Handbook on Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products(Paracetamol, Aspirin, IV Fluids, Ointment, Metronidazole, Liquid Glucose, Surgical Cotton, Syrup, Tablet, Excipients, Pharmaceutical Salts with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details and Factory Layout) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Ashish Dey ISBN 978-81-958304-3-5
Code ENI355 Format Paperback/PDF File
Price: Rs 2495   2495 US$ 63   63
Pages: 552 Published 2023
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days

An active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is the active substance in a pharmaceutical drug that produces its therapeutic effect. APIs can be synthetic chemicals or natural sources such as plant extracts. APIs are components of drugs, the majority of which are manufactured by pharmaceutical companies. Drugs, on the other hand, are dosage forms that contain an API and are distributed to patients for use. Pharmaceutical products are any compounds used in the medical industry to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent diseases. These products are typically formulated as drugs, vaccines, biologics, and medical devices, which can either be prescribed by a doctor or bought over-the-counter (OTC). They come in various forms such as tablets, capsules, syrups, ointments, creams, solutions, suspensions, implants, patches, and powders. Pharmaceutical products are manufactured under strict guidelines and must adhere to various regulations such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).


The global market for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products is expected to grow rapidly over the next few years. This growth will be driven by rising demand for improved healthcare services and an increasing number of new treatments. The market for active pharmaceutical ingredients is anticipated to rise at a CAGR of 5.90%. The development in the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as well as the increased incidence of chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular conditions are both responsible for the expansion. Government regulations that are supportive of API manufacturing, together with shifting geopolitical conditions, are accelerating market expansion.

The pharmaceutical products market has grown steadily in recent years, and is expected to continue to do so. This growth is driven by a number of factors, including increased demand for new drugs, changing disease patterns and aging populations in some countries, as well as the emergence of innovative drugs and technologies. The market is being shaped by the rise of emerging economies and their increasing healthcare needs. This has led to increased investment in drug research and development, as well as an increase in the number of multinational companies setting up operations in various countries.

Furthermore, generic drugs are becoming increasingly popular as a way of reducing healthcare costs. Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs, which are manufactured by generic drug companies. They offer an effective alternative to branded drugs and are often much cheaper. As a result, generic drugs are increasingly being used in countries across the world, leading to an increase in the global pharmaceutical products market.

Overall, the global market for pharmaceutical products and drugs are set to continue to grow in the coming years. New products, innovative technologies and emerging markets will drive growth, and this will bring both opportunities and challenges for the industry.

The books' main subjects include Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs, Aspirin, Paracetamol, IV Fluids, Ointment, Metronidazole, Liquid Glucose, Surgical Cotton, Syrup, Tablet, Excipients, Pharmaceutical Salts with formulations, factory layout, and images of machinery with contact information for suppliers.

A thorough guide to manufacturing and business operations in the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products industry. The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products manufacturing industry is full with opportunity for producers, traders, and business owners, and this book is your one-stop resource for all the information you require. The only complete manual on the creation of commercial Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), medications, and pharmaceutical products is this one. It offers a wealth of information on how to do things, from concept through equipment acquisition.

1.    Introduction

        1.1        The Pharmaceutical Sector

        1.2        Research, Development and Exploration

        1.3        Ahead-of-Clinical Trials

        1.4        Product Validation

        1.5        The Value and Significance of Pharmaceutical Quality

        1.6        Use

2.    How to a Start Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

        2.1        Steps to Set up a Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

                     2.1.1       Choose an Appropriate Name for the Company

                     2.1.2       How Do Register?

                     2.1.3       Manufacturing License Procedure and Documents Required

                     2.1.4       Goods and Service Tax (GST) Registration

                     2.1.5       Machineries and Analytical Equipments

3.    Types of Tablet and Its Manufacturing Process

        3.1        Types

                     3.1.1       Pills

                     3.1.2       Caplets

                     3.1.3       Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODT)

                     3.1.4       Film Coated Tablets (FCT)

        3.2        Tabletting Formulations

        3.3        The Making of the Tablets

                     3.3.1       Tablet Compaction Simulator

                     3.3.2       Tablet Presses

                     3.3.3       Tablet Coating

        3.4        Tablet Manufacturing Processing

                     3.4.1       Sizing

                     3.4.2       Powder Blending

                     3.4.3       Granulation

                     3.4.4       Drying

                     3.4.5       Tablet Compression

                     3.4.6       Coating and Polishing Machines

                     3.4.7       Tablet Testing

                     3.4.8       Tablet Deduster

                     3.4.9       Fette Machine

                     3.4.10     Physical Features of Compressed Tablets

                     3.4.11     Packaging

4.    Tablet Coating Process

        4.1        Principles of Tablet Coating

        4.2        Primary Components Involved in Tablet Coating

                     4.2.1       Tablet Properties

                     4.2.2       Coating Process, Design & Control

                     4.2.3       Coating Equipment

        4.3        Traditional Coating Techniques

                     4.3.1       Sugar Coating

                     4.3.2       Film Coating

                     4.3.3       Enteric Coating

                     4.3.4       Press Coating

        4.4        Equipment

                     4.4.1       Standard Coating Pan

                     4.4.2       Perforated Pan Coating

                     4.4.3       Fluidized Bed Coater

        4.5        Principle of Operation

        4.6        Process Advantages

        4.7        Advantages of Tablet Coating

5.    Paracetamol Tablet Manufacturing

        5.1        Chemistry

        5.2        Mechanisms of Actions

        5.3        Pharmacokinetics

        5.4        Physical Properties

        5.5        Formation of Paracetamol

        5.6        Types of Paracetamol

        5.7        Synthesis of Paracetamol

                     5.7.1       Phenol Route

                     5.7.2       p-Nitrochlorobenzene Route

                     5.7.3       Nitrobenzene Route

                     5.7.4       Hoechst-Celanese process (p-Hydroxyaceto-phene Hydrazine Route)

        5.8        Paracetamol on the Pharmaceutical Market

        5.9        Process of Tablet Manufacturing

                     5.9.1       Dry Mixing

                     5.9.2       Drying

                     5.9.3       Wet Granulation

                     5.9.4       Binder Solution Preparation

                     5.9.5       Compression

        5.10     Evaluation Parameters of Tablet for Process

                     5.10.1     Content Uniformity

                     5.10.2     Weight Variation

                     5.10.3     Thickness

                     5.10.4     Hardness

                     5.10.5     Friability

                     5.10.6     Dissolution Test

                     5.10.7     Disintegration Test

6.    Metronidazole Tablet

        6.1        Medical Uses

                     6.1.1       Bacterial Vaginosis

                     6.1.2       Trichomoniasis

                     6.1.3       Giardiasis

                     6.1.4       Dracunculus

        6.2        Materials and Procedures

                     6.2.1       Wet Granulation

                     6.2.2       Dry Granulation

                     6.2.3       Direct Compression

                     6.2.4       Tablet Evaluation

                     6.2.5       Weight Uniformity Test

                     6.2.6       Crushing Strength/Hardness Test

                     6.2.7       Friability Test

                     6.2.8       Content Uniformity Test

                     6.2.9       Disintegration Test

                     6.2.10     Dissolution Test

7.    Aspirin Manufacturing

        7.1        Introduction

        7.2        Chemical Properties

        7.3        Synthesis

        7.4        Physical Properties

                     7.4.1  Polymorphism

        7.5        Uses

                     7.5.1       Ache and Enlargement

                     7.5.2       Treating Heart Attacks

                     7.5.3       Preventing Heart Attacks and Strokes

        7.6        Raw Materials

        7.7        Manufacturing Process

                     7.7.1       Weighing

                     7.7.2       Mixing

                     7.7.3       Dry Screening

                     7.7.4       Compression

                     7.7.5       Testing

                     7.7.6       Bottling and Packaging

8.    IV Fluids Production

        8.1        Introduction

        8.2        Types of IV Fluids

        8.3        Crystalloids

                     8.3.1       Isotonic IV Fluids

                     8.3.2       Hypotonic IV Fluids

                     8.3.3       Hypertonic IV Fluids

        8.4        Colloids

        8.5        Human Albumin

        8.6        Dextrans

        8.7        Etherified Starch

        8.8        Gelatin

        8.9        Plasma Protein Fraction (PPF)

        8.10     Intravenous Fluids Used

        8.11     Effects of Dehydration

        8.12     Manufacturing Process

                     8.12.1     Preparation of Distilled Water

                     8.12.2     Solution Creation

                     8.12.3     Filling and Filtration

        8.13     Intravenous Solutions Market

9.    Ointment Manufacturing

        9.1        Introduction

        9.2        Types

                     9.2.1       Non Medicated Ointments

                     9.2.2       Medicated Ointments

        9.3        Ointments According to Penetration

        9.4        Advantages

        9.5        Ointment Applications

        9.6        Type of Preparation

                     9.6.1       Ointment Prepared by Trituration

                     9.6.2       Ointment Preparation by Chemical Reaction

                     9.6.3       Preparation of Ointments by Emulsification

        9.7        Properties of the Ointment Manufacturing Plant

        9.8        Advantages of Ointment Manufacturing Plant

        9.9        Manufacturing Procedure of Ointment

        9.10     Parts of Ointment Manufacturing Plant

10.  Liquid Glucose Manufacturing

        10.1     Molecule of Glucose (Glucose Chemical Structure)

        10.2     Specifications of Glucose

        10.3     Formula of Glucose and Fructose

                     10.3.1     Formula for D-Glucose

                     10.3.2     Carbon Anomer in Glucose

                     10.3.3     Carbohydrates have an Open Chain Structure

                     10.3.4     Formula for a Fructose Molecule

                     10.3.5     Fructose has a Cyclical Structure

                     10.3.6     Structure of Glucose in Cycles

                     10.3.7     Glucose’s Furanose Structure

        10.4     Glucose’s Chemical Properties

                     10.4.1     Glucose Oxidation to Create Sugar Acids

        10.5     Manufacturing Process

11.  Surgical Cotton Production Process

        11.1     Required Raw Materials and Their Availability

        11.2     Process of Fabrication

        11.3     Machinery & Equipment Required for the

                     11.3.1     Blower Room Device

                     11.3.2     Bleaching Intensity

                     11.3.3     Hydraulic Extractor

                     11.3.4     Dryer

                     11.3.5     Lapping Device

                     11.3.6     Carding Device

                     11.3.7     Rolling Device

                     11.3.8     Cutting Device

                     11.3.9     Packaging Equipment

        11.4     Business Outlook and Trend

12.  How to Start a Business of Surgical Cotton

        12.1     Machine Required

        12.2     Necessary Raw Materials to Create Surgical Cotton

        12.3     Registration and Licensing

        12.4     Documents Needed to Apply For a Licence to Operate a Business Manufacturing Surgical Cotton

        12.5     Fabrication of Surgical Cotton

13.  Production of Syrup

        13.1     Benefits of Syrups

        13.2     Why Syrups Used?

        13.3     Ingredients in Syrups

        13.4     Formulation of Sugar Based Syrups

                     13.4.1     Sucrose Solutions in Aqueous Forms: Stability

        13.5     Advantages of Sucrose

        13.6     Syrup Preparation

                     13.6.1     A Heat-Assisted Solution

                     13.6.2     Agitation-based Solution without Heat

                     13.6.3     Percolation

        13.7     Dextrose Based Syrup

        13.8     Utilizing Solubilization in the Formulation of Syrup

        13.9     Synthesis of Artificial Syrups

                     13.9.1     Sugar-Free Syrups

        13.10   Sorbitol-Based Syrup

        13.11   Application of Syrups

        13.12   Method of Preparation for Syrups

        13.13   Process

14.  Various Techniques for Making Pharmaceutically Acceptable Salts

        14.1     Why are Some Drugs Available in Salt Form?

        14.2     Salt-Selection Strategy

        14.3     Preparation of Salts of Basic Drug Substances

                     14.3.1     Hydrochlorides

                     14.3.2     Nitrates

                     14.3.3     Phosphates

                     14.3.4     Succinates

                     14.3.5     Maleates

                     14.3.6     Citrates

                     14.3.7     Tartrates

                     14.3.8     Gluconates

                     14.3.9     Lactobionates

                     14.3.10   Lauryl Sulfate Salts

                     14.3.11   Glutamates

                     14.3.12   Acetamidobenzoates

        14.4     Preparation of Salts of Acidic Drug Substances

                     14.4.1     Potassium and Sodium Salts

                     14.4.2     Calcium Salts

                     14.4.3     2-Aminoethanol Salts

                     14.8.4     Lysine Salts

15.  How is Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Manufactured

        15.1     Pharmaceutical Industry’s Use of API

        15.2     Applied API

        15.3     Different APIs

                     15.3.1     Chemical Synthetic Drug

                     15.3.2     Natural Chemical Drug

        15.4     Some API Products

                     15.4.1     Streptomycin

                     15.4.2     Metformin

                     15.4.3     Doxycycline

                     15.4.4     Neomycin

        15.5     Production Process

                     15.5.1     Handling of Feed

                     15.5.2     Responses

                     15.5.3     Mixture Reactors

                     15.5.4     Reactor Loop

                     15.5.5     Bulk Autoclave

                     15.5.6     Natural Process

                     15.5.7     Fermenters

                     15.5.8     Recovery

                     15.5.9     Distillation

                     15.5.10   Membranes

                     15.5.11   Crystallization

                     15.5.12   Filtration

                     15.5.13   Centrifugation

                     15.5.14   Drying

        15.6     API Production and Demand

        15.7     API Market Outlook

16.  What is an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API)

        16.1     Medicine Elements

        16.2     APIs’ Potency

        16.3     Best API Producers

        16.4     Where are APIs manufactured?

        16.5     Rules

17.  Excipients and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

        17.1     Abbreviations

        17.2     Excipients

        17.3     Properties of Selected Excipients

        17.4     Fillers/Binders

                     17.4.1     Lactose

                     17.4.2     Polyvinylpyrrolidone

                     17.4.3     Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

                     17.4.4     Starch

        17.5     Coloring Agents

                     17.5.1     Tartrazine

        17.6     Sweeteners

                     17.6.1     Saccharin

                     17.6.2     Aspartame

                     17.6.3     Sucralose

                     17.6.4     Sorbitol

        17.7     Alcohols

                     17.7.1     Benzyl Alcohol

                     17.7.2     Polyethylene Glycol

        17.8     Preservatives

                     17.8.1     Sodium Benzoat

                     17.8.2     Benzalkonium Chloride

        17.9     Lubricants

                     17.9.1     Magnesium Stearate

18.  Good Manufacturing Practice for Active
Pharmaceutical Ingredients

        18.1     Regulatory Applicability

        18.2     Scope

        18.3     Quality Management

                     18.3.1     Principles

                     18.3.2     Production Activities Responsibilities

                     18.3.3     Product Quality Review

        18.4     Personnel

                     18.4.1     Employee Qualifications

                     18.4.2     Personnel Hygiene

        18.5     Buildings and Facilities

                     18.5.1     Design and Building

                     18.5.2     Utilities

                     18.5.3     Water

                     18.5.4     Sanitation and Upkeep

        18.6     Process Equipment

                     18.6.1     Design and Building

                     18.6.2     Cleaning and Maintenance of Equipment

                     18.6.3     Computerized Systems

        18.7     Documentation and Records

                     18.7.1     System of Documentation and Specifications

                     18.7.2     Record of Equipment Cleaning and Use

                     18.7.3     Records of Raw Materials, Intermediates, API
Labelling and Packaging Materials

        18.8     Materials Management

                     18.8.1     General Controls

                     18.8.2     Receipt and Quarantine

                     18.8.3     Sampling and Testing of Incoming Production

                     18.8.4     Storage

                     18.8.5     Re-Evaluation

        18.9     Packaging and Identification Labelling of APIs and Intermediates

                     18.9.1     General

                     18.9.2     Packaging Materials

                     18.9.3     Label Issuance and Control

                     18.9.4     Packaging and Labelling Operations

        18.10   Storage and Distribution

                     18.10.1   Warehousing Procedures

                     18.10.2   Distribution Procedures

        18.11   Rejection and Re-Use of Materials

                     18.11.1   Rejection

                     18.11.2   Reprocessing

                     18.11.3   Reworking

                     18.11.4   Recovery of Materials and Solvents

        18.12   Glossary

                     18.12.1   Acceptance Criteria

                     18.12.2   Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) (or Drug Substance)

                     18.12.3   API Starting Material

                     18.12.4   Batch (or Lot)

                     18.12.5   Batch Number (or Lot Number)

                     18.12.6   Bioburden

                     18.12.7   Calibration

                     18.12.8   Computer System

                     18.12.9   Computerized System

                     18.12.10 Contamination

                     18.12.11 Contract Manufacturer

                     18.12.12 Critical

                     18.12.13 Cross-Contamination

                     18.12.14 Deviation

                     18.12.15 Drug (Medicinal) Product

                     18.12.16 Drug Substance

                     18.12.17 Expiry Date (or Expiration Date)

                     18.12.18 Impurity

                     18.12.19 Impurity Profile

                     18.12.20 In-Process Control (or Process Control)

                     18.12.21 Intermediate

                     18.12.22 Lot

                     18.12.23 Manufacture

                     18.12.24 Material

                     18.12.25 Mother Liquor

                     18.12.26 Packaging Material

                     18.12.27 Procedure

                     18.12.28 Process Aids

                     18.12.29 Process Control

                     18.12.30 Production

                     18.12.31 Qualification

                     18.12.32 Quality Assurance (QA)

                     18.12.33 Quality Control (QC)

                     18.12.34 Quality Unit(s)

                     18.12.35 Quarantine

                     18.12.36 Raw Material

                     18.12.37 Reference Standard, Primary

                     18.12.38 Reference Standard, Secondary

                     18.12.39 Reprocessing

                     18.12.40 Retest Date

                     18.12.41 Reworking

                     18.12.42 Signature (signed)

                     18.12.43 Signed (signature)

                     18.12.44 Solvent

                     18.12.45 Specification

                     18.12.46 Validation

                     18.12.47 Validation Protocol

                     18.12.48 Yield, Expected

                     18.12.49 Yield, Theoretical

19.  Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Chemicals

        19.1     Method of Biomasses Conversion in APIs Synthesis

                     19.1.1     Chemical Approach

                     19.1.2     Biotechnological Approaches

        19.2     Some Important Types of API Chemicals

                     19.2.1     Shikimic Acid

                     19.2.2     Succinic Acid

                     19.2.3     Erythritol

                     19.2.4     Clavulanic Acid

                     19.2.5     Rifampicin

                     19.2.6     Pregabalin

                     19.2.7     Ectoine

20.  List of Identified Products for Production Linked
Incentive (PLI) Scheme

21.  Acebutolol

        21.1 Manufacturing Process

22.  Acetazolamide

        22.1 Manufacturing Process

23.  Allopurinol

        23.1 Manufacturing Process

24.  Amphetamine Phosphate

        24.1 Manufacturing Process

25.  Apalcillin Sodium

        25.1 Manufacturing Process

26.  Bacitracin

        26.1 Manufacturing Process

27.  Beclamide

        27.1 Manufacturing Process

28.  Benfurodil Hemisuccinate

        28.1 Manufacturing Process

29.  Bromopride

        29.1 Manufacturing Process

30.  Bumadizon

        30.1 Manufacturing Process

31.  Camazepam

        31.1 Manufacturing Process

32.  Carbinoxamine Maleate

        32.1 Manufacturing Process

33.  Cephaloglycin

        33.1 Manufacturing Process

34.  Clindamycin Hydrochloride

        34.1 Manufacturing Process

35.  Clofibrate

        35.1 Manufacturing Process

36.  Cyclopentamine Hydrochloride

        36.1 Manufacturing Process

37.  Dactinomycin

        37.1 Manufacturing Process

38.  Dactinomycin

        38.1 Manufacturing Process

39.  Diazepam

        39.1 Manufacturing Process

40.  Doxepin Hydrochloride

        40.1 Manufacturing Process

41.  Dydrogesterone

        41.1 Manufacturing Process

42.  Edrophonium Chloride

        42.1 Manufacturing Process

43.  Endralazine

        43.1 Manufacturing Process

44.  Epicillin

        44.1 Manufacturing Process

45.  Epirizole

        45.1 Manufacturing Process

46.  Erythromycin

        46.1 Manufacturing Process

47.  Fazidinium Bromide

        47.1 Manufacturing Process

48.  Felypressin

        48.1 Manufacturing Process

49.  Flubendazole

        49.1 Manufacturing Process

50.  Flunitrazepam

        50.1 Manufacturing Process

51.  Furaltadone

        51.1 Manufacturing Process

52.  Gallamine Triethiodide

        52.1 Manufacturing Process

53.  Gentamicin Sulfate

        53.1 Manufacturing Process

54.  Glymidine

        54.1 Manufacturing Process

55.  Gramicidin

        55.1 Manufacturing Process

56.  Guanfacine

        56.1 Manufacturing Process

57.  Haloperidol

        57.1 Manufacturing Process

58.  Heparin

        58.1 Manufacturing Process

59.  Homofenazine

        59.1 Manufacturing Process

60.  Hydrochlorothiazide

        60.1 Manufacturing Process

61.  Hydroxystilbamidine Isethionate

        61.1 Manufacturing Process

62.  Ibuprofen

        62.1 Manufacturing Process

63.  Idoxuridine

        63.1 Manufacturing Process

64.  Ifenprodil Tartrate

        64.1 Manufacturing Process

65.  Indenolol

        65.1 Manufacturing Process

66.  Iodamide

        66.1 Manufacturing Process

67.  Kanamycin Sulfate

        67.1 Manufacturing Process

68.  Kebuzone

        68.1 Manufacturing Process

69.  Ketotifen

        69.1 Manufacturing Process

70.  Lactulose

        70.1 Manufacturing Process

71.  Levodopa

        71.1 Manufacturing Process

72.  Lidocaine

        72.1 Manufacturing Process

73.  Loperamide Hydrochloride

        73.1 Manufacturing Process

74.  Loxapine

        74.1 Manufacturing Process

75.  Mannitol

        75.1 Manufacturing Process

76.  Melphalan

        76.1 Manufacturing Process

77.  Metyrapone

        77.1 Manufacturing Process

78.  Midecamycin

        78.1 Manufacturing Process

79.  Motretinide

        79.1 Manufacturing Process

80.  Muzolimine

        70.1 Manufacturing Process

81.  Naloxone

        81.1 Manufacturing Process

82.  Nefopam Hydrochloride

        82.1 Manufacturing Process

83.  Niaprazine

        83.1 Manufacturing Process

84.  Nimetazepam

        84.1 Manufacturing Process

85.  Noxiptilin

        85.1 Manufacturing Process

86.  Octopamine Hydrochloride

        86.1 Manufacturing Process

87.  Oleandomycin

        87.1 Manufacturing Process

88.  Orgotein

        88.1 Manufacturing Process

89.  Oxacillin Sodium

        89.1 Manufacturing Process

90.  Oxaceprol

        90.1 Manufacturing Process

91.  Papain

        91.1 Manufacturing Process

92.  Penicillin G Benzathine

        92.1 Manufacturing Process

93.  Phenaglycodol

        93.1 Manufacturing Process

94.  Picoperine

        94.1 Manufacturing Process

95.  Polyestradiol Phosphate

        95.1 Manufacturing Process

96.  Pyridinol Carbamate

        96.1 Manufacturing Process

97.  Quinestrol

        97.1 Manufacturing Process

98.  Quinethazone

        98.1 Manufacturing Process

99.  Quinidine Polygalacturonate

        99.1 Manufacturing Process

100. Quinupramine

        100.1 Manufacturing Process

101. Ranitidine

        101.1 Manufacturing Process

102. Rescinnamine

        102.1 Manufacturing Process

103. Rimiterol

        103.1 Manufacturing Process

104. Ritodrine

        104.1 Manufacturing Process

105. Rosoxacin

        105.1 Manufacturing Process

106. Salicylic Acid

        106.1 Manufacturing Process

107. Secobarbital Sodium

        107.1 Manufacturing Process

108. Sincalide

        108.1 Manufacturing Process

109. Streptokinase

        109.1 Manufacturing Process

110. Sulfacytine

        110.1 Manufacturing Process

111. Talampicillin

        1111 Manufacturing Process

112. Testolactone

        112.1 Manufacturing Process

113. Thiamphenicol

        113.1 Manufacturing Process

114. Ticrynafen

        114.1 Manufacturing Process

115. Tocainide

        115.1 Manufacturing Process

116. Ubidecarenone

        116.1 Manufacturing Process

117. Uracil Mustard

        117.1 Manufacturing Process

118. Urapidil

        118.1 Manufacturing Process

119. Urokinase

        119.1 Manufacturing Process

120. Vancomycin

        120.1 Manufacturing Process

121. Verapamil

        121.1 Manufacturing Process

122. Vidarabine

        122.1 Manufacturing Process

123. Viloxazine Hydrochloride

        123.1 Manufacturing Process

124. Viminol

        124.1 Manufacturing Process

125. Vinblastine Sulfate

        125.1 Manufacturing Process

126. Warfarin Sodium

        126.1 Manufacturing Process

127. Xanthinol Niacinate

        127.1 Manufacturing Process

128. Xibornol

        128.1 Manufacturing Process

129. Xipamid

        129.1 Manufacturing Process

130. Xylometazoline Hydrochloride

        130.1 Manufacturing Process

131. Zeranol

        131.1 Manufacturing Process

132. Zimelidine

        132.1 Manufacturing Process

133. Zipeprol

        133.1 Manufacturing Process

134. Zomepirac

        134.1 Manufacturing Process

135. Zotepine

        135.1 Manufacturing Process

136. Zoxazolamine

        136.1 Manufacturing Process

137. Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products

        137.1   Packaging Requirements of Pharmaceuticals

                     137.1.1   Moisture Protection of Solid Oral Preparations

                     137.1.2   Abrasion

                     137.1.3   Selection of Containers

        137.2   Types of Packaging

                     137.2.1   Components Based on Rubber

                     137.2.2   Glass

                     137.2.3   Plastic

                     137.2.4   Films, Foils and Laminations

        137.3   Latest Development in Packaging

                     137.3.1   Blister Pack

                     137.3.2   Strip Pack

                     137.3.3   Tamper Resistant Packaging

                     137.3.4   2-D Barcodes / Mass Encryption Technology

                     137.3.5   Hologram

        137.4   Machinery for Packaging

                     137.4.1   Strip Packing Machine

                     137.4.2   Blister Packing Machine

                     137.4.3   Cartoning Machine

                     137.4.4   Ampoule Filling Line

                     137.4.5   Syringe Filling Machine

                     137.4.6   Liquid Filling Machine

                     137.4.7   Automatic Labelling / Gumming / Stickering

138. BIS Standards

139. ISO Standards

140. Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart & Diagram

141. Photographs of Plant and Machinery with
Supplier’s Contact Details

      Tablet Making Machine

      Tablet Press Machine

      Granulator Machine

      Film Coating Machine

      Tablet Hardness Tester

      Surgical Cotton Bleaching Machine

      Vaccum Tray Dryer

      Surgical Cotton Roll Making Machine

      Conveyor Fiber Dryer

      Coating Pan

      Blister Packaging Machines

      Pharma Centrifuges Machine

      Tray Dryer

      Vibro Sifter Machine

      Jacketed Stainless Steel Mixing Tank

      Labeling Machine

      Colloid Mill

      API Machine

      Dispax Reactor DR

      Conical Screw Vacuum Dryer for API

      Filter Press

      Dry Syrup Powder Filling & Sealing Machine

      Paste Kettle

      Storage Vessels

      Capping Machine

      Automatic Tube Filling and Sealing Machine

      Powder Sampling Rod


NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
  • Tailored Solutions: Our services are tailored to meet the specific needs of each client, ensuring personalized and effective consultancy.

Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.