Food Colours, Flavours and Additives Technology Handbook (2nd Edition) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. Himadri Panda ISBN 978-81-958304-1-1
Code EI348 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1895   1895 US$ 48   48
Pages: 536 Published 2023
Usually Ships within 5


Food Colours, Flavours and Additives Technology Handbook

About the book

Food colours are additives that can be natural or artificial. Natural food colours are obtained from fruits, vegetables, plants and minerals. Artificial food colours are made from coal tar dyes or petroleum byproducts. Food flavours are another type of additive that can be natural or artificial. Natural flavours come from herbs, spices and fruits while artificial flavours come from chemicals which have been artificially created to replicate natural flavours. Finally, additives are substances used in food processing as well as any substance added to foods either directly or indirectly for preservation, processing or improving their flavour. These substances may include nutrients like vitamins and mineral salts; biological controls such as yeasts; preservatives such as sulfur dioxide; antioxidants; emulsifiers; acidulants; anticaking agents and thickeners like guar gum; carrier solvents such as propylene glycol alginate, a thickener derived from seaweed. Carriers also function as stabilizers, preventing oils from separating out and appearing on top of a product. - substances that help other substances mix together smoothly -include carrier solvents such as propylene glycol alginate, a thickener derived from seaweed. Carriers also function as stabilizers, preventing oils from separating out and appearing on top of a product.

The beverage segment is anticipated to be the largest in the food flavors market. Due to rising discretionary budgets among consumers, various synthetic flavors, including chocolate fruit and floral flavors, are growing in popularity in developing economies in Asia Pacific and the Middle East. The dairy, confectionery, and bread sectors are anticipated to increase significantly. The global market for food colours, flavours, and additives has been growing steadily over recent years. The food colors market is expected to reach a market valuation of US$ 2.6 Bn, accelerating with a CAGR of 7.3%. Bakery, Cereal, and Snacks accounted for 18% of sales by volume in the food colors market. The global food colors market is driven by the highly growing demand for innovative, unique-looking food dishes, and altering taste and food appeal preferences due to the rise of social media among the populations worldwide. An increase in consumer awareness for clean-label food products and the additional health benefits that certain natural food colors possess is estimated to drive the market for food colors. The use of food additives has increased in recent years. This is because consumers are increasingly looking for foods that are healthier and more convenient. Food additives can help to improve the nutritional value of food and make it more appetizing. High demand for new flavors from the food & beverages industry and continuous innovation drive the growth of the market. In addition, increase in requirement from the fast food industry is expected to provide growth opportunities in the food flavors market.

The food color industry has been booming for a while now as people are more conscious about what they put into their bodies. With so many flavors to choose from for different dishes, it's just not enough anymore to make food taste good - it also has to look good. That's where food color comes in. Not only does it make your food look more appetizing, but it also makes your cooking more fun!

The book covers a wide range of topics connected to Food Colours, Flavours and Additives, as well as their manufacturing processes. It also includes contact information for machinery suppliers, as well as images of equipment and plant layout.

A comprehensive reference to manufacturing and entrepreneurship in the Food Colours, Flavours and Additives products business. This book is a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about the Food Colours, Flavours and Additives products manufacturing industry, which is ripe with potential for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only comprehensive guide to commercial Food Colours, Flavours and Additives products manufacture. It provides a feast of how-to knowledge, from concept through equipment purchase.




1.    Food Colorimetry

        1.1        The Determination of Strength

        1.2        Colorant Identification

        1.3        The Cie Method of Colour Measurement

        1.4        Additive Colour Mixing

        1.5        The Cie 1964 Supplementary Standard Colorimetric Observer

        1.6        Illuminant D65

        1.7        The Calculation of Tristimulus Values

        1.8        Metamerism

        1.9        The Nature of Perceived Colour

        1.10     The Quantification of Colour  Appearance

                     1.10.1     The x, y, Z Method

                     1.10.2     The CIELAB Method

        1.11     The Quantification of Colour Differences

        1.12     The Quantification of Metamerism

        1.13     Colour Measuring Instruments

                     1.13.1     Spectrophotometers

                     1.13.2     Optics

                     1.13.3     Plotting Facilities

                     1.13.4     Effective Band-Width

                     1.13.5     Speed of Operation

                     1.13.6     Tristimulus Colorimeters

                     1.13.7     Visual Colorimeters

2.    Synthetic Organic Colours for Food

        2.1        Synthetic Colours Used Food

                     2.1.1       Class of Synthetic Colours for Food

                     2.1.2       Description of Synthetic Colours for Food

                     2.1.3       Azo Food Colours

                     2.1.4       Triarylmethane Food Colours

                     2.1.5       Xanthene Food Colours

                     2.1.6       Quinoline Food Colours

                     2.1.7       Indigoid Food Colours

        2.2        Manufacture of Synthetic Organic Colours for Food

                     2.2.1       Manufacture of Azo Food Colours

                     2.2.2       Manufacture of Triarylmethane Food Colours

                     2.2.3       Manufacture of Xanthene Food Colours

                     2.2.4       Manufacture of Quinoline Food Colours

                     2.2.5       Manufacture of Indigoid Food Colours

                     2.2.6       Manufacturing Plant Used for Food Colours

        2.3        Quality Assurance of Food Colours

        2.4        Blended Food Colours

        2.5        Physical Form of Food Colours

        2.6        Lake Colours

                     2.6.1       Legislation on Lake Colours

                     2.6.2       Manufacture of Lake Colours

                     2.6.3       Specifications for Lake Colours

                     2.6.4       Lake Colour Usage

        2.7        Stability Properties of Food Colours

                     2.7.1       Action of Light

                     2.7.2       Affect of Food Processing Temperatures

                     2.7.3       Action of Alkalis and Acids

                     2.7.4       Action of Food Preservatives

                     2.7.5       Action of Ascorbic Acid

                     2.7.6       Action of Reducing and Oxidising Agents

                     2.7.7       Action of Proteins

        2.8        Storage of Food Colours

        2.9        Solubility of Food Colours

        2.10     Applications of Food Colours

                     2.10.1     Soft Drinks and Non-Alcoholic Beverages

                     2.10.2     Sugar Confectionery

                     2.10.3     Desserts, Icings and Frozen Confectionery

                     2.10.4     Preserves and Table Jellies

                     2.10.5     Baked Goods

                     2.10.6     Canned Fruit, Vegetables and Soups

                     2.10.7     Meat and Fish Products and Analogues

                     2.10.8     Dry-Premix Convenience Foods

                     2.10.9     Milk Products

                     2.10.10   Snack Foods

                     2.10.11   Pickles, Sauces and Ketchups

                     2.10.12   Pet Foods

                     2.10.13   Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products

        2.11     Polymeric Dyes

3.    Novel Synthetic Colours for Food

        3.1        Polydye Concept (Dynapol)

        3.2        Solubilising Groups

        3.3        Use of Polymeric Colours in Food

        3.4        Selection of Polymeric Dyes for Food Coloration

4.    Anthocyanins

        4.1        Types of Anthocyanins

        4.2        Occurrence and Distribution

        4.3        Structural Transformations

        4.4        Stabilisation and Augmentation by Physico-Chemical Effects

                     4.4.1       Effect of Acylation

        4.5        Reactions of Anthocyanins in Model and Food

        4.6        Anthocyanins as Food Colours

                     4.6.1       Extraction and Purification

                     4.6.2       Further Processing of Extracts

                     4.6.3       Stability of Anthocyanin Additives

        4.7        Analysis

5.    Some Synthetic Carotenoids as Food Colours

        5.1        Synthesis

        5.2        Properties

        5.3        Carotenoids in Fat-Based Foods

                     5.3.1       Margarine and Butter

                     5.3.2       Other Shortenings, Fats and Oils

                     5.3.3       Processed Cheese

                     5.3.4       Other Fat-Based Products

        5.4        Carotenoids in Water-Based Foods

                     5.4.1       Confectionery—Hard Candy

                     5.4.2       Confectionery—Fruit Jellies

                     5.4.3       Confectionery—Marzipan

                     5.4.4       Sugar-Coated Tablets

                     5.4.5       Confectionery—Fondant

                     5.4.6       Confectionery—Chocolate

                     5.4.7       Ice-Cream

                     5.4.8       Yogurt

                     5.4.9       Cheese

                     5.4.10     Bakery Products

                     5.4.11     Baked Goods-Icings and Fillings

                     5.4.12     Fruit Juices

                     5.4.13     Soft-Drink Powders

                     5.4.14     Soft Drinks

                     5.4.15     Tomato Products

                     5.4.16     Soups and other Canned Products

                     5.4.17     Dessert Products

        5.5        International Legal Status

        5.6        Vitamin a Activity

6.    Miscellaneous Naturally Occurring Colouring
Material for Foodstuffs

        6.1        Carotenoid Pigments

        6.2        Annatto, 1971 CI No 75120, E160(b)

        6.3        Paprika

        6.4        Saffron

        6.5        Miscellaneous Carotenoid Colours

        6.6        Melanoidin Pigments

                     6.6.1       Caramel, E150

                     6.6.2       Manufacture of  Caramel

                     6.6.3       Processing Conditions for the Manufacture of the
Major Caramels

                     6.6.4       Properties of Caramel

                     6.6.5       Composition of Caramel

                     6.6.6       Uses of Caramel

                     6.6.7       Other Melanoidin Pigments

        6.7        Porphyrin Pigments

                     6.7.1       Extraction of Chlorophyll and Manufacture of

                     6.7.2       Uses of Chlorophyll and Its Derivatives

                     6.7.3       Haem Pigments

        6.8        Betalaine Pigments

                     6.8.1       Beetroot Red, E162

                     6.8.2       Extraction of Beetroot Red

                     6.8.3       Uses of Beetroot Red

                     6.8.4       Pokeberry

        6.9        Quininoid Pigments

                     6.9.1       Cochineal and Cochineal Carmine, 1971 CI No
75470, E120

                     6.9.2       Extraction of Cochineal

                     6.9.3       Properties of Cochineal

                     6.9.4       Preparation of Cochineal Carmine    

                     6.9.5       Properties of Cochineal Carmine

                     6.9.6       Kermes and Lac Pigments

                     6.9.7       Alkannet, 1971 CI No 75530

        6.10     Miscellaneous Organic Pigments

                     6.10.1     Riboflavin and Riboflavin-5'-Phosphate, E 101

                     6.10.2     Turmeric (Curcumin, 1971 Cl No 75300, E100)

                     6.10.3     Orchil, E l21

                     6.10.4     Indigotin, 1971 CI No 75781, Formerly E132

                     6.10.5     Vegetable Carbon, El53

                     6.10.6     Other Miscellaneous Organic Colouring Materials

        6.11     Inorganic Pigments of Natural Origin for Food

                     6.11.1     Titanium Dioxide, 1971 CI No 77891, E171

                     6.11.2     Iron Oxides and Hydroxides, 1971 CI Nos 77489,
77491, 77492, 77499; El72

                     6.11.3     Other Inorganic Pigments for Food

7.    Analysis of Synthetic Food Colours

        7.1        Synthetic Dyes

                     7.1.1       Qualitative Identification

                     7.1.2       Quantitative Analysis of Major Components

                     7.1.3       Dye Content

                     7.1.4       Inorganic Salts

                     7.1.5       Moisture

                     7.1.6       Quantitative Analysis of Minor Components

                     7.1.7       Subsidiary Dyes

                     7.1.8       Synthetic Intermediates

                     7.1.9       Primary Aromatic Amines

                     7.1.10     Leuco-Base

                     7.1.11     Water-Insoluble Matter

                     7.1.12     Ether Extractable Matter

                     7.1.13     Trace Heavy Metals

        7.2        Aluminium Lakes

                     7.2.1       Qualitative Identification

                     7.2.2       Quantitative Analysis of Major Components

                     7.2.3       Quantitative Analysis of Minor Components

        7.3        Inorganic Pigments

                     7.3.1       Titanium Dioxide

                     7.3.2       Iron Oxides

                     7.3.3       Vegetable Carbon

8.    The Influence of Colour on Sensory Perception and
Food Choices

        8.1        Visual Appearance and Colour in Food Choices

        8.2        Qualitative Indications of the Importance of Colour

        8.3        Quantitative Indications of the Importance of

        8.4        Effect of Colour on Taste Thresholds

        8.5        Colour-Flavour Investigations Utilising Quantitative Colour Measurement Techniques

        8.6        Effect of Colour on Odour

        8.7        Effect of Colour on ‘Pleasantness’ of Food

9.    Natural Colours in Food

        9.1        Aim of Chapter

        9.2        Natural Colourants

        9.3        Natural Colours Presently Used in Food

        9.4        Methods of Improving Natural Colourants

        9.5        Novel Sources of Natural Colourants

                     9.5.1       Microbial Sources

        9.6        Animal Sources

        9.7        Plant Sources

                     9.7.1       General Reviews

                     9.7.2       Colourants from By-Products

                     9.7.3       Gardenia Extracts

                     9.7.4       Other Sources

        9.8        Stability of Natural Colourants in Foods

                     9.8.1       Feasibility of Novel Sources

                     9.8.2       Effect of Additives

        9.9        Stable Forms of Natural Colourants Found in Vivo

        9.10     Stabilised Forms of Natural Colourants

                     9.10.1     Flavonoids

                     9.10.2     Porphyrins

                     9.10.3     Others

10.  Food Flavours

        10.1     Food Acceptance

        10.2     Taste

        10.3     Odor

        10.4     Flavor Chemistry

        10.5     Flavor Materials

                     10.5.1     Natural Flavorings

                     10.5.2     Artificial Flavorings

                     10.5.3     Progressive Use of Synthetics

                     10.5.4     Typical Synthetics

        10.6     Compounding

        10.7     Economic Aspects

        10.8     Flavor Precursors

        10.9     Sensory Evaluation

11.  The Character of Additives

        11.1     Antioxidants

        11.2     Preservatives

        11.3     Emulsifiers and Stabilizers

        11.4     Emulsifiers

        11.5     Food Colours

        11.6     Some Dyestuff Food Colours in Current Use

        11.7     Natural or Nature-Identical Food Colours

        11.8     Flavours

        11.9     Toxicant Substances in Herbs/Spices

        11.10   Flavour Components of Herbs and Spices

        11.11   Sequestrants

        11.12   Anticaking Agents

        11.13   Acids, Buffers, and Bases

        11.14   Humectants

        11.15   Firming and Crisping Agents

        11.16   Sweeteners

        11.17   Enzymes

        11.18   Nutritive Additives

                     11.18.1   Vitamins

                     11.18.2   Trace Elements

                     11.18.3   Minerals

                     11.18.4   Essential Amino Acids

        11.19   Essential Amino Acids

        11.20   Flour and Bread Additives

12.  Safety Testing

        12.1     Acute Toxicity

        12.2     Genetic Toxicology

        12.3     Subchronic Toxicity Tests

        12.4     Chronic Toxicity Tests

13.  BIS Specifications

14.  How to Start the Business of Food Additives Manufacturing?

        14.1     Introduction

                     14.1.1     What Is a Food Additive?

                     14.1.2     Types of Food Additives

        14.2     Start A Flavor Business by Following These Steps

                     14.2.1     Decide the Business Structure

                     14.2.2     Research the Market

                     14.2.3     Arrange for Funds

                     14.2.4     Decide on the Location

                     14.2.5     Get FSSAI Registration/License

                     14.2.6     Get Other Mandatory Licenses

                     14.2.7     Equipment and Staff

15.  How to Start the Business of Food Colour

        15.1     Introduction

                     15.1.1     Types of Natural Colours

                     15.1.2     How are Natural Colors Made?

                     15.1.3     Raw Material Requirements

                     15.1.4     Manufacturing Process

        15.2     Decide the Business Structure

        15.3     Research the Market Well

        15.4     Take Water Testing & an Organic Testing Certificate

        15.5     Location of the Organisation

        15.6     Get the Required Machinery

                     15.6.1     Main Machinery

        15.7     Obtain Necessary Permits and License

        15.8     Get Business Insurance

        15.9     Create Your Business Website

16.  How to Start the Business of Food Flavor

        16.1     Introduction

                     16.1.1     The Business Purpose of Flavor

        16.2     Start A Flavor Business by Following These Steps

                     16.2.1     STEP 1: Plan Your Business

                     16.2.2     STEP 2: Form a Legal Entity

                     16.2.3     STEP 3: Register for Taxes

                     16.2.4     STEP 4: Open a Business Bank Account &
Credit Card

                     16.2.5     STEP 5: Set up Business Accounting

                     16.2.6     STEP 6: Obtain Necessary Permits and License

                     16.2.7     STEP 7: Get Business Insurance

                     16.2.8     STEP 8: Define Your Brand

                     16.2.9     STEP 9: Create Your Business Website

                     16.2.10   STEP 10: Set up Your Business Phone System

17.  The Toxicant Risks of Natural Food

        17.1     Constituents of Natural Food Products

        17.2     Microbiological Contaminants of natural Food

        17.3     Non-Microbiological Contaminants of Natural Food Products

18.  Flow Chart

19.  Plant Layout

20.  Photographs of Plant and Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details

            Powder Blender Mixer Machine

            Food Additives Making Equipment Homogenizer High Shear  Emulsifying Mixer

            Powder Mixing Machine with Screw Conveyor

            Grinding Machine

            Mixing Vessel / Mixing Tank

            Mixing Tank

            Thin-Film Evaporator

            Agitated Thin Film Evaporator

            Stainless Steel Storage Tank

            Liquid Filling Machines

            Commercial Food Dryer

            Food Dehydrator






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·         Uses & Applications


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  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

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  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

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                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

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                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

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  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR