Handbook on Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products(Paracetamol, Aspirin, IV Fluids, Ointment, Metronidazole, Liquid Glucose, Surgical Cotton, Syrup, Tablet, Excipients, Pharmaceutical Salts with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details and Factory Layout) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Ashish Dey ISBN 978-81-958304-3-5
Code ENI355 Format Paperback/PDF File
Price: Rs 2495   2495 US$ 63   63
Pages: 552 Published 2023
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days

An active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is the active substance in a pharmaceutical drug that produces its therapeutic effect. APIs can be synthetic chemicals or natural sources such as plant extracts. APIs are components of drugs, the majority of which are manufactured by pharmaceutical companies. Drugs, on the other hand, are dosage forms that contain an API and are distributed to patients for use. Pharmaceutical products are any compounds used in the medical industry to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent diseases. These products are typically formulated as drugs, vaccines, biologics, and medical devices, which can either be prescribed by a doctor or bought over-the-counter (OTC). They come in various forms such as tablets, capsules, syrups, ointments, creams, solutions, suspensions, implants, patches, and powders. Pharmaceutical products are manufactured under strict guidelines and must adhere to various regulations such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).


The global market for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products is expected to grow rapidly over the next few years. This growth will be driven by rising demand for improved healthcare services and an increasing number of new treatments. The market for active pharmaceutical ingredients is anticipated to rise at a CAGR of 5.90%. The development in the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as well as the increased incidence of chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular conditions are both responsible for the expansion. Government regulations that are supportive of API manufacturing, together with shifting geopolitical conditions, are accelerating market expansion.

The pharmaceutical products market has grown steadily in recent years, and is expected to continue to do so. This growth is driven by a number of factors, including increased demand for new drugs, changing disease patterns and aging populations in some countries, as well as the emergence of innovative drugs and technologies. The market is being shaped by the rise of emerging economies and their increasing healthcare needs. This has led to increased investment in drug research and development, as well as an increase in the number of multinational companies setting up operations in various countries.

Furthermore, generic drugs are becoming increasingly popular as a way of reducing healthcare costs. Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs, which are manufactured by generic drug companies. They offer an effective alternative to branded drugs and are often much cheaper. As a result, generic drugs are increasingly being used in countries across the world, leading to an increase in the global pharmaceutical products market.

Overall, the global market for pharmaceutical products and drugs are set to continue to grow in the coming years. New products, innovative technologies and emerging markets will drive growth, and this will bring both opportunities and challenges for the industry.

The books' main subjects include Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs, Aspirin, Paracetamol, IV Fluids, Ointment, Metronidazole, Liquid Glucose, Surgical Cotton, Syrup, Tablet, Excipients, Pharmaceutical Salts with formulations, factory layout, and images of machinery with contact information for suppliers.

A thorough guide to manufacturing and business operations in the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products industry. The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), Drugs & Pharmaceutical Products manufacturing industry is full with opportunity for producers, traders, and business owners, and this book is your one-stop resource for all the information you require. The only complete manual on the creation of commercial Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), medications, and pharmaceutical products is this one. It offers a wealth of information on how to do things, from concept through equipment acquisition.

1.    Introduction

        1.1        The Pharmaceutical Sector

        1.2        Research, Development and Exploration

        1.3        Ahead-of-Clinical Trials

        1.4        Product Validation

        1.5        The Value and Significance of Pharmaceutical Quality

        1.6        Use

2.    How to a Start Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

        2.1        Steps to Set up a Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

                     2.1.1       Choose an Appropriate Name for the Company

                     2.1.2       How Do Register?

                     2.1.3       Manufacturing License Procedure and Documents Required

                     2.1.4       Goods and Service Tax (GST) Registration

                     2.1.5       Machineries and Analytical Equipments

3.    Types of Tablet and Its Manufacturing Process

        3.1        Types

                     3.1.1       Pills

                     3.1.2       Caplets

                     3.1.3       Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODT)

                     3.1.4       Film Coated Tablets (FCT)

        3.2        Tabletting Formulations

        3.3        The Making of the Tablets

                     3.3.1       Tablet Compaction Simulator

                     3.3.2       Tablet Presses

                     3.3.3       Tablet Coating

        3.4        Tablet Manufacturing Processing

                     3.4.1       Sizing

                     3.4.2       Powder Blending

                     3.4.3       Granulation

                     3.4.4       Drying

                     3.4.5       Tablet Compression

                     3.4.6       Coating and Polishing Machines

                     3.4.7       Tablet Testing

                     3.4.8       Tablet Deduster

                     3.4.9       Fette Machine

                     3.4.10     Physical Features of Compressed Tablets

                     3.4.11     Packaging

4.    Tablet Coating Process

        4.1        Principles of Tablet Coating

        4.2        Primary Components Involved in Tablet Coating

                     4.2.1       Tablet Properties

                     4.2.2       Coating Process, Design & Control

                     4.2.3       Coating Equipment

        4.3        Traditional Coating Techniques

                     4.3.1       Sugar Coating

                     4.3.2       Film Coating

                     4.3.3       Enteric Coating

                     4.3.4       Press Coating

        4.4        Equipment

                     4.4.1       Standard Coating Pan

                     4.4.2       Perforated Pan Coating

                     4.4.3       Fluidized Bed Coater

        4.5        Principle of Operation

        4.6        Process Advantages

        4.7        Advantages of Tablet Coating

5.    Paracetamol Tablet Manufacturing

        5.1        Chemistry

        5.2        Mechanisms of Actions

        5.3        Pharmacokinetics

        5.4        Physical Properties

        5.5        Formation of Paracetamol

        5.6        Types of Paracetamol

        5.7        Synthesis of Paracetamol

                     5.7.1       Phenol Route

                     5.7.2       p-Nitrochlorobenzene Route

                     5.7.3       Nitrobenzene Route

                     5.7.4       Hoechst-Celanese process (p-Hydroxyaceto-phene Hydrazine Route)

        5.8        Paracetamol on the Pharmaceutical Market

        5.9        Process of Tablet Manufacturing

                     5.9.1       Dry Mixing

                     5.9.2       Drying

                     5.9.3       Wet Granulation

                     5.9.4       Binder Solution Preparation

                     5.9.5       Compression

        5.10     Evaluation Parameters of Tablet for Process

                     5.10.1     Content Uniformity

                     5.10.2     Weight Variation

                     5.10.3     Thickness

                     5.10.4     Hardness

                     5.10.5     Friability

                     5.10.6     Dissolution Test

                     5.10.7     Disintegration Test

6.    Metronidazole Tablet

        6.1        Medical Uses

                     6.1.1       Bacterial Vaginosis

                     6.1.2       Trichomoniasis

                     6.1.3       Giardiasis

                     6.1.4       Dracunculus

        6.2        Materials and Procedures

                     6.2.1       Wet Granulation

                     6.2.2       Dry Granulation

                     6.2.3       Direct Compression

                     6.2.4       Tablet Evaluation

                     6.2.5       Weight Uniformity Test

                     6.2.6       Crushing Strength/Hardness Test

                     6.2.7       Friability Test

                     6.2.8       Content Uniformity Test

                     6.2.9       Disintegration Test

                     6.2.10     Dissolution Test

7.    Aspirin Manufacturing

        7.1        Introduction

        7.2        Chemical Properties

        7.3        Synthesis

        7.4        Physical Properties

                     7.4.1  Polymorphism

        7.5        Uses

                     7.5.1       Ache and Enlargement

                     7.5.2       Treating Heart Attacks

                     7.5.3       Preventing Heart Attacks and Strokes

        7.6        Raw Materials

        7.7        Manufacturing Process

                     7.7.1       Weighing

                     7.7.2       Mixing

                     7.7.3       Dry Screening

                     7.7.4       Compression

                     7.7.5       Testing

                     7.7.6       Bottling and Packaging

8.    IV Fluids Production

        8.1        Introduction

        8.2        Types of IV Fluids

        8.3        Crystalloids

                     8.3.1       Isotonic IV Fluids

                     8.3.2       Hypotonic IV Fluids

                     8.3.3       Hypertonic IV Fluids

        8.4        Colloids

        8.5        Human Albumin

        8.6        Dextrans

        8.7        Etherified Starch

        8.8        Gelatin

        8.9        Plasma Protein Fraction (PPF)

        8.10     Intravenous Fluids Used

        8.11     Effects of Dehydration

        8.12     Manufacturing Process

                     8.12.1     Preparation of Distilled Water

                     8.12.2     Solution Creation

                     8.12.3     Filling and Filtration

        8.13     Intravenous Solutions Market

9.    Ointment Manufacturing

        9.1        Introduction

        9.2        Types

                     9.2.1       Non Medicated Ointments

                     9.2.2       Medicated Ointments

        9.3        Ointments According to Penetration

        9.4        Advantages

        9.5        Ointment Applications

        9.6        Type of Preparation

                     9.6.1       Ointment Prepared by Trituration

                     9.6.2       Ointment Preparation by Chemical Reaction

                     9.6.3       Preparation of Ointments by Emulsification

        9.7        Properties of the Ointment Manufacturing Plant

        9.8        Advantages of Ointment Manufacturing Plant

        9.9        Manufacturing Procedure of Ointment

        9.10     Parts of Ointment Manufacturing Plant

10.  Liquid Glucose Manufacturing

        10.1     Molecule of Glucose (Glucose Chemical Structure)

        10.2     Specifications of Glucose

        10.3     Formula of Glucose and Fructose

                     10.3.1     Formula for D-Glucose

                     10.3.2     Carbon Anomer in Glucose

                     10.3.3     Carbohydrates have an Open Chain Structure

                     10.3.4     Formula for a Fructose Molecule

                     10.3.5     Fructose has a Cyclical Structure

                     10.3.6     Structure of Glucose in Cycles

                     10.3.7     Glucose’s Furanose Structure

        10.4     Glucose’s Chemical Properties

                     10.4.1     Glucose Oxidation to Create Sugar Acids

        10.5     Manufacturing Process

11.  Surgical Cotton Production Process

        11.1     Required Raw Materials and Their Availability

        11.2     Process of Fabrication

        11.3     Machinery & Equipment Required for the

                     11.3.1     Blower Room Device

                     11.3.2     Bleaching Intensity

                     11.3.3     Hydraulic Extractor

                     11.3.4     Dryer

                     11.3.5     Lapping Device

                     11.3.6     Carding Device

                     11.3.7     Rolling Device

                     11.3.8     Cutting Device

                     11.3.9     Packaging Equipment

        11.4     Business Outlook and Trend

12.  How to Start a Business of Surgical Cotton

        12.1     Machine Required

        12.2     Necessary Raw Materials to Create Surgical Cotton

        12.3     Registration and Licensing

        12.4     Documents Needed to Apply For a Licence to Operate a Business Manufacturing Surgical Cotton

        12.5     Fabrication of Surgical Cotton

13.  Production of Syrup

        13.1     Benefits of Syrups

        13.2     Why Syrups Used?

        13.3     Ingredients in Syrups

        13.4     Formulation of Sugar Based Syrups

                     13.4.1     Sucrose Solutions in Aqueous Forms: Stability

        13.5     Advantages of Sucrose

        13.6     Syrup Preparation

                     13.6.1     A Heat-Assisted Solution

                     13.6.2     Agitation-based Solution without Heat

                     13.6.3     Percolation

        13.7     Dextrose Based Syrup

        13.8     Utilizing Solubilization in the Formulation of Syrup

        13.9     Synthesis of Artificial Syrups

                     13.9.1     Sugar-Free Syrups

        13.10   Sorbitol-Based Syrup

        13.11   Application of Syrups

        13.12   Method of Preparation for Syrups

        13.13   Process

14.  Various Techniques for Making Pharmaceutically Acceptable Salts

        14.1     Why are Some Drugs Available in Salt Form?

        14.2     Salt-Selection Strategy

        14.3     Preparation of Salts of Basic Drug Substances

                     14.3.1     Hydrochlorides

                     14.3.2     Nitrates

                     14.3.3     Phosphates

                     14.3.4     Succinates

                     14.3.5     Maleates

                     14.3.6     Citrates

                     14.3.7     Tartrates

                     14.3.8     Gluconates

                     14.3.9     Lactobionates

                     14.3.10   Lauryl Sulfate Salts

                     14.3.11   Glutamates

                     14.3.12   Acetamidobenzoates

        14.4     Preparation of Salts of Acidic Drug Substances

                     14.4.1     Potassium and Sodium Salts

                     14.4.2     Calcium Salts

                     14.4.3     2-Aminoethanol Salts

                     14.8.4     Lysine Salts

15.  How is Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Manufactured

        15.1     Pharmaceutical Industry’s Use of API

        15.2     Applied API

        15.3     Different APIs

                     15.3.1     Chemical Synthetic Drug

                     15.3.2     Natural Chemical Drug

        15.4     Some API Products

                     15.4.1     Streptomycin

                     15.4.2     Metformin

                     15.4.3     Doxycycline

                     15.4.4     Neomycin

        15.5     Production Process

                     15.5.1     Handling of Feed

                     15.5.2     Responses

                     15.5.3     Mixture Reactors

                     15.5.4     Reactor Loop

                     15.5.5     Bulk Autoclave

                     15.5.6     Natural Process

                     15.5.7     Fermenters

                     15.5.8     Recovery

                     15.5.9     Distillation

                     15.5.10   Membranes

                     15.5.11   Crystallization

                     15.5.12   Filtration

                     15.5.13   Centrifugation

                     15.5.14   Drying

        15.6     API Production and Demand

        15.7     API Market Outlook

16.  What is an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API)

        16.1     Medicine Elements

        16.2     APIs’ Potency

        16.3     Best API Producers

        16.4     Where are APIs manufactured?

        16.5     Rules

17.  Excipients and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

        17.1     Abbreviations

        17.2     Excipients

        17.3     Properties of Selected Excipients

        17.4     Fillers/Binders

                     17.4.1     Lactose

                     17.4.2     Polyvinylpyrrolidone

                     17.4.3     Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

                     17.4.4     Starch

        17.5     Coloring Agents

                     17.5.1     Tartrazine

        17.6     Sweeteners

                     17.6.1     Saccharin

                     17.6.2     Aspartame

                     17.6.3     Sucralose

                     17.6.4     Sorbitol

        17.7     Alcohols

                     17.7.1     Benzyl Alcohol

                     17.7.2     Polyethylene Glycol

        17.8     Preservatives

                     17.8.1     Sodium Benzoat

                     17.8.2     Benzalkonium Chloride

        17.9     Lubricants

                     17.9.1     Magnesium Stearate

18.  Good Manufacturing Practice for Active
Pharmaceutical Ingredients

        18.1     Regulatory Applicability

        18.2     Scope

        18.3     Quality Management

                     18.3.1     Principles

                     18.3.2     Production Activities Responsibilities

                     18.3.3     Product Quality Review

        18.4     Personnel

                     18.4.1     Employee Qualifications

                     18.4.2     Personnel Hygiene

        18.5     Buildings and Facilities

                     18.5.1     Design and Building

                     18.5.2     Utilities

                     18.5.3     Water

                     18.5.4     Sanitation and Upkeep

        18.6     Process Equipment

                     18.6.1     Design and Building

                     18.6.2     Cleaning and Maintenance of Equipment

                     18.6.3     Computerized Systems

        18.7     Documentation and Records

                     18.7.1     System of Documentation and Specifications

                     18.7.2     Record of Equipment Cleaning and Use

                     18.7.3     Records of Raw Materials, Intermediates, API
Labelling and Packaging Materials

        18.8     Materials Management

                     18.8.1     General Controls

                     18.8.2     Receipt and Quarantine

                     18.8.3     Sampling and Testing of Incoming Production

                     18.8.4     Storage

                     18.8.5     Re-Evaluation

        18.9     Packaging and Identification Labelling of APIs and Intermediates

                     18.9.1     General

                     18.9.2     Packaging Materials

                     18.9.3     Label Issuance and Control

                     18.9.4     Packaging and Labelling Operations

        18.10   Storage and Distribution

                     18.10.1   Warehousing Procedures

                     18.10.2   Distribution Procedures

        18.11   Rejection and Re-Use of Materials

                     18.11.1   Rejection

                     18.11.2   Reprocessing

                     18.11.3   Reworking

                     18.11.4   Recovery of Materials and Solvents

        18.12   Glossary

                     18.12.1   Acceptance Criteria

                     18.12.2   Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) (or Drug Substance)

                     18.12.3   API Starting Material

                     18.12.4   Batch (or Lot)

                     18.12.5   Batch Number (or Lot Number)

                     18.12.6   Bioburden

                     18.12.7   Calibration

                     18.12.8   Computer System

                     18.12.9   Computerized System

                     18.12.10 Contamination

                     18.12.11 Contract Manufacturer

                     18.12.12 Critical

                     18.12.13 Cross-Contamination

                     18.12.14 Deviation

                     18.12.15 Drug (Medicinal) Product

                     18.12.16 Drug Substance

                     18.12.17 Expiry Date (or Expiration Date)

                     18.12.18 Impurity

                     18.12.19 Impurity Profile

                     18.12.20 In-Process Control (or Process Control)

                     18.12.21 Intermediate

                     18.12.22 Lot

                     18.12.23 Manufacture

                     18.12.24 Material

                     18.12.25 Mother Liquor

                     18.12.26 Packaging Material

                     18.12.27 Procedure

                     18.12.28 Process Aids

                     18.12.29 Process Control

                     18.12.30 Production

                     18.12.31 Qualification

                     18.12.32 Quality Assurance (QA)

                     18.12.33 Quality Control (QC)

                     18.12.34 Quality Unit(s)

                     18.12.35 Quarantine

                     18.12.36 Raw Material

                     18.12.37 Reference Standard, Primary

                     18.12.38 Reference Standard, Secondary

                     18.12.39 Reprocessing

                     18.12.40 Retest Date

                     18.12.41 Reworking

                     18.12.42 Signature (signed)

                     18.12.43 Signed (signature)

                     18.12.44 Solvent

                     18.12.45 Specification

                     18.12.46 Validation

                     18.12.47 Validation Protocol

                     18.12.48 Yield, Expected

                     18.12.49 Yield, Theoretical

19.  Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Chemicals

        19.1     Method of Biomasses Conversion in APIs Synthesis

                     19.1.1     Chemical Approach

                     19.1.2     Biotechnological Approaches

        19.2     Some Important Types of API Chemicals

                     19.2.1     Shikimic Acid

                     19.2.2     Succinic Acid

                     19.2.3     Erythritol

                     19.2.4     Clavulanic Acid

                     19.2.5     Rifampicin

                     19.2.6     Pregabalin

                     19.2.7     Ectoine

20.  List of Identified Products for Production Linked
Incentive (PLI) Scheme

21.  Acebutolol

        21.1 Manufacturing Process

22.  Acetazolamide

        22.1 Manufacturing Process

23.  Allopurinol

        23.1 Manufacturing Process

24.  Amphetamine Phosphate

        24.1 Manufacturing Process

25.  Apalcillin Sodium

        25.1 Manufacturing Process

26.  Bacitracin

        26.1 Manufacturing Process

27.  Beclamide

        27.1 Manufacturing Process

28.  Benfurodil Hemisuccinate

        28.1 Manufacturing Process

29.  Bromopride

        29.1 Manufacturing Process

30.  Bumadizon

        30.1 Manufacturing Process

31.  Camazepam

        31.1 Manufacturing Process

32.  Carbinoxamine Maleate

        32.1 Manufacturing Process

33.  Cephaloglycin

        33.1 Manufacturing Process

34.  Clindamycin Hydrochloride

        34.1 Manufacturing Process

35.  Clofibrate

        35.1 Manufacturing Process

36.  Cyclopentamine Hydrochloride

        36.1 Manufacturing Process

37.  Dactinomycin

        37.1 Manufacturing Process

38.  Dactinomycin

        38.1 Manufacturing Process

39.  Diazepam

        39.1 Manufacturing Process

40.  Doxepin Hydrochloride

        40.1 Manufacturing Process

41.  Dydrogesterone

        41.1 Manufacturing Process

42.  Edrophonium Chloride

        42.1 Manufacturing Process

43.  Endralazine

        43.1 Manufacturing Process

44.  Epicillin

        44.1 Manufacturing Process

45.  Epirizole

        45.1 Manufacturing Process

46.  Erythromycin

        46.1 Manufacturing Process

47.  Fazidinium Bromide

        47.1 Manufacturing Process

48.  Felypressin

        48.1 Manufacturing Process

49.  Flubendazole

        49.1 Manufacturing Process

50.  Flunitrazepam

        50.1 Manufacturing Process

51.  Furaltadone

        51.1 Manufacturing Process

52.  Gallamine Triethiodide

        52.1 Manufacturing Process

53.  Gentamicin Sulfate

        53.1 Manufacturing Process

54.  Glymidine

        54.1 Manufacturing Process

55.  Gramicidin

        55.1 Manufacturing Process

56.  Guanfacine

        56.1 Manufacturing Process

57.  Haloperidol

        57.1 Manufacturing Process

58.  Heparin

        58.1 Manufacturing Process

59.  Homofenazine

        59.1 Manufacturing Process

60.  Hydrochlorothiazide

        60.1 Manufacturing Process

61.  Hydroxystilbamidine Isethionate

        61.1 Manufacturing Process

62.  Ibuprofen

        62.1 Manufacturing Process

63.  Idoxuridine

        63.1 Manufacturing Process

64.  Ifenprodil Tartrate

        64.1 Manufacturing Process

65.  Indenolol

        65.1 Manufacturing Process

66.  Iodamide

        66.1 Manufacturing Process

67.  Kanamycin Sulfate

        67.1 Manufacturing Process

68.  Kebuzone

        68.1 Manufacturing Process

69.  Ketotifen

        69.1 Manufacturing Process

70.  Lactulose

        70.1 Manufacturing Process

71.  Levodopa

        71.1 Manufacturing Process

72.  Lidocaine

        72.1 Manufacturing Process

73.  Loperamide Hydrochloride

        73.1 Manufacturing Process

74.  Loxapine

        74.1 Manufacturing Process

75.  Mannitol

        75.1 Manufacturing Process

76.  Melphalan

        76.1 Manufacturing Process

77.  Metyrapone

        77.1 Manufacturing Process

78.  Midecamycin

        78.1 Manufacturing Process

79.  Motretinide

        79.1 Manufacturing Process

80.  Muzolimine

        70.1 Manufacturing Process

81.  Naloxone

        81.1 Manufacturing Process

82.  Nefopam Hydrochloride

        82.1 Manufacturing Process

83.  Niaprazine

        83.1 Manufacturing Process

84.  Nimetazepam

        84.1 Manufacturing Process

85.  Noxiptilin

        85.1 Manufacturing Process

86.  Octopamine Hydrochloride

        86.1 Manufacturing Process

87.  Oleandomycin

        87.1 Manufacturing Process

88.  Orgotein

        88.1 Manufacturing Process

89.  Oxacillin Sodium

        89.1 Manufacturing Process

90.  Oxaceprol

        90.1 Manufacturing Process

91.  Papain

        91.1 Manufacturing Process

92.  Penicillin G Benzathine

        92.1 Manufacturing Process

93.  Phenaglycodol

        93.1 Manufacturing Process

94.  Picoperine

        94.1 Manufacturing Process

95.  Polyestradiol Phosphate

        95.1 Manufacturing Process

96.  Pyridinol Carbamate

        96.1 Manufacturing Process

97.  Quinestrol

        97.1 Manufacturing Process

98.  Quinethazone

        98.1 Manufacturing Process

99.  Quinidine Polygalacturonate

        99.1 Manufacturing Process

100. Quinupramine

        100.1 Manufacturing Process

101. Ranitidine

        101.1 Manufacturing Process

102. Rescinnamine

        102.1 Manufacturing Process

103. Rimiterol

        103.1 Manufacturing Process

104. Ritodrine

        104.1 Manufacturing Process

105. Rosoxacin

        105.1 Manufacturing Process

106. Salicylic Acid

        106.1 Manufacturing Process

107. Secobarbital Sodium

        107.1 Manufacturing Process

108. Sincalide

        108.1 Manufacturing Process

109. Streptokinase

        109.1 Manufacturing Process

110. Sulfacytine

        110.1 Manufacturing Process

111. Talampicillin

        1111 Manufacturing Process

112. Testolactone

        112.1 Manufacturing Process

113. Thiamphenicol

        113.1 Manufacturing Process

114. Ticrynafen

        114.1 Manufacturing Process

115. Tocainide

        115.1 Manufacturing Process

116. Ubidecarenone

        116.1 Manufacturing Process

117. Uracil Mustard

        117.1 Manufacturing Process

118. Urapidil

        118.1 Manufacturing Process

119. Urokinase

        119.1 Manufacturing Process

120. Vancomycin

        120.1 Manufacturing Process

121. Verapamil

        121.1 Manufacturing Process

122. Vidarabine

        122.1 Manufacturing Process

123. Viloxazine Hydrochloride

        123.1 Manufacturing Process

124. Viminol

        124.1 Manufacturing Process

125. Vinblastine Sulfate

        125.1 Manufacturing Process

126. Warfarin Sodium

        126.1 Manufacturing Process

127. Xanthinol Niacinate

        127.1 Manufacturing Process

128. Xibornol

        128.1 Manufacturing Process

129. Xipamid

        129.1 Manufacturing Process

130. Xylometazoline Hydrochloride

        130.1 Manufacturing Process

131. Zeranol

        131.1 Manufacturing Process

132. Zimelidine

        132.1 Manufacturing Process

133. Zipeprol

        133.1 Manufacturing Process

134. Zomepirac

        134.1 Manufacturing Process

135. Zotepine

        135.1 Manufacturing Process

136. Zoxazolamine

        136.1 Manufacturing Process

137. Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products

        137.1   Packaging Requirements of Pharmaceuticals

                     137.1.1   Moisture Protection of Solid Oral Preparations

                     137.1.2   Abrasion

                     137.1.3   Selection of Containers

        137.2   Types of Packaging

                     137.2.1   Components Based on Rubber

                     137.2.2   Glass

                     137.2.3   Plastic

                     137.2.4   Films, Foils and Laminations

        137.3   Latest Development in Packaging

                     137.3.1   Blister Pack

                     137.3.2   Strip Pack

                     137.3.3   Tamper Resistant Packaging

                     137.3.4   2-D Barcodes / Mass Encryption Technology

                     137.3.5   Hologram

        137.4   Machinery for Packaging

                     137.4.1   Strip Packing Machine

                     137.4.2   Blister Packing Machine

                     137.4.3   Cartoning Machine

                     137.4.4   Ampoule Filling Line

                     137.4.5   Syringe Filling Machine

                     137.4.6   Liquid Filling Machine

                     137.4.7   Automatic Labelling / Gumming / Stickering

138. BIS Standards

139. ISO Standards

140. Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart & Diagram

141. Photographs of Plant and Machinery with
Supplier’s Contact Details

      Tablet Making Machine

      Tablet Press Machine

      Granulator Machine

      Film Coating Machine

      Tablet Hardness Tester

      Surgical Cotton Bleaching Machine

      Vaccum Tray Dryer

      Surgical Cotton Roll Making Machine

      Conveyor Fiber Dryer

      Coating Pan

      Blister Packaging Machines

      Pharma Centrifuges Machine

      Tray Dryer

      Vibro Sifter Machine

      Jacketed Stainless Steel Mixing Tank

      Labeling Machine

      Colloid Mill

      API Machine

      Dispax Reactor DR

      Conical Screw Vacuum Dryer for API

      Filter Press

      Dry Syrup Powder Filling & Sealing Machine

      Paste Kettle

      Storage Vessels

      Capping Machine

      Automatic Tube Filling and Sealing Machine

      Powder Sampling Rod



NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR