                9.6.2. Filter Press–Removal of the Lithium Carbonate  

                9.6.3. Features                                                         

        9.7. Evaporation and Heated Tank System                     

        9.8.  Clarifier                                                                   

                9.8.1 Features                                                          

        9.9.    Sludge Dryer                                                             

                9.9.1. Features and Benefits                                      

        9.10. Thermal Evaporators                                               

                9.10.1. Benefits of Evaporators                                  

        9.11. Reverse Osmosis (RO)                                            

                9.11.1. Applications                                                  

        9.12. Ultrafiltration                                                          

                9.12.1. Attributes                                                      

        9.13. Atmospheric Evaporators

  10.   Aluminium–Air Battery

        10.1. Electrochemistry                                                     

        10.2. Materials and Methods                                            

                10.2.1. Materials                                                       

                10.2.2. Hydrogen Evolution and Half-Cell Test             

                10.2.3. Full-Cell Test                                                 

        10.3. Results and Discussion                                           

        10.4. Aluminium-Air Battery: Discovery, Commercial Alloys and State of The Art

        10.5. Discovery and Production                                       

        10.6.Commercial Aluminium Alloys                                

  11.   Alkaline Battery

        11.1. Electro-Chemical Description                                 

        11.2. Temperature Effects on Performance                      

        11.3. Voltage and Capacity                                              

        11.4. Discharge Types                                                    

        11.5. Shelf Life                                                               

        11.6. The Shelf Life is influenced by Temperature,

                 Humidity and Internal Construction                        

        11.7. Testing / Care / Warnings                                       

                11.7.1. Testing

                11.7.2. Warnings

        11.8.   Current                                                                  

        11.9.  Construction                                                          

        11.10. Recharging of Alkaline Batteries                           

                  11.10.1. Leaks                                                            

                  11.10.2. Disposal                                                        

                  11.10.3. Alkaline Battery Recycling Industry                        

        11.11.  How are Batteries Made?

  12.   Metal-Air Battery

        12.1. Anodes for Metal-Air Batteries                                

                12.1.1 Lithium                                                           

                12.1.2. Magnesium                                                   

                12.1.3. Iron                                                               

                12.1.4. Zinc                                                              

        12.2. Cathodes for Metal-Air Batteries                             

        12.3. Catalyst for Air Cathodes                                        

  13.   Lead-Acid Batteries

        13.1. Introduction                                                            

        13.2. Lead Batteries in Applications                                

                13.2.1. Types of Lead-Acid Batteries                          

                13.2.2. Typical Commercially Available Battery Units   

                13.2.3. Use Pattern of Lead-Acid Batteries                  

                13.2.4. Charge–Discharge Procedures of

                           Lead-Acid Batteries                                       

        13.3. Non automobile Applications of Lead-Acid  Batteries          

                13.3.1. Stationary Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries 

                13.3.2. Standby Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries    

                13.3.3. Backup Power Applications of

                           Lead-Acid Batteries                                       

        13.4. Automobile Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries      

                13.4.1. Automobile Starting-Lighting-Ignition Applications         

                13.4.2. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

                          of Lead-Acid Batteries                                     

  14.   Lead-Acid Batteries Fundamentals,

        Technologies, and Applications

        14.1  Introduction                                                            

        14.2  Materials and Properties                                         

                14.2.1. Porosity, Pore Size, and Pore Shape               

                14.2.2. Ionic Resistance                                            

                14.2.3. Electrochemical Compatibility                         

                14.2.4. Acidic and Oxidation Stability                         

                14.2.5. Puncture Resistance                                      

                14.2.6. Surface Area                                                 

        14.3. Separator Synthesis                                                

                14.3.1. Polyethylene Separator                                  

                14.3.2. Absorptive Glass Mat Separator                      

                14.3.3. Separator                                                      

                14.3.4. Rubber Separators                                         

        14.4. Separator Structure Design and Fabrication            

                14.4.1. Positive Ribs                                                 

                14.4.2. Negative Ribs                                                

                14.4.3. Embossed/Corrugated                                    

                14.4.4. Compression/Resiliency                                 

                14.4.5. Fabrication                                                    

        14.5. Effects of Material Composition, Morphology, and

                 Synthesis Conditions on Battery Performance       

                14.5.1. Antimony Poisoning and Water Loss               

                14.5.2. Low Electrical Resistance                               

        14.6. Effect of Battery Operating Conditions on

                Separator Performance                                           

                14.6.1. Basic Condition/Extreme Shrinkage                 

                14.6.2. Hydration Shorts                                            

                14.6.3. Extreme Oxidation                                         

        14.7. Technical Challenges, Mitigation Strategies,

                and Perspectives                                                     

                14.7.1. High-Power Starter Batteries                           

                14.7.2. Deep-Cycle Batteries                                     

  15.   Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing


        15.1 Casting in a Grid                                                     

                15.1.1 Grid Caster                                                    

                15.1.2.Strip Expansion Grid                                       

                15.1.3 Continuous Grid Caster                                   

        15.2. Production of Lead Oxide                                       

                15.2.1. Barton Pot Process                                        

                15.2.2. Ball Mill process                                            

        15.3. Paste Mixing                                                          

                15.3.1. Batch Paste Mixer                                         

        15.4. Pasting                                                                   

        15.5. Curing                                                                    

        15.6. Formation                                                              

                15.6.1. Formation of Positive Plates                           

                15.6.2. Formation of Negative Plates                          

                15.6.3. Tank Formation                                             

                15.6.4. Case Formation                                             

        15.7. Battery Assembly                                                    

                15.7.1.Group Stacking                                               

                15.7.2. Alignment                                                      

                15.7.3. Group Burning                                               

                15.7.4. Group Alignment                                            

        15.8. Group Insertion                                                      

                15.8.1. Inspection and Terminal Alignment                  

                15.8.2. Short Circuit Testing                                      

                15.8.3. Intercell Welding                                            

                15.8.4. Shear Testing                                                

                15.8.5. Case Cover Sealing                                       

                15.8.6. Leak Testing                                                 

                15.8.7. Terminal (Post) Burning                                  

                15.8.8. Aluminum Foil Sealing                                    

                15.8.9. Acid Filling                                                    

                15.8.10. Packing                                                       

                15.8.11. Quality Assurance and Control                      

  16.   Recycling of Lead-Acid Battery

        16.1. Battery Breaking                                                     

                16.1.1. Historical Background of Battery Breaking       

                16.1.2. Modern Battery Breaking Process                   

                16.1.3. Battery Breaking: Potential Sources of

                          Environmental Contamination                          

        16.2. Lead Reduction                                                      

                16.2.1. Pyrometallurgical Methods                              

                16.2.2. Hydrometallurgical Methods                             

                16.2.3. Lead Reduction: Potential Sources

                          of Environmental Contamination                       

        16.3. Lead Refining                                                         

                16.3.1 Pyrometallurgical Refining                               

                16.3.2 Lead Refining: Potential Sources of

                          Environmental Contamination                          

        16.4. Lead Battery Recycling Plant                                   

                16.4.1. Scope                                                           

        16.5 Manufacturing Equipment:                                      

                16.5.1. Battery Cutting Machines / Battery Breakers    

                16.5.2. Rotary Furnace                                              

                16.5.3. Pollution Control Plant                                    

                16.5.4. Refining and Alloying Pots                              

                16.5.5. Ingoting Systems                                          

  17.   Zinc-carbon battery

        17.1. General Characteristics                                           

        17.2. Chemistry                                                               

        17.3. Types of Cells and Batteries                                    

                17.3.1. Leclanche´ Batteries                                      

                17.3.2. Zinc Chloride Batteries                                        

        17.4. Construction                                                           

                17.4.1. Cylindrical Configuration                                 

                17.4.2. Inside Out Cylindrical Construction                  

                17.4.3. Flat Cell and Battery                                      

                17.4.4 Special Designs                                              

        17.5. Cell Components                                                    

                17.5.1. Zinc                                                              

                17.5.2. Bobbin                                                          

                17.5.3. Manganese Dioxide (MnO2)                             

                17.5.4. Carbon Black                                                 

                17.5.5. Electrolyte                                                     

                17.5.6. Corrosion Inhibitor                                          

                17.5.7. Carbon Rod                                                   

                17.5.8. Separator                                                      

                17.5.9. Seal                                                              


                17.5.11. Electrical Contacts                                       

        17.6. Performance Characteristics                                   

                17.6.1. Voltage                                                         

                17.6.2. Discharge Characteristics                               

                17.6.3. Effect of Intermittent Discharge                       

                17.6.4. Comparative Discharge Curves—Size Effect

                           Upon Heavy Duty Zinc-chloride Batteries         

                17.6.5. Comparative Discharge Curves—Different

                           Battery Grades                                              

                17.6.6. Internal Resistance                                        

                17.6.7. Effect of Temperature                                    

                17.6.8. Service Life                                                   

                17.6.9. Shelf-Life                                                      

        17.7. Special Designs                                                     

                17.7.1. Flat-Pack Zinc/Manganese Dioxide P-80 Battery           

        17.8. Battery Parameters                                                 

        17.9. Types and Sizes of Available Cells and Batteries    

  18.   Environmental Issues for Batteries

        18.1. Lifecycle Analysis (LCA)                                         

        18.2. Material Issues                                                       

                18.2.1. Resource Availability                                      

        18.3. Environmental Impacts                                          

                18.3.1. Electrode Materials                                              

                18.3.2. Electrolyte Risks                                                

                18.3.3. Binders                                                            

        18.4. Material Issues: Going Forwards                            

                18.4.1. Energy Density                                              

                18.4.2. Alternative Materials                                      

                18.4.3. Non-Fluorinated Binders                                 

                18.4.4. Cobalt Substitution                                         

        18.5. Energy Issues: Production and Charging               

                18.5.1. Source Of Energy for Production                     

                18.5.2. Roundtrip Efficiency                                       

        18.6. Lifespan                                                                 

        18.7. End-of-Life (EoL) treatment                                     

                18.7.1. Recycling                                                      

                18.7.2. Re-Use                                                         

                18.7.3. Design for Recycling and Re-Use                    

  19.   International Standards and

        Testing Applicable to Batteries

Standards and Safety Testing Organisations        

General Battery Standards      

Lithium Battery Standards       

Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Standards  

Nickel Cadmium Battery Standards        

Lead Acid Battery Standards    

Photovoltaic Battery Standards 

Safety Standards      

Automotive Battery Standards  

Aircraft Battery Standards       

Military Standards for Batteries, Software,

     EMC/RFI, Safety & Quality 

Radio Battery Standards         

Standby Power Systems Standards       

Software Standards   

EMC/RFI Standards  

Ingress Protection (IP) Standards          

Battery Monitoring Standards   

Battery Recycling and Disposal Standards           

Other Related Electrical Standards        

Quality Standards     

  20.   BIS Specifications

  21.   Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart

        & Diagram

  22.   Automated Manufacturing Equipment

        22.1. Equipment Specifications                                      

        22.2. Kaido Winder                                                         

        22.3. Hibar Equipment                                                    

                22.3.1. Module 1: Bottom Tab Welding System                      

                22.3.2. Module 2: Beading/Grooving System                         

                22.3.3. Module 3: Sealant Dispensing System                       

                22.3.4. Module 4: Electrolyte Filling System                         

                22.3.5. Module 5: Top Tab Welding and Taping System            

                22.3.6. Module 6: Final Crimping System                             

        22.4. Formation and Test Equipment                              

        22.5.  Machine Vision Approach and Implementation                   

                22.5.1. Part Serial Number / Bar Code Tracking           

        22.6. Manufacturing Equipment Installation                               

        22.7. Operator Training                                                         

        22.8. Manufacturing Equipment Validation                                

                22.8.1. Kaido Winder Validation                                      

                22.8.2. Hibar Resistance Welding Module Validation             

                22.8.3. Hibar Beading Module Validation                            

                22.8.4. Hibar Sealant Dispensing Module Validation              

                22.8.5. Hibar Electrolyte Filling Module Validation                

                22.8.6. Hibar Electrolyte Filling System Performance Validation

                22.8.7. Hibar Top Tab Welding and Taping Module Validation  

                22.8.8. Hibar Crimping System Validation                          

  23.   Photographs of PLANT & Machinery with

        Supplier's Contact Details

Lead Battery Recycling Plant   

Battery Automatic Plate Pasting Machine

Lead Battery Recycling Plant   

Lithium Ion Battery Machine     

Lithium Ion Battery Tester       

Vacuum Oven         

Vacuum Drying Oven for Lithium Ion Battery         

Planetary Mixer Vacuum Jacketed         

Battery Inter-cell Welding Machine         

Automatic Battery Assembling Plant      

Battery Breaking and Separation Ds Systems       

Electrode Coating Machine      

Battery Plate Enveloping Machine         

Lead Battery Breaking Plant    

Battery Cutting Machine         

Battery Cell Spot Welding Machine        

Semi-Auto Grooving Machine for Cylindrical Cell   

Battery Heat Sealing Machine  

Battery Laser Welding Machine 

Electric Battery Lead Melting Furnace     



NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
  • Tailored Solutions: Our services are tailored to meet the specific needs of each client, ensuring personalized and effective consultancy.

Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.