Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook (Synthesis, Epoxy Resin Adhesives, Epoxy Coatings) with Manufacturing Process and Machinery Equipment Details ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. Himadri Panda ISBN 9788195370153
Code ei346 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 2275   2275 US$ 58   58
Pages: 592 Published 2022
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5



Epoxy is a term used to denote both the basic components and the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resin are a class of thermoset materials used extensively in structural and specialty composite applications because they offer a unique combination of properties that are unattainable with other thermoset resins.

Epoxies are monomers or prepolymers that further reacts with curing agents to yield high performance thermosetting plastics. They have gained wide acceptance in protecting coatings, electrical and structural applications because of their exceptional combination of properties such as toughness, adhesion, chemical resistance and superior electrical properties. Epoxy resins are characterized by the presence of a three membered cycle ether group commonly referred to as an epoxy group 1, 2-epoxide, or oxirane. The most widely used epoxy resins are diglycidyl ethers of biphenyl-A derived from biphenyl-A and epichlorohydrin.

The market of epoxy resins are growing day by day. Today the total business of this product is more than 100 crores. Epoxy resins are used for about 75% of wind blades currently produced worldwide, while polyester resins account for the remaining 25%. A standard 1.5-MW (megawatt) wind turbine has approximately 10 tonnes of epoxy in its blades. Traditionally, the markets for epoxy resins have been driven by demand generated primarily in areas of adhesives, building and civil construction, electrical insulation, printed circuit boards, and protective coatings for consumer durables, amongst others.

The major contents of the book are synthesis and characteristics of epoxy resin, manufacture of epoxy resins, epoxide curing reactions, the dynamic mechanical properties of epoxy resins, physical and chemical properties of epoxy resins, epoxy resin adhesives, epoxy resin coatings, epoxy coating give into water, electrical and electronic applications, analysis of epoxides and epoxy resins and the toxicology of epoxy resins and photographs of machinery with suppliers contact details.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today’s most epoxy resin industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the epoxy resin industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of epoxy resin product. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.



Table of Contents


1. Synthesis and Characteristics of Epoxy Resin                     


        Structure of Epoxides

        Epoxipation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

        Catalytic Oxidation of Ethylene and Higher Olefins

        Epoxidation by Peroxy Acids and Their Esters

        Preparation of Peroxy Acids

        In Situ Epoxidation

        The Epoxidation Mechanism

        Unsaturated Materials

        Epoxidation by Inorganic Peroxy Acids

        Epoxidation with Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Hydroperoxides

        Epoxidation with Chromic Acid and Chromyl Compounds

        Biological Epoxidation

        Dehydrohalogenation of Substituted Hydroxyl Compounds

        The Epoxidation Mechanism

        Halohydrin Formation

        Epoxides from Epichlorohydrin

        Glycidyl Ethers

        Glycidyl Esters

        Nitrogen-Containing Epoxides

        Thioglycidyl Epoxides

        Silicon-Containing Epoxides

        Organophosphorus Epoxides

        Halogen-Containing Epoxides

        Epoxides from Hydroxy Sulfonates or Halogenated Acetates

        Epoxides from Glycols

        Epoxidation by Condensation

        Darzens Glycidic Ester Condensations

        Epoxides from Ylids

        Epoxides from Halogenated Ketones and Nickel Carbonyl

        Epoxides from the Reaction of Diazomethane with Aldehydes or Ketones

        Epoxides Containing Unsaturation


   2.  Manufacture of Epoxy Resins                                         

        Raw Materials


        Plant Location

        Machinery Needed


   3.  Epoxide-Curing Reactions                                               

        The Effect of Epoxide Structure on Reactivity with Curing Agents

        The Mechanism of the Curing Reaction

        Polyaddition Reactions







        Polyhydric Alcohols


        Polycarboxylic Acids

        Polybasic Acid Anhydrides

        Silanes and Silanols



        Anionic Catalysts

        Cationic Catalysts

   4.  The Dynamic Mechanical Properties of
Epoxy Resins                                                                  

        Basic Parameters

        The Glassy Transition and Dynamic Mechanical Dispersion

        Temperature and Frequency Interdependence


        Results and Discussion

        Standard Measurements

        Dynamic Measurements

        Comparison of Results

        Treatment by Reduced Variables


   5.  Physical and Chemical Properties of
Epoxy Resins                                                                  

        Solubility and Surface Properties

        Network Structure and Physical Properties

        Aging and Chemorheology

        Bisphenol a Epoxy Homopolymers and Copolymers

        Thermal Transition Effects

        Dynamic Mechanical Response

        Relaxation and Fracture Properties

        Properties Compared with Elastomers and Thermoplastics

   6.  Epoxy Resin Adhesives                                                   


        Theories of Adhesion and Aohesive-joint Strength

        Wetting and Spreading Phenomena

        Boundary-Layer Theory

        Surface-Attachment Theory of Adhesive-Joint Strengths

        Stress Distribution in Adhesive Joints

        Rheological Aspects of Adhesives

        Unified Interpretation of Adhesive-Joint Strengths

        Physical and Mechanical Aspects of Epoxy-Resin Adhesives

        Dynamic Mechanical Techniques

        Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Adhesives During Joint Formation

        Strength of Adhesive Materials

        Chemical Aspects of Epoxy-based Adhesives

        Curing Agents for Bisphenol A Epoxy Adhesives

        Modifiers for Bisphenol A Epoxy Adhesives

        Adhesives Based on Other Epoxy Materials

        Technological Properties of Epoxy-adhesive Systems

        Cure and Thermal Softening Behavior of Epoxy Adhesives

        Stress and Environmental Durability of Adhesive Joints

        Applications of Epoxy Adhesives

        Future Prospects

   7.  Epoxy Resin Coatings                                                     

        Classification of Epoxy-Resin Coatings

        Epoxy Resins Commonly Used in Coatings

        Epoxy-Resin Esters

        Esters Produced from Solid Epoxy Resins

        General Remarks

        Formulation Latitude

        Esters Produced from Liquid Epoxy Resins

        Precatalyzed Liquid Epoxy Resin for the Production of Solid Epoxy Resins and Epoxy-Resin Esters

        Cooking Procedure

        “Two-Step” Liquid-Epoxy-Resin Route to Epoxy-Resin Esters

        Cooking Procedure

        Solid-Epoxy-Resin Solution Coatings

        Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Systems

        Polyamine Curing Agents

        Polyamine-Adduct Curing Agents

        Polyamide-Resin Curing Agents

        Polyamide-Adduct Curing Agents

        Tertiary Amine Curing Agents

        Industrial Maintenance Coatings Based on Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Systems

        High-Film-Build Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Coatings

        Application Instructions

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Epoxy Baking Finishes

        Epoxy-Phenolic Coating Systems

        Epoxy-Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Coating Systems

        Epoxy-Thermosetting Acrylic Coating Systems

        Liquid Epoxy Resins in Solventless and Super-High-Solids Systems

        Special Application Equipment and Formulation for Solventless Systems

        Manufacturing Instructions


        Ketimine Curing Agents

        Manufacturing Instructions


        Curing Characteristics

        Powder Coatings

        Application Equipment

        Epoxy-Resin Powder-Coating Formulations

        Fusion-Produced Epoxy-Resin Powders

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Applications Instructions

        Dry-blended Epoxy-Resin Powders

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Properties and Applications

        Thermoplastic Epoxy Resins

        Zinc-Rich and General Purpose Shop Primers

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Thermoplastic-Epoxy-Resin Crosslinked Systems

        Water-Reducible Epoxy Resin Coatings

        Water-Reducible Epoxy-Ester Baking Finishes

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Application Instructions

        Water-Reducible Polyamide-Cured Epoxy-Resin Coatings

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Manufacturing Instructions

        Water-Reducible Epoxy-Resin Coatings for Electrodeposition

        General Remarks

        Maleinization Step After Complete Esterification of the Epoxy Resin with Organic Acids

        Cooking Procedure

        Application Instructions

   8.  Epoxy Coating Give into Water                                       

   9.  Electrical and Electronic Applications :
Sealants and Foams                                                        

        Electronic and Electrical Applications








        Formulation of the Resin System

        Internal Stresses

        Rapid Cures

        Flexibilizing Epoxy Resins


        Reactive Diluents

        Cycloaliphatic Epoxides

        High-Temperature Epoxy-Resin Systems

        Flame-Retardant Epoxy Resins

        Colorless Epoxy Resins

        Epoxy Formulations


        Molding Compounds

        Molding Technology

        Liquid-Injection Molding

        Pellets and Preforms

        Epoxy Sealants

        Epoxy Foams

        Gas-Blown Foams

        Syntactic Foams

        One-Package Foams

        Epoxy-Foam Applications

        Epoxy Strippers

        Handling of Epoxy Casting Systems

10.  Analysis of Epoxides and Epoxy Resins                          

        Uncured Epoxy Resins

        Qualitative Tests

        Detection of Free Epoxy Groups

        Determination of Epoxy Group—Lithium-Chloride Test



        Determination of Epoxy Group—Periodic Acid Test



        Determination of Epoxy Group—Pyrolysis Test



        Determination of Epoxy Group—Lepidine Test



        Detection of the Bisphenol A Skeleton

        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins—Mercuric Oxide and Nitric Acid Tests



        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins in Coatings—Nitric Acid Test Reagents



        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins—Filter-Paper Test



        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin—Formaldehyde Test



        Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins—Phenylenediamine Test



        Detection of Epoxy Resins Based on 4,4-’-Diamino-diphenylmethane

        Determination of Epoxy Resins Based on 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane



        Detection of Other Epoxy Resins

        Quantitative Tests of the Epoxy Group

        Hydrohalogenation Methods

        Estimation of Epoxy Group—Hydrochloric Acid in Dioxane, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, or Dimethylformamide




        Estimation of the Epoxy Group—Pyridinium Chloride in Pyridine



        Hydrohalogenation by Direct Titration

        Estimation of Epoxy Group




        Other Chemical Methods

        Estimation of Other Functional Groups

        Hydroxyl Group

           a-Glycol Group

        Estimation of a-Glycol Group





        Esterification Equivalent Weight

        Estimation of Esterification Equivalent Weight




        Infrared Spectroscopy


        Epoxide Absorption Bands

        Epoxy Resins

        Quantitative Estimation

        Following the Degree of Cure

        Other Physical Methods

        Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

        Electron Spin and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods

        Gas Chromatography

        Paper Chromatography

        Thin-Layer and Gel-Permeation Chromatography

        Handling Properties

        Molecular Weight

        Softening Point



        Blends and Compounds

        Hardeners and Accelerators

        Organic Acid Anhydrides

        Determination of Acid and Anhydride Content





        Determination of Amine Number




        The Curing Process

        Curing Characteristics of Epoxy Resin-Hardener Systems

        Determining the Degree of Cure

        Analysis of Cured Epoxy Resins

11.  The Toxicology of Epoxy Resins                                      


        Experimental Method


        Acute Toxicity

        Chronic Toxicity




        Acute Toxicity

        Chronic Toxicity



        Medical Experience with Epoxy Resins


12.  Bis Specifications                                                           

13.  International Standards (ISO)                                         

14.  Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart & Diagram            

15.  Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s

        Contact Details                                               







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·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

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·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

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Project at a Glance

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  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR