Solar PV Power and Solar Products Handbook ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Ajay Kumar Gupta ISBN 9788195577590
Code NI331 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 2275   2275 US$ 61   61
Pages: 384 Published Niir Project Consultancy Services
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5


Solar PV Power and Solar Products Handbook

(Solar Energy, Solar Lighting, Solar Power Plant, Solar Panel, Solar Pump, Solar Photovoltaic Cell, Solar Inverter, Solar Thermal Power Plant, Solar Farm, Solar Cell Modules with Manufacturing Process, Equipment Details, Plant Layout & Process Flow Chart)


Solar energy is expanding worldwide and becoming an increasingly important part of the energy mix in many countries. Solar energy is used all over the world, but in terms of total installed solar capacity, India, China, Japan, and the United States are now top of the world. Solar panels can create power almost anywhere on the planet. However, some regions receive more sunshine than others and hence have a greater solar energy potential. It is based on insolation, which is a measurement of how much solar radiation reaches a specific area on the earth's surface.

Solar energy can be captured in a variety of ways. Photovoltaic solar panels are the most frequent method. Photovoltaic (PV) devices use semiconductors to generate power directly from sunlight. Photons impact and ionize semiconductor material on the solar panel as the silicon photovoltaic solar cell absorbs solar energy, causing electrons to break free of their atomic bonds. A flow of electrical current is created when electrons are compelled to move in one direction. Only a portion of the light spectrum is absorbed, while the rest is reflected, too faint (infrared), or generates heat rather than electricity (ultraviolet). Concentrated solar power is the second type of solar energy technology (CSP). Solar thermal energy is used in CSP facilities to create steam, which is subsequently turned into electricity via a turbine.

The global solar energy installed capacity is estimated to reach 1,645 gigawatts (GW), registering a CAGR is 13.78%. The growth of the solar energy market is driven by an increase in environmental pollution and the provision of government incentives & tax rebates to install solar panels. In addition, a decrease in water footprint associated with solar energy systems has fueled their demand in power generation sectors. The demand for solar cells has gained major traction owing to a surge in rooftop installations, followed by an increase in applications in the architectural sector. Furthermore, the demand for parabolic troughs and solar power towers in electricity generation is expected to boost the demand for concentrated solar power systems.

Only the two commonly recognized kinds of technology for converting solar energy into electricity — photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP, also known as solar thermal) — are considered in their current and possible future forms in The Future of Solar Energy.

  • Expanding the solar sector considerably from its current small size may result in developments that no one can predict right now. Solar deployment in the future will be highly influenced by uncertain future market conditions and public policies, including but not limited to measures aimed at mitigating global climate change.

The book covers a wide range of topics connected to Solar, as well as their manufacturing processes. It also includes contact information for machinery suppliers, as well as images of equipment.

A complete guide on Solar PV Power and Solar Products manufacture and entrepreneurship. This book serves as a one-stop-shop for everything you need to know about the Solar, which is ripe with opportunities for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only book that covers Solar PV Power and Solar Products in depth. From concept through equipment procurement, it is a veritable feast of how-to information.



1.    Introduction

        1.1        Photovoltaics Basics

                     1.1.1       Solar Photovoltaic Technology

                     1.1.2       PV Cells

                     1.1.3       Solar Photovoltaic System Design

                     1.1.4       Solar Performance and Efficiency

        1.2        Concentrating Solar-Thermal Power Basics

        1.3        The Future of Solar

2.    Process to Start a Solar Energy Business

        2.1        Creating a Business Plan

        2.2        Market Research

        2.3        Legalising Business

        2.4        Acquainted with Government’s Electricity Department

        2.5        Finalizing Location

        2.6        Financial Actions

        2.7        Hiring Workers

3.    Solar Energy

        3.1        Potential

        3.2        Thermal Energy

                     Water Heating

                     Heating, Cooling and Ventilation


                     Process Heat

                     Water Treatment

                     Molten Salt Technology

        3.3        Electricity Generation


                     Concentrated Solar Power

        3.4        Other Applications

        3.5        Architecture and Urban Planning

        3.6        Agriculture and Horticulture

        3.7        Transport

        3.8        Fuel Production

        3.9        Energy Storage Methods

        3.10     Development, Deployment and Economics

4.    Photovoltaic Systems

        4.1        Functioning of the Photovoltaic Cells

        4.2        Types of Solar Photovoltaic Cells

                     4.2.1       Amorphous Silicon (a Si)

                     4.2.2       Cadmium Tellurium (CdTe)

                     4.2.3       Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIS, CIGS)

                     4.2.4       Thermo Sensitive Solar Cells and Other Organ Cells (DSC)               

                     4.2.5       Energy Depreciation of Photovoltaic Cells

                     4.2.6       Photovoltaic System Types

        4.3        Network Connected Solar Power Plants (Farms)

        4.4        Standalone Systems (Off Grid) or Isolated Systems

        4.5        Hybrid Systems

        4.6        Independent Systems for Economic Purposes

        4.7        Solar Radiation

        4.8        Legislative and Institutional Framework for Producing
of Electric Energy from RES

        4.9        New Solar Photovoltaic Panel Technologies and Development Possibilities

                     4.9.1       Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

                     4.9.2       Carbon Nanotube (CNT)

5.    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Components

        5.1        Introduction

        5.2        Matching Module to Load

        5.3        Solar Module

        5.4        Solar Array

        5.5        Combiner Box

        5.6        PV Disconnect

        5.7        Charge Controller

        5.8        Battery

        5.9        Battery Banks

        5.10     Inverters

        5.11     AC Disconnect Switch

        5.12     AC Breaker Panel

        5.13     System Metering

        5.14     Conclusion

6.    Design and Sizing of Solar Photovotaic Systems

        6.1        Benefits

7.    Solar Lighting Scenario

8.    Solar Power Plant

        8.1        Photo Voltaic (PV) Principle

        8.2        Benefits

        8.3        Components of Solar Power Plant

                     8.3.1       Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

                     8.3.2       Inverter

                     8.3.3       Energy Storage Devices

                     8.3.4       Charge Controller

                     8.3.5       System Balancing Component

                     8.3.6       Blocking Diode

                     8.3.7       Voltage Regulator

                     8.3.8       Performance of Solar Cell

        8.4        Solar Cell Efficiency

        8.5        Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Solar Cells

                     8.5.1       Temperature

                     8.5.2       Sun Intensity

                     8.5.3       Solar Shading

                     8.5.4       Reflection

        8.6        Types of Solar Power Plant

        8.7        Direct-Coupled Standalone System

        8.8        Standalone System with Battery Storage

        8.9        Standalone System with Battery and Charge

        8.10     Standalone System with AC and DC Loads

        8.11     Hybrid Standalone System

        8.12     Grid-Connected System

        8.13     Classification of Solar Power Plants (PV Power

        8.14     Advantages

        8.15     Disadvantages

        8.16     How Solar Power Plant Works?

        8.17     Working of Photovoltaic Plant

                     8.17.1     Parabolic Troughs

                     8.17.2     Solar Power Tower

                     8.17.3     Solar Pond

                     8.17.4     Efficiency of Solar Power Plant

9.    Solar Panel

        9.1        Theory and Construction

                     9.1.1       Arrays of PV Modules

                     9.1.2       Smart Solar Modules

                     9.1.3       Module Interconnection

                     9.1.4       Concentrator

                     9.1.5       Mounting and Tracking

                     9.1.6       Tracking

                     9.1.7       Inverters

                     9.1.8       Connectors

        9.2        Efficiency

                     9.2.1       Radiation-Dependent Efficiency

                     9.2.2       Aluminum Nanocylinders

        9.3        Technology

                     9.3.1       Thin Film

        9.4        Performance and Degradation

        9.5        Maintenance

        9.6        Waste and Recycling

        9.7        Production

        9.8        Applications

        9.9        Limitations

                     9.9.1       Impact on Electricity Network

                     9.9.2       Implication onto Electricity Bill Management and
Energy Investment

        9.10     How do Solar Panels Work

        9.11     Benefits

        9.12     Types

        9.13     First Generation Solar Panels

                     9.13.1     Monocrystalline Solar Panels (Mono-SI)

                     9.13.2     Polycrystalline Solar Panels (Poly-SI)

        9.14     Second Generation Solar Panels

                     9.14.1     Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell (A-Si)

                     9.14.2     Thin-Film Solar Cells (TFSC)

        9.15     Third Generation Solar Cells

                     9.15.1     Biohybrid Solar Cell

                     9.15.2     Concentrated PV Cell (CVP and HCVP)

                     9.15.3     Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell (CdTe)

        9.16     Advantages

        9.17     Disadvantages

        9.18     What are Solar Panels Made of?

        9.19     Solar Panel Production

        9.20     Equipments

                     9.20.1     Stringer Machine

                     9.20.2     Automatic Station with Conveyor Belts for Manual Bussing or Automatic Bussing Machine

                     9.20.3     Electroluminescence Test

                     9.20.4     Laminator with Buffers

                     9.20.5     Automatic Framing Machine

                     9.20.6     Automatic Silicone Dispenser

                     9.20.7     Eva and Back sheet Cutting Machine

                     9.20.8     Solar Simulator

        9.21     Accessories

                     9.21.1     Ribbon Cutting Machine

                     9.21.2     String Reparation Table

                     9.21.3     Light and Inspection Mirror Tables

                     9.21.4     Support and Transport Tables

10.  Solar Pump

        10.1     Introduction

        10.2     Advantages of Solar Pump

        10.3     System Types and Configurations

        10.4     How the Electric Pump is Powered?

        10.5     Type of Water Pump Systems

                     10.5.1     Borehole/Well Pump (Submersible Pump)

                     10.5.2     Surface Pump

                     10.5.3     Floating  Pump

        10.6     Types of Pumps

                     10.6.1     Roto-Dynamic

                     10.6.2     Positive Displacement

        10.7     Designing and Selecting a Solar Water Pumping System-Summary

        10.8     Determine Where the Solar Array will be Located

        10.9     Determine Where the Pump will be Located

                     10.9.1     Location of Borehole or Well Pump

                     10.9.2     Location of Surface Pump

        10.10   Determining Length of Cables Required

        10.11   Determine Where and How the Water will be Stored

        10.12   Measure the Static Head for the Site

                     10.12.1   Calculating Static Head- Borehole/Well Pump

                     10.12.2   Calculating Static Head-Surface Pump

        10.13   Measure the Distance Between Water Source and the Location where Water is Pumped

                     10.13.1   Borehole/Well Pump

                     10.13.2   Surface Pump for the Surface Pump there will be
Two Water Pipes

        10.14   Benefits of Solar Pump

        10.15   Solar Pump Advantages

        10.16   Solar Pump Disadvantages

        10.17   Technologies in Solar Water Pump

                     10.17.1   On-Grid Solar Pump

                     10.17.2   Hybrid Solar Pump

                     10.17.3   Solar Pump VFD Drive

        10.18   Components of a Solar PV Water Pumping System

                     10.18.1   Solar Array

                     10.18.2   Pump Controller

        10.19   Locating and Mounting the Controller

                     10.19.1   Electric Motor

        10.20   Installation of Solar PV Water Pumping System

                     10.20.1   Solar PV Array Installation

                     10.20.2   Controller Installation

                     10.20.3   Motor and Pump Installation

11.  Solar Cell

        11.1     Solar Cell Structure and Operation

        11.2     Uses

                     11.2.1     Space

                     11.2.2     Solar Powered Vehicles

        11.3     Applications

                     11.3.1     Cells, Modules, Panels and Systems

        11.4     Subsidies and Grid Parity

        11.5     Theory

        11.6     Efficiency

        11.7     Materials

                     11.7.1     Crystalline Silicon

                     11.7.2     Thin Film

                     11.7.3     Multijunction Cells

        11.8     Research in Solar Cells

                     11.8.1     Perovskite Solar Cells

                     11.8.2     Bifacial Solar Cells

                     11.8.3     Intermediate Band

                     11.8.4     Liquid Inks

                     11.8.5     Upconversion and Downconversion

                     11.8.6     Light-Absorbing Dyes

                     11.8.7     Quantum Dots

                     11.8.8     Organic/Polymer Solar Cells

                     11.8.9     Adaptive Cells

                     11.8.10   Surface Texturing

                     11.8.11   Encapsulation

                     11.8.12   Autonomous Maintenance

        11.9     Manufacture

        11.10   Recycling

        11.11   How a Solar Cell Works

12.  Solar PV Cell Construction

        12.1     How Are Silicon PV Cells Made?

        12.2     Basic Steps to Produce Monocrystalline PV Cells

        12.3     P-Type Vs N-Type Solar Cells

        12.4     P-Type Solar Cells

        12.5     N-Type Solar Cells

                     12.5.1     Advantages of N-Type

        12.6     Cost Vs Efficiency

        12.7     Heterojunction Solar Cells

        12.8     N-Type TOPCon Solar Cells

13.  Solar Inverters

        13.1     Classification

        13.2     Maximum Power Point Tracking

        13.3     Solar Micro-Inverters

        13.4     Grid Tied Solar Inverters

        13.5     Solar Pumping Inverters

        13.6     Types of Solar Inverter

        13.7     Advantage

        13.8     Working of Solar Inverter

        13.9     Solar Inverter Design

        13.10   Solar Inverter Circuit Diagram

        13.11   Solar Inverter Advantages

        13.12   Solar Inverter Disadvantages

        13.13   How is it Beneficial?

14.  Solar Thermal Power Plant

        14.1     How to Work

        14.2     Adavntages

        14.3     Disadvantages

        14.4     Types of Plants

                     14.4.1     Parabolic Troughs

                     14.4.2     Parabolic Dishes

                     14.4.3     Solar Towers

        14.5     Benefits and Drawbacks

        14.6     Details of Field Installations

                     14.6.1     Solar Fields

                     14.6.2     Heat Exchanger

                     14.6.3     Power Block

                     14.6.4     Weather Station

        14.7     Civil Structures and Other Supporting Infrastructure

                     14.7.1     Piping and Other Supporting Installations

        14.8     Testing Facility

15.  Solar Charge Controller

        15.1     Features

        15.2     Characteristics

        15.3     Naming Rules of Controller Models

        15.4     Applications

                     15.4.1     PWM Solar Charge Controller

                     15.4.2     MPPT Solar Charge Controller

        15.5     Types of Charge Controller

        15.6     Proposed System

        15.7     Maximum Power Point Tracking Technology

        15.8     Development of Controller

        15.9     Simulink Model and Results

        15.10   Battery Charging Stage

                     15.10.1   Bulk Charging

                     15.10.2   Constant Charging

                     15.10.3   Float Charging

        15.11   Maximum Power Tracking Solar Charge Controller
Using Microcontroller

        15.12   Microcontroller based Maximum Power Tracking
Solar Charge Controller

                     15.12.1   Solar Panel

                     15.12.2   Sensors

                     15.12.3   DC-to-DC Converter

                     15.12.4   Microcontroller

                     15.12.5   Battery

                     15.12.6   Inverter

                     15.12.7   RS485 Interface

        15.13   Working of a Maximum Power Tracking Solar Charge Controller

16.  Solar LED Street Light

        16.1     Basic Components

        16.2     Operation Principle

        16.3     Applications

        16.4     The Main Concept of the New System

        16.5     System Prototype

        16.6     Battery Discharge Controller Design

                     16.6.1     Hardware Design

                                    •  Power Supply Circuit

                                    •  Voltage Scaling Circuit

                                    •  LDR Sensor Circuit

                                    •  Microcontroller Unit

                                    •  LED Driving Circuit by PWM

                     16.6.2     Controller Software

17.  Start a Solar Farm Business

        17.1     STEP 1: Plan the Business

                     17.1.1     What are the Costs Involved in Opening a Solar
Farm Business?

                     17.1.2     What are the Ongoing Expenses for a Solar Farm Business?

                     17.1.3     Who is the Target Market?

                     17.1.4     How does a Solar Farm Business Make Money?

                     17.1.5     How Much can Charge Customers?

                     17.1.6     How Much Profit can a Solar Farm Business

                     17.1.7     How can Make the Business more Profitable?

                     17.1.8     What will Name the Business?

        17.2     STEP 2: Form a Legal Entity

                     17.2.1     What is an LLC?

        17.3     STEP 3: Open a Business Bank Account

                     17.3.1     Open a Business Bank Account

        17.4     STEP 4: Obtain Necessary Permits and Licenses

        17.5     STEP 5: Get Business Insurance

        17.6     STEP 6: Define Brand

                     17.6.1     How to Promote & Market a Solar Farm Business

                     17.6.2     How to Keep Customers Coming Back

        17.7     STEP 7: Create Business Website

                     17.7.1     Here are the Main Reasons Why Shouldn’t Delay Building r Website

        17.8     Step 8: Set Up Business Phone System

18.  Solar Farms

        18.1     Introduction

        18.2     Types of Solar Farms: Community Solar and Utility-
Scale Solar

                     18.2.1     Community Solar Farms

                     18.2.2     Utility-Scale Solar Farms

        18.3     Benefits

        18.4     How do Solar Panels and Solar Farms Work?

        18.5     How Much Does a Solar Farm Cost?

        18.6     What is the Largest Solar Farm in the World?

        18.7     How Much Energy can a Solar Farm Produce?

        18.8     Advantages

                     18.8.1     Environment-Friendly

                     18.8.2     Low-Maintenance

                     18.8.3     Quiet

                     18.8.4     Sustainable

        18.9     Disadvantages of a Solar Farm

                     18.9.1     Costly Storage

                     18.9.2     Irregular Availability

                     18.9.3     Require Rare Materials

        18.10   What Else Happens in a Solar Farm?

        18.11   Building a Solar Farm: How does it Work?

                     8.11.1     How many Acres do I Need for this Size of a Power Plant?

                     18.11.2   How will Electrical Connection Work?

                     18.11.3   How will I Clean and Maintain the Plant?

                     18.11.4   How Many Solar Panels will I Need?

                     18.11.5   What’s a Good Price for My Solar Installation?

19.  Manufacturing Process of Solar Cell Modules

20.  BIS Specifications

21.  Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart & Diagrams

22.  Solar Products

        •  Solar Flat Plate Water Heater

        •  Solar Water Heater

        •  Solar Geyser

        •  Solar PCU

        •  Solar Inverter

        •  Solar Inverter Set

        •  Electrower PCU

        •  Solar Inverter

        •  Solar Home PCU

        •  Solar Charge Controller

        •  Solar Inverter Battery

23.  Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details

        •  Solar PV Laminator Machine

        •  Solar Panel Production Machine

        •  Solar Tabber and Stringer Machine

        •  Solar Cell Laser Scribing Machine

        •  Solar Cell Film Production Line

        •  Solar Cell Test Machine

        •  Solar Block Ice Machine

        •  Solar Framing Machine

        •  Solar Frame Punching Machine

        •  Solar Structure Machine

        •  EVA/Backsheet Cutting Machine

        •  Solar Cells Fiber Laser Scribing Machine

        •  Solar Cells Laser Cutting Machine

        •  Soldering Ribbon Cutting Machine

        •  Solar Module El Tester

        •  Solar Lay Up Table





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                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR