The Complete Book on Waste Treatment Technologies (Industrial, Biomedical, Water, Electronic, Municipal, Household/ Kitchen, Farm Animal, Dairy, Poultry, Meat, Fish & Sea Food Industry Waste and Machinery Equipment Details) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author PROF. DR. MAHENDRA PAL ISBN 9788195676910
Code EI349 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 2095   2095 US$ 53   53
Pages: 584 Published 2022
Usually Ships within 5


Waste management is a global problem that continues to increase with rapid industrialization, population growth, and economic development. As the world hurtles towards the urban future, the amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is growing very fast. Waste includes any solid material or material that is suspended dissolved or transported in water or deposited on land. Wastes are generally classified into solid, liquid, & gaseous and are broadly classified as household waste; municipal waste; commercial and non-hazardous industrial wastes; e- waste, hazardous (toxic) industrial wastes; construction and demolition waste; health care wastes – waste generated in health care facilities (e.g. hospitals, medical research facilities); human and animal wastes; and incinerator wastes.

In the recent years, modern society has become more responsible when it comes to waste management. The fast industrialization, urbanization, modern technology, and rapidly growing population in India have posed a serious challenge to the waste management. In India, per capita generation rate of municipal solid waste ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 kg/day. At present, the daily generation rate in South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific combined is approximately 1.0 million tons per day.

The current scenario reveals that there is a tremendous scope for the development of waste treatment technologies and is expected to offer significant opportunities in the near future. Sustainability of waste management is the key for providing an effective service that can satisfy the need of end users. Solid Waste Management sector in India has become a very lucrative sector for investors. With a growing urgency for efficient waste management in many cities, there will be more and more employment opportunities in the sector. The participation of different sectors, roll of Government and private organization is important for better management of waste.

This book describes the various waste treatment technologies like; Physical treatment techniques, biological treatment techniques, anaerobic lagoon techniques etc. It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, students, teachers, researchers, administrators, and planners of various disciplines who are directly or indirectly involved in the waste management.



1. Introduction                                                                                         

    2.    Types Of Wastes                                                                          

            A. Livestock Farm Wastes

            Current Methods for Disposal of Livestock Mortalities






            Future of Livestock Mortality Disposal

            Novel Disposal Methods

            Carcass Storage and Bioreduction Methods

            Reasons for Concern

            Pollution Potential of Farm Animal Wastes

            Magnitude of the Problem

            Properties of Animal Wastes

            Physical Properties

            Chemical and Biological Properties

            Fertilizer Value

            Handling of Farm Animal Wastes

            Storage of Farm Animal Wastes

            Treatment of Farm Animal Wastes

            Physical Treatment

            Chemical Treatment

            Biological Treatment


            Anaerobic Digestion

            Lagoon Treatment

            Aerobic Treatment

            Economics of Farm Animal Waste Treatment

            B. Biomedical Wastes

            Classification of Biomedical Waste

            Handling, Storage, and Transportation of Healthcare Waste

            On-site Collection, Transport, and Storage of Waste



            On-site Transport

            Off-site Transportation of Waste

            Special Packaging Requirements for Off-site Transport

            Handling, Storage, and Transportation of Healthcare Waste


            Biomedical Waste Treatment

            Incineration Technology

            Non-Incineration Technology


            Microwave Irradiation

            Chemical Methods

            Selection of Suitable Treatment Technology

            Common Treatment Facility

            Mobile Treatment/Disposal System

            C. Industrial Wastes

            Description of Important Industrial Solid Waste

            Coal Ash

            Integrated Iron and Steel Plant Slag


            Red Mud

            Lime Mud

            Waste Sludge and Residues

            Potential Reuse of Solid Wastes

            Prevention-A Waste Minimization Approach

            Inventory Management and Improved Operations

            Modification of Equipment

            Production Process Changes

            Recycling and Reuse

            Waste Management at Source

            Collection and Transport of Industrial Wastes

            Storage and Transportation

            Disposal of Industrial Solid Waste

            Health Consequences of Poor Industrial Waste Disposal

            Waste Segregation

            Combined Treatment Facilities


            Waste Reduction Techniques

            Benefits of Cleaner Production

            Industrial Hazardous Wastes

            Industrial Nonhazardous Wastes

            Radioactive Wastes

            D. Abattoir Wastes

            Sources of Waste in Red Meat Abattoirs

            Best Management Practices

            Existing Methods for Disposal of Meat Production Waste





            Rendering Industry

            Recent Events Affecting the Rendering Industry

            Dead Stock Collection, Transportation and Receiving

            Dead Stock Collectors and Receivers

            Anaerobic Digestion of Protein Rich Substrate

            Co-digestion Plant Design and Operation

            E. Household/Kitchen Wastes

            Disposal of Household Hazardous Waste

            Disposal Problems

            Disposal Problems in the Trash

            Disposal Problems on the Ground

            Disposal Problems in Storm Sewers

            Worm Composting

            F. Municipal Wastes

            Anaerobic Digestion Process

            Various Ad Systems

            Important Operating Parameters in AD Process

            Waste Composition/Volatile Solids (VS)

            pH Level


            Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio (C/N)

            Total Solids Content (TS) / Organic Loading Rate (Olr)

            Retention (or Residence) Time



            Biogas Composition

            Development and Present Status of Ad Technology

            Historical Background

            Types of Ad Systems

            Single Stage Process

            Single Stage Low Solids (Ssls) Process

            Single Stage High Solids (Sshs) Process

            Multi-stage Process

            Multi-stage Low Solids Process

            Multi-stage High Solids Process

            Batch Reactors

            G. Dairy Industries Wastes:

            Sources of Wastes

            Waste Characteristics

            Treatment of Dairy Wastes

            Checking of Dairy Effluent

            Preventive Attitudes

            Waste Management Issues for Dairy Processors

            Cheese Making

            Whey Condensing

            Shell and Tube Condensers

            Mechanical Vapor Recompression (Mvr)

            Ultra Filtration

            Reverse Osmosis

            Waste Water Treatment Options

            Aerated Lagoons

            Activated Sludge

            Sequencing Batch Reactors

            Biological Tower

            Spray Irrigation

            Ridge and Furrow Systems

            Absorption Ponds

            Hauling and Land Application

            Wpdes Permit Issuance

            Surface Water Effluent Limits

            Land Application of Waste Water

            Phosphorus Limitations

            Chloride Limitations

            Aerated Lagoon Treatment Systems

            Winter Spreading of Waste

            H. Fish and Seafood Processing Unit’s Wastes

            Liquid Effluent

            Solid Waste

            Other Waste Components

            Waste Management

            Typical Waste Treatment Scenario

            Data on Receiving Environment

            Biologically Activated Rock Phosphate Fertilizer

            Fish Processing Waste Disposal Practices and Options

            Waste Water Characteristics

            I. Poultry Farm Waste

            Options and Considerations for Poultry Waste Management

            Animal Refeeding

            Bioenergy Production

            Dead Birds Disposal:



            J. Electronic Wastes

            E-waste in India

            Impacts of E-wastes

            Impacts of Informal Recycling

            Status of E-waste Management in India

            E-waste Management Strategies

            Electronic Waste Items List

            Electronic Wastes: A Rising Global Phenomenon

            Electronic Wastes: The Environmental and Human Rights Dimensions

            Regulatory Responses to the Electronic Waste Phenomenon

            K. Other Wastes

            Construction Waste Management

            Eliminating Waste

            Minimizing Waste

            Reusing Materials

            Federal Regulations


            Project Level-enhancing Project Value and Performance

            Organization Level-stewardship of Corporate Values and Priorities

            Disposition Level-management of Diversion and Disposal

            Construction and Demolition Wastes

            Best Management Practices


            Collection and Hauling

            Containerization and Transport

            Prevalence of Common Materials

            1. Waste Management Planning

            2. Facility Design

            3. Construction Contract Requirements

            4. Jobsite Waste Reduction

            Emerging Issues

            Plastic Waste and Its Disposal

            Radioactive Waste and Their Environmentally Sound Management

            Manual Loading of Waste

            Loading of Waste Through Front End Loader and Trucks

            Garbage Loaded in Open Trucks Causing Nuisance

            Measures to be Taken to Improve the System

            Steps to be Taken to Meet the Above Objectives

            Transportation of Construction Waste and Debris

            Waste Disposal Management

            Waste Types that Should not to be Incinerated

            Pharmaceutical Disposal

            Management of Municipal Solid Waste in India

            Waste Management: Global Perspective

            Waste Generation

            Development Trends for Waste and Wastewater

            Global Overview of Waste Management

            Landfill CH4: Regional Trends

            Wastewater and Human Sewage CH4 and N2O: Regional Trends

            CO2 From Waste Incineration

            Waste Management and Ghg-Mitigation Technologies

            CH4 Management at Landfills

            Incineration and Other Thermal Processes for Waste-to-energy

            Biological Treatment Including Composting, Anaerobic Digestion, and Mechanical

            Waste Reduction, Re-use and Recycling

            Wastewater and Sludge Treatment

            Waste Management and Mitigation Costs and Potentials

            Fluorinated Gases: End-of-life Issues, Data and Trends in the Waste Sector

            Air Quality Issues: Nmvocs and Combustion Emissions

            Reducing Landfill Ch4 Emissions

            Incineration and Other Thermal Processes for Waste-to-energy

            Waste Minimization, Re-use and Recycling

            Policies and Measures on Fluorinated Gases

            Municipal Solid Waste Management

            Wastewater Management

            Disposal of Fallen Animals in the Field/Forest

            Rendering Industry

            Recent Events Affecting the Rendering Industry

            Deadstock Collection, Transportation and Receiving

    3.    Human Pathogens in Animal Agriculture

            Production Systems                                                               



            Coxiella Burnetii


            Aeromonas Hydrophila


            Bacillus Anthracis



            Clostridium Perfringens

            Escherichia Coli

            Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae

            Francisella Tularensis

            Leptospira Species

            Listeria Monocytogenes



            Mycotic Agents

            Parasites (Protozoans and Helminths)


            Balantidium Coli

            Cryptosporidium Parvum



            Other Organism


            Faecal Indicator Organisms

    4.    Pathogen Reductions during Waste


            Manure Solids Waste

            Dry Techniques: Composting

            Manure Slurry Treatment Techniques

            Physical Treatment Techniques

            Biological Treatment Techniques

            Anaerobic Lagoon Treatment

            Multiple Lagoon Systems

            Aerated Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds

            Anaerobic Digestion

            Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion

            Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

            Aerobic Digestion

            Mesophilic Aerobic Digestion

            Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion

            Activated Sludge


            Constructed Wetlands

            Overland Flow

            Disinfection and Chemical Treatments



            Chlorine Dioxide

            Ultraviolet Light (UV) Irradiation

            Lime Stabilization


            Animal Waste Disposal or Recycling Options

            Land Application

            Spray Fields

    5.    Aerosolization of Pathogens                                        

            Microbial Detection Analysis Techniques

            On-farm Verification of Microbial Reduction by Corrective Measures

            Real-time Measurement Techniques

            Public Health Hazards due to Wastes

            Hazardous Substances Associated with Waste Management

            Impact of Waste Management Practices on Health

            Individual Pollutants

            Health Effects in Communities

            Control of Hazards

            Safe Work Practices

            Ppe Hazard Assessment and Training

            Systems to Track Hazard Correction

            Emergency Preparation

            Emergency Preparedness

            Current Scenario and Future Challenges of Municipal Solid Waste Management in India



    6.    Photographs of Plant & Machinery

            with Supplier’s Contact Details                                  

            Biomining Machines

            Waste Recycling Plant

            Animal Waste Recycling Plant

            Biomedical Waste Machines

            Dairy Waste Recovery Machine

            Agro Waste Biomass Briquetting Plant

            Food Waste Composting Machine

    7.    Appendices                                                                                       


































    8.    Glossary                                                                                           

    9.    References



NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR